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1806, they established at Woolwich, wars, our success, our faults, o PE on a very large scale, a college for books, and our experience. They the artillery and engineers: they have have copied from us : but the Eng constructed large buildings, with e- lish are imitators who frequently s. very necessary appendage of apart. pass their models. ments, halls, laboratories, libraries, The Train of Artillery-There are cabinets of models, &c. Professors in the single depôt at Woolwich naere al have been appointed, who have suit- than 10,000 pieces of cannon, an is. able apartments, where lectures are mense number of mortars, howitzen, given. The students are examined, carronades, swivels, &c. The Em after a twelvemonth's preparatory peror of Russia was astonished to see study, and the candidates admitted such a considerable quantity of ordremain four years at college, at the nance ; as, for these twenty-freep expence of government.

years past, the English have lavishad Pupils are instructed in the ma. their arms upon every nation that thematics, physics, chemistry, me- was willing to fight. They told him chanism, fortification, geodesy, to- that, before the last war, they bad pography, &c., the application of the 25,000 cannons, and stores in pro. theory of all these sciences to the portion, besides the enormous quanpractice of the military arts, the dif. tities which had been furnished from ferent kinds of design, the French other foundries. language, dancing, fencing, &c. The parks of Portsmouth, Chatham,

The English have established for Plymouth, &c. are less worthy of do their troops, as well as their officers, tice than that of Woolwich; though schools well organized and properly they also contain an immense quan attended to, where they learn read. tity of artillery. ing, writing, and arithmetic, and a The stores are put up in the maga. little of geometry and mechanism. zines in the most orderly and careful The schools for the troops have also manner. Every thing is classed by their libraries; and the taste for read. its kind and size, and is dismounted ing is such among the soldiers, that and packed up ready for immediate lately, when a corps was setting out embarkation ; so that, even from the for the colonies, they clubbed to buy middle of the country, England Can, some books, which government did in twenty-four hours after orders have not fail to increase immediately at been issued, send off an astonishing their own expence.

quantity of military stores. At the school at Chatham, our Enormous quantities of projectiles, traveller saw the troops on an exten- exceedingly well made, are seen in sive plain drawn up for practical ex- the arsenals; some piled in heaps of T ercises : they were occupied in form. from 20,000 to 30,000, the others are ing entrenchments

, and

in attacking in wood, loaded, and solidly packed them; they were exercising in un- up. dermining, mining, &c. and the pon- There are a great number of mortoon train maneuvred, in silence and tars for the defence of forts, a beau- cul

! at command; bridges, which they ex. tiful train of mountain-artillery, a tended, closed, &c.

quantity of forged and cast-iron car. The English were far behind us in riages for the coast and the colonies

, their military education twenty years with fort and coast carriages, which

Since that time they have stu- are naval carriages on a pivot à la died our institutions, our arıny, our Françoise.

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Der fe Progress and Improvements of the tain this great object : the inventions as an Artillery.—The artillery department of the former were spoken of with great pied as continually endeavouring to im- éclat, as possessing peculiar proper

rove. In 1811 they tried before the ties, which those of General BloomI e Admiralty, as a new invention, com- field did not. Both, however, have 24. saustible balls, which have been known been more advantageous for the sera in France for some years past.

vice for which they were destined 2)p3 The English have shells filled with than the great guns. General Con

atase-shot, which they prize very much. greve is the most active promoter of , : Che best judges of a destructive in- inventions in the English artillery, wnsention are those against whom they He pays great attention to the conDan save often been used; and the effect struction of the frames of cannons, , kr shey had upon our troops proves how and has published a pamphlet on the the bannecessary it is for us to adopt the use subject.

General Congreve has taken out a D Among the works which the search patent for this, which, without conetsafter perfection has caused to be un- ferring on him the right to pass as its sadertaken in England, we distinguish, inventor, affords him the exclusive da zat Woolwich, the different species of advantage of selling to the ship-ownbusz zannon-ball practice commenced by ers of his own country frames of

Dr Hutton. This ball practice is cannons that his patent restrains them

continued by the chiefs and profes. from making, which would be very en esors of the arsenals and the head easy, after reading the French works a duschool. A great deal of experience, on the subject. i perseverance, talents, and money, are The principal invention of Gene.

expended on it. They teach the ar- ral Congreve is the rockets which

tillery of other nations the first ele. bear his name. It is believed in ements of balistics, presently but too England, (at least it is said, but with

little known. It is done with a very out any reason,) that these rockets exact pendulum of great dimensions, had great effect at the battle of Leipand sometimes by means of turning sic. The Artillery of different powers discs, invented by a French officer. have thought seriously of them. It

It was with infinite pleasure that is to be hoped that the French artilM. Dupin found the English occupied lery, who have some right to set exin accomplishing attempts that had amples, will not follow this ; for, out been made in France, to discover the of a small number of especial cases, essential properties of the different these rockets have had no effect ; and woods.

it is humanity, more than military They have inade lately in England science, that ought to rejoice, if such experiments, which they have well arms were not used again. followed up, on the means of lighten. The English have rockets for the ing the great guns. These experi- naval and land service of all sizes, for ments have the naval service parti. infantry and cavalry, to burn, to throw cularly for their object. Whatever case-shot, &c. security the English navy may aspire General Congreve adds to all this to, those who possess that science do his own inventions ;-new rockets, not occupy themselves with less are carrying a parachute, which, at the dour to bring it to perfection. highest degree of their projection,

Generals Congreve and Bloomfield unfold, and walk majestically through are continually endeavouring to at the air,-a bomb, which ought, if the

VOL. XII, PART II,

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wind is favourable, to descend on a they correspond to the mean vels town, and set it on fire,—and an arti- city of rotation, and a mean state si ficial ball, which, brilliant as a planet, the lunar equator. The theory i is calculated to throw a light on the dicates, that this velocity, as wells movements of the enemy.

the inclination of the equator, a

the distance of its node from the La Place has given the following of the moon's orbit, are subject to results, as deduced from analysis, periodical inequalities. La Grange and from the experiments made has expressed in his formule the with the pendulum in both hemi- principal inequalities of the relacity spheres: 1. That the density of the of rotation ; and M. Poisson be strata of the terrestrial spheroid in- very recently determined the ide creases from the surface to the cen- qualities of the inclination and of tre: 2. That the strata are very near- the node, ly regularly disposed around the cen- Mr Thenard has announced, that tre of gravity of the earth: 3. That he has obtained water which colthe surface of this spheroid, of which tains in weight double its usual quarthe sea covers a part, has a figure a tity of oxygen, that is, 100 parts of little different from what it would water may absorb 88,29 of Oxygen. assume in virtue of the laws of equi- This oxygenated water possesses te. librium, if it became fuid : 4. That markable properties. It is colourthe depth of the sea is a small frac- less, and has no smell in ordinary tion of the difference of the two circumstances, but a particular odou axes of the earth : 5. That the irre. in a vacuum. Its taste is astringent gularities of the earth, and the causes” It acts upon the skin like a sinapis which disturb its surface, have very Its specific gravity is 1.45. When : little depth : And 6. That the whole drop of it is let fall upon a stratur earth has been originally Auid. of oxide of silver, placed at the be These results (he says) ought to be tom of a glass, a detonation taka placed among the small number of place : the oxygen of the water, the truths which geology presents. of the oxide, and a great quantity,

It is known, that the inclination heat are disengaged; and light of the lunar equator to the ecliptic produced so sensibly, as to be per is constant, and that its descending ceived where the darkness is at node coincides with the mean as- very intense. The same phenomeni cending node of the moon's orbit; take place with silver, platinum, çok and La Place has recently shown, osmium, iridium, rhodium, the pe** that these results are not affected oxide of cobalt, &c. by the secular equations of the A new acid has been recently dismoon's mean motion, nor by the se- covered by MM. Gay-Lussac and cular displacements of the ecliptic. Welther, which they have called its ? M. Poisson has likewise shown, that posulphuric Acid«.' They obtaine they are not modified by the secular it by passing a current of sulphuros equation which affects the mean mo- acid gas over a solution of peroxide tion of the moon's node, but that

of manganese in water ; then filtering

b It is a singular enough coincidence, that this acid was much about the same time is covered by our ingenious countryman J. F. W. Herschell, F. R. S. and named Hapur phorous Acid. There can be no doubt, that, as far as regards Mr Herschell

, the came dence is entirely accidental. We beg to refer the scientific reader to The Edinburgh Air losophical Journal, vol. 1. pp. 8. and 396, and vol. i. p. 154.

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and pouring into the liquor a certain quantity of barytes, and causing a current of carbonic acid gas to pass over it, if there is an excess of this; WerneRIAN SOCIETY OF Edinthen, by pouring upon it sulphuric acid, the barytes is thrown down, and the new acid obtained, which The business of this season was comis dried under the receiver of an air. menced by Professor Jameson, who pump by sulphuric acid. The greater on the 9th of January read the first number of the salts which it forms, part of an account of the Geognostic with earthy or metallic bases, are Structure of the Grampians. soluble and crystallize. The hypo- Jan. 23.-Dr Hibbert read to the sulphites of barytes and lime are un- society his observations on the Straalterable in air. The suberic acid tification of the Shetland Islands. and chlorine do not decompose the

Feb. 6.–Professor Jameson conhyposulphite of barytes. This new tinued his Mineralogical Account of acid is composed of two proportions the Range of the Grampian Mounof sulphur and five of oxygen. tains, illustrating his descriptions by

Messrs Dulong and Petit have numerous sections of the country. presented the continuation of their Feb. 20.-Dr Hibbert read the seresearches on heat. By means of cond part of his account of the Geoga very simple instrument of their nosy of the Shetland Islands, consistown invention, they have made nu. ing chiefly of Observations on the merous experiments, and obtained Relations of the Quartz and Sandseveral very important results re- stone of the western parts of the specting the capacity of bodies for country, caloric. One of the most important March 6.-Mr Campbell of Carof these is, that, from the proportion brook read a paper on the Gradations of the atoms of which a body is com- in the scale of Being, and particularposed, its capacity for heat may be ly on the Living Principle. After rededuced, and vice versa. It appears marking the chain of connection also, from their experiments, that which binds the whole of creation, the quantity of heat disengaged in material and intellectual, together, chemical combinations, does not de- Mr C. stated, that he limited his abpend on the capacity of the body for stract to the material division of the heat; and, therefore, that the ordi- scale, and to the consideration of the nary theory must be rejected. characters which distinguish the Li

A sum of money having been ano- ving Principle from organization and nymously transmitted to the Insti- instinct. The first principle, which he tute, for the purpose of founding a pointed out as affecting the individual prize in physiology, a gold medal of particles of matter, which lie at the 440 francs' value will be given to bottom of the scale, and dependent on the author of the printed work or gravity, was Aggregation. To that manuscript sent to them before the succeeds Stratification, the regularity Ist of December 1819, which shall of which he referred to the agency of be considered as having contributed Almighty Power. The next point in most to promote the progress of ex- the scale, and a principlemore precise perimental physiology.

in its operation, was Crystallization ; from the consideration of which the author proceeded to Organisation, in his gret that our limits restrain us from opinions respecting which he differed giving a more detailed abstract of from Drs Thomson and Barclay. He this very learned and ingenious pemaintained, that the Living Principle per, to which we refer the reader cannot be the soul, because plants, who is desirous of further informawhich have no souls, have unques- tion. tionably the living principle. The April 3.- The Secretary read a structure is the organisation ; the li- communication from Captain Scorea. ving principle is something else. From by, on the means of overcoming some organisation, which is a lower point of the difficulties that obstruct discoin the scale, we ascend to the living veries in the Arctic Seas; and D principle, or vis vitae. The author's Hibbert gave a description of the observations, however, being rather sienite district of Shetland, in conof a negative than a positive kind, it tinuation of his general account of does not very clearly appear what are the Geognosy of these islands. his views on this curious, difficult, April 10.-Dr Hibbert gave an aeand, we fear, inexplicable subject. count of the granite and saudstone

March 20.--Professor Jameson read districts of Shetland; and completed a communication from Dr Brewster, his view of the Geognosy of these on the optical properties of minerals. islands by some remarks on Paps Dr B. stated, that in a very extensive Stour. examination of the optical constitu- April 24.-The Secretary read a tion of minerals and artificial crys. communication from Mr Stewart, tals, he was led to ascertain their containing remarks on the germinanumber of axes of double refraction, tion of some kinds of cryptogamous and that he had proceeded only a plants, and a list of some of the short way in the inquiry when it be- rarer cryptogamous plants which came obvious, that a very unequivo. have been lately found in the neighcal connection existed between the bourhood of Edinburgh : likewise a form of the primitive nucleus and description, illustrated by drawings, their number of axes of double re- of the fossil remains of a cetaceous fraction. Every new experiment animal found in slate clay near Whitadded to the truth and generality of by, by the Reverend G. Young. this result; and when he had exa. May 1.-The Secretary read a pamined the greater number of those per entitled, “ Account of some fosbodies whose primitive nucleus was sil remains of the beaver (Casior ti known, he had the satisfaction to dis- ber L.) found in Perthshire and Betcover that all the crystals with one wickshire, proving that that animal axis arranged themselves under a cer. was formerly a native of Scotland." tain series of primitive forms; and The first instance in which the fossil that those with two axes arranged remains of this animai were discoverthemselves under another series ; ed in Scotland occurred as far back while the remaining primitive forms as 1788. These remains were found were occupied by those crystals in the parish of Kinloch, near the whose doubly refracting forces were foot of the Grampians, embedded in in equilibrio by the combined action one of the marl-pits of the Loch of of three equal und rectangular axes. Marli, on the property of Mr FarTo this singular coincidence there is quharson of Invercauld, which had only one or two exceptions. Were. been partially drained for the sake of

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