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tion, headed by Artigas, to which not and Ambrister ; and the state the new director belonged, appears the finances. Of the first of these not only to have gained a complete we have taken notice in the beginascendancy in Buenos Ayres, but to ning of last chapter, under the head have entertained the most deadly of Spain ; and we have only to add, hatred of the moderate party, whose now, that when orders were sent to leaders were O'Higgins and Puyer. MrForsyth to present his ultimatam to redon. The principal care of Ge. the Court of Madrid, and to demand neral Rondeau, on attaining power, either its ratification or refusal, the was to put Buenos Ayres in a state most active preparations for war were of defence against the expedition forthwith commenced in all the of Cadiz, which, it was universally states of the Union, and the most believed, had for its prime object the marked attention shown by the Prereduction of that town and govern. sident to the envoys of Buenos Ayte ment. Yet even the just alarm ex- and Venezuela, whose mission had cited by the known destination of not before been ostensibly recogthis armament did not allay the fac- nised. This was touching Spain in tious spirit which had so long pre- the tenderest part, and was no doubt vailed, and Artigas refused to co- a line of policy admirably calculated operate in the common cause, unless to produce the intended effect. the Government would pledge itself With respect to the conduct of Ge to make common cause with him a- neral Jackson, it is true, that severe gainst the Portuguese, with whom he speeches were made, and a vote of had long carried on a partisan war. censuré passed against him in the fare, and against whom he nourished House of Representatives ; but it is a sort of frantic hatred.
equally true, that his occupation ef The Court of Rio Janeiro has been the Spanish posts of Pensacola and accused of secretly fomenting the San Marcos, in direct violation of factions by which Buenos Ayres has the law of nations, was voted by the been so long distracted, with a view same assembly to be in conformity to the extension of its power beyond to the principles of the constitution; the river Plata, and, as a preliminary that the freedom of the city of New step to this, to get possession of York was bestowed upon him for the Monte Video. This, we think, is heroic achievement of murdering our rendered extremely probable by the two defenceless countrymen ; and favour which the Court of Brazils that, almost immediately after, he has always shown to the moderate accompanied the President in a tour party in Buenos Ayres, no less than through Georgia, and along the fronby the unrelenting fury with which tier of the Floridas, to inspect the they have persecuted Artigas, whom military posts stationed on the Mishis countrymen regard as the un- sissippi and the Missouri, ostensibly compromising champion of indepen. to keep the Indians in check, but in dence.
reality to protect American com. The affairs of the United States merce against the dangerous rivalry during this year may be classed up. of English enterprise. These facts, der three heads ; the treaty with we apprehend, justify more than a Spain for the surrender of the Flori- suspicion that the conduct of Jackdas; the discussions connected with was secretly agreeable to his the conduct of General Jackson in employers, and that the vote of cen. the barbarous execution of Arbuth- sure was merely intended to save ap
pearances, and to furnish grounds mind, we shall perhaps be inclined or a reply to any remonstrances to think that the passing of Mr Peel's bat might be made on the part of bill, by preventing this country from the British Government.
falling into a similar state, was a With regard to the financial con- measure for which no degree of precerns of the Union, they appear to sent suffering could be reckoned too resemble those of most other coun- dear a purchase. tries, the estimated income* being The commercial and agricultural not sufficient to meet the estimated distresses of America were, this year, expenditure. The former, for the year every whit as great as those experi1820, was calculated at 22,000,000, enced by the countries of Europe, and the latter at 27,000,000 dollars; though exhausted by a long and leaving a deficit to be provided for ruinous war. The produce of the by loan, or otherwise, of 5,000,000.soil had fallen at least forty per cent. Two methods were proposed for rais- in value, and still could not find a ing the sum necessary to meet this market. The carrying trade, which deficiency; first, to create stock to the war had to a certain extent thrown the amount, bearing six per cent. in- into the hands of the Americans, had terest; or, secondly, to issue notes on now passed into other channels. The the guarantee of the treasury; this merchants of America were in no last method being only to be had re- condition to contend with the imcourse to in case of absolute neces- mense capitals and improved masity. The truth is, however, that chinery of England; and to add to America is deluged with paper cur- their embarrassments, the Banks of rency, the evils attendant on which several of the States, particularly in have been perhaps more severely felt the South, discontinued paying their than in almost any other country. notes in cash, in consequence of Commodities have risen in price to which, shares fell to the enormous a degree perfectly unexampled; the discount of 90 and 95 per cent. The precious metals have been almost en. continued influx of emigrants tendtirely banished from circulation; the ed to aggravate these evils, by infrequent failure of banking concerns creasing the competition for labour, has tended to destroy public credit, at a moment when the quantity reand to retard the improvement of the quired had greatly diminished; and states; and, from the want of an in. for once the Government was obliged variable standard of value, the in- to interfere to moderate, and if posternal commerce of the country has sible to restrain, that which they had been reduced to the mere barter of hitherto systematically encouraged. one commodity for another. If, to The truth is, there is no subject on these evils, we add the encourage- which greater delusion has been pracment which such a system affords to tised, even in this country, than in almost every species of gambling and the accounts industriously circulated fraud, and the injurious effects which of the happiness and plenty which it cannot fail to produce on the public are said to await emigrants in the
• The income of the United States has been in progressive diminution for a number of years past. In 1815 it was 49,655,642; in 1816, 36,657,904 ; in 1817, 24,365,227 ; in 1818, 26,095,200 ; and in 1819, (as estimated from the receipts of three quarters of the year) 25,827,824 dollars. Upon the data thus furnished, the income of 1820 was calculated as above, at only 22,000,000 dollars. Were not the government of America the most economical in the world, such a state of things must have ere this led to a revolution.
Western World ; a delusion which is pah Sahib and Setoo sought an asy. sure to be dispelled when the ex- sum from Jesswunt Rao Lar, the Kil. periment has been tried, but, unhap. ledar of Aseerghur, and, by secret pily, only when it is too late.
orders from Scindiah, to whom the In the account of Indian affairs place belonged, Appah Sahib was ad. given in our last volume, it will be mitted into the fortress. Setoo, to seen that the British dominion in In- whom the same protection had been dia had been threatened by a formi- refused, fled to the neighbouring dale and deep-laid conspiracy, entered forests, where he was a few days afinto by the whole of the Mahratta terwards devoured by a tiger. powers, in concert with the roving This harbouring the fugitive Raand predatory hordes known by the jah was justly viewed by our Indian name of the Pindarries. By the ad. Government as a gross breach of mirable policy and consummate mi- neutrality on the part of Scindiah ; litary conduct of the Marquis of niore especially as he peremptorily Hastings, this conspiracy had been refused to dismiss the killedar, by defeated at every point. Scindiah whom the neutrality had been ostenoverawed into neutrality; the Peish- sibly violated. Orders were accordwa of Poonah defeated, and made ingly issued to Brigadier-General prisoner; the Rajah of Nagpore ex. Doveton to concentrate a number of pelled from his territories, and for- detachments, which, when united, ced to wander as a fugitive; the amounted to between 18,000 and Pindarries completely broken and 20,000 men, and to undertake the dispersed; and the British power in siege of Aseerghur, hitherto regardIndia placed on a firmer and more ed as impregnable. Early in March, solid basis than ever. The events of the Brigadier-General broke ground this year, few and unimportant when before the place ; a practicable compared with these grand and com- breach was opened by the 17th; on bined operations, form, nevertheless, the 30th the exterior works were the natural sequel to one of the most carried by assault; and on the 9th extended and successful compaigns of April the Killedar surrendered at ever performed in India, and are on- discretion. In the fortress, the Eng: ly wanting to render the objects for lish found a numerous garrison, and which it had been undertaken, com- an immense quantity of artillery and plete.
ammunition ; but Appah Sahib had After their entire defeat, the Ra- once more contrived to escape the jah of Nagpore, Appah Sahib, and vigilance of his enemies. the Chief of the Pindarries, Setoo, The Indian seas had been long inhaving collected some corps of Pin. fested by hordes of Arab pirates, darries and Ghonds, had taken re- who had their rendezvous at a place fuge in the mountains to the south of called Rus el Khima, situate in the the Nerbuddah, where, by their know- Persian Gulf, about 18 miles from ledge of the country, they maintain the site of the ancient Ormuz. To ed themselves for some time against root out these miscreants, an expedi. the detachments sent in pursuit of tion, consisting of 4000 men, sailed them. In the months of January and from Bombay in the latter end of the February, however, Rareenawah, year; and on the 2d of December Harrass, and several others of their carried their principal establishment mountain forts, fell into the hands by assault, took their Sheik prisoner, of the English. Reduced by these and placed a garrison in the fort." reverses to the last extremities, Ap.