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CHAPTER XII.

SOUTH AMERICA, THE UNITED STATES, AND INDIA.

Macgregor's defeat at Puerto Bello, - State of affairs in Venezuela.- Opening

of the campaign of 1819.Capture of San Fernando d'Apure.— The Royalists in New Grenada defeated. Attempt on Angostura.- Battle of Cantanra and defeat of the Royalists.

March of Bolivar across the chain of the Cordilleras.-Decisive battle of Boyaca.– New Grenada and Venezuela united under the name of the Republic of Columbia.Recapture of San Fernando. - State of the Belligerents.- Peru.-Chili.Buenos Ayres.Brazil.-- United States.The Floridas.-Conduct of General Jackson censured.Finances.- State of the country.East Indies.-Death of Setoo, Chief of the Pindarries.- Capture of Åseerghur. - Second escape of Appah Sahib. Expedition against the Pirates of the Persian Gulf.

The events of the war in South Bello; but the Spanish General, America, during the year 1819, turn- Hore, who commanded in the neighed the scale in favour of the Inde: bourhood, being informed of the inpendents, and rendered their ultimate subordination that prevailed among triumph no longer doubtful. Disap- these banditti, the exactions pracpointed of succours from the mother tised on the inhabitants, and the utcountry, opposed to an active and ter neglect of all precaution, assementerprising enemy, combating in fa- bled a few hundred followers, and vour of a cause which could excite no marched to Puerto Bello, which he enthusiasm, and compelled to strug- entered on the night of the 30th of gle not merely against the enemy in April, or the 1st of May, without the field, but against secret treason, opposition. Not a single piquet had and a hostile population ; without been stationed without the walls, or money, without resources, and alınost sentinel on the ramparts. The surwithout hope ; the Royalists were prise was accordingly so complete, beaten in every battle, driven from that Macgregor only saved himself the strongholds they had hitherto by leaping from a window in his occupied, and nearly reduced to the shirt, and swimming to a vessel in last extremities.

the roads. With the exception of a The surprise and total rout of small body under Colonel Raffler, Macgregor's detachment can scarce- who, having retired to the fort, ob ly be considered as forming any ex- tained a capitulation, the greater ception to this general statement, in- part of his detachment were either asmuch as it had no influence what. killed or dispersed. In the month ever on the fate of the subsequent of September, he made a similar atcampaign. That adventurer, with tempt on Rio de la Hacha, to the a small body of followers, whom he west of Maracaibo, which he likewise had succeeded in inlisting in this surprised, but from which he was country, contrived, by a coup de driven out a few days afterwards, by main, to get possession of Puerto the Spaniards, who put to death the

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remainder of the English volunteers Torre, Morales, and Calzada, 2who accompanied him on that occa- gainst San Fernando d'Apure, the sion. But we must proceed to record Gibraltar of the llapos, and the key events of a more important and de- of the Orinoco. Paez, who comcisive character.

manded at San Fernando, having 01By the former successes of Morillo, ly about two or three thousand ligle New Grenada had fallen under the cavalry, was in no condition to stand yoke of Spain, and was now govern. a siege, and accordingly evacuated ed by the Viceroy Samano. This the place, which was taken possession conquest had proved of the greatest of by Torre on the 26th of January. importance, as it furnished consider. At this period, the royal army conable supplies of men, money, and sisted of seven regiments of infantry, provisions. But the spirit of inde. three regiments of cavalry, and a pendence had only been checked, numerous artillery ; in all about not extinguished. Towards the close 3500 men. On the 4th of Februa. of last year, insurgent parties had ry, it effected the passage of the made their appearance in the pro. Arauca, in spite of several brilliant vinces of Tunja and Casanara ; and charges of cavalry by Paez, who, the secret agents of Bolivar were however, retired immediately after

, busily at work in fomenting and en- his orders being to avoid a general couraging the dispositions which the action. people were known to cherish. By Bolivar, who, in the meantime, had these means, a corps of cavalry, a- been re-elected President of the mounting from 12 to 15,000 men, Republic of Venezuela, seeing that was soon organised, under Don Fran- it was impossible to prolong the cisco de Santander, and formed in- campaign in the plains, by reason to a separate body, to keep in check of the approach of the rainy season, the forces of New Grenada during resolved, according to his original the approaching contest between design, to carry the war into New Bolivar and Morillo.

Grenada, where that season 2 On both sides preparation had shorter, and where he had reason been made, if possible to terminate to expect supplies of men, money, the war in this campaign : The ob- and provisions. Penetrating his ject of Morillo being, to penetrate, intention, Morillo lost no time in by the llanos or plains, as far as An- taking up a strong position in the gostura, the capital of the Venezue- island of Achaguas, formed by the lan Republic; and that of Bolivar, Apure, which cuts off the commu. to attack the places on the side of nication with New Grenada, and Caraccas, the seat of the government, from which he expected to be able and to attempt the conquest of New to communicate with all the divi

. Grenada in person.

sions of his army, as well as with the At the end of 1818, the Royal different countries to be attacked or Army rested on three points, San- defended. Unfortunately for the ta Fé, Varinas, and Calaboso ; the success of this plan, the royal army corps of Santa Fé being destined to of New Grenada, amounting to 3act against Santander, and effect the bout 3500, was defeated by Santan, submission of the province of Casa. der with the loss of 1500 men, and nara. In opening the campaign of the greater part of its artillery and 1819, Morillo moved with the three baggage. divisions commanded by Generals The object of Bolivar was now to

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effect a junction with Santander; standard, put himself at the head of and for this purpose he made a move his men, and led them to the charge. ment on the left flank of Moril. Animated by the example of their lo's position, defeated the division of leader, they advanced with irresistiGeneral Torre, and leaving Paez ble impetuosity, totally routed the with his Lancers to harass Morillo, Spanish column, and took its military entered the province of Varinas, chest, baggage and colours. where, on the 13th of June, he es- As soon as Bolivar had establishtablished communications with San. ed his communications with Santantander; event which totally der by the Orinoco, the Apure, changed the face of affairs, and the and the Meta, the insurrection in relative situation of the contending New Grenada assumed a formidable parties. Morillo had remained in appearance. Several detachments of all about two months in his position royalist troops passed over to the in the isle of Achaguas ; but the Independents, and deputations from difficulty of procuring subsistence, Socoro, Tunja, and Pamplune, rethe approach of the rainy season, paired to the camp of Santander, and the bold march of Bolivar, com- who was only six days' journey from pelled him to abandon his original Santa Fé, to make a tender of their plan, and to fall back on Caraccas, services. In consequence of these where he employed himself for some favourable dispositions, Bolivar pretime in endeavouring to augment his pared to enter New Grenada. The

force by every possible, and almost difficulties which he had to surmount + desperate means.

in the prosecution of this hazardous In this situation, he resolved on undertaking were of the most fori an enterprise, which, had it proved midable and appalling description.

as successful in the execution as it He had to scramble over the savage was bold in the design, must have rocks of the Cordilleras, to cross been attended with fatal consequen- rapid rivers formed by the torrents

ces to the cause of the Independ- of rain which fell incessantly, and to E ents. A corps of 1500 chosen men, sustain attacks in positions where

under Colonel Arana, were directed a hundred resolute men might have to proceed to Angostura, where the stopped the advance of ten thouVenezuelan Congress was still sitting, sand. On the fourth day of his and to endeavour to surprise the march, he had lost his baggage; his

capital, which was well known to be park of artillery had been destroy. * destitute of all means of defence.ed; and the beasts of burden had

The Colonel had reached within a perished from fatigue. In a word, few days' march of his destination, after more than a month's march and the Congress were preparing to across the Cordilleras, which sepa

evacuate it, when General Marino rate the country of Casanara from * approached from the side of Cuma. that of Santa Fé, he arrived, on the

na at the head of about 1700 picked 1st of July, in the fertile valley of men. The hostile divisions met at Sogamoso, near the city of Tunja, Cantanra, near San Diego, where a where he found the royal army of furious encounter immediately took New Grenada, encamped on the place. The Independents at first re- heights which command the valley. coiled from the steady and destructive Harassed as he was, Bolivar did not fire of the Royalists, who were all ve. hesitate a moment to attack it, and teran troops; but Marino, seizing a by a well-directed charge of caval

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ry, and the intrepidity of some turning their position, notwithstandEnglish companies *, who rushed up ing the terrible fire to which he was the heights with their bayonets, he exposed, he forced them at last to succeeded in dislodging them from surrender. On the left, Santander, their strong position, and capturing a who had only his cazadores, some great number of prisoners, a quantity companies of infantry of the line, of arms and provisions, and the mi- and a few cavalry, was several times litary chest. The Spaniards, com- repulsed by the Spanish advanced manded by General Barreyro, re- guard, but as often returned to the tired in tolerable order on Santa attack; till at length they gave way Fé de Bagota, by the route of Sa. at all points, and left the Indemaca; and Bolivar, whose object pendents completely masters of the was to cut off their communications field. with Santa Fé, and, if possible, This was the most decisive victory bring on a general battle, lost no the Independents had ever gained . time in following them. On the 7th The whole royal army were either of August, he came up with them killed or taken prisoners. Barreyro, near Venta Quemada, and that day with his lieutenant Colonel Ximenes, decided the fate of New Grenada. and nearly all his officers, fell into

Just as the videttes of the repu. the hands of the victors; and it was blican army appeared in sight, the calculated that, of 3500 men, not first division of the royal army, more than 50 had escaped. Thus, reached the bridge of Boyaca. Bar the battle of Boyaca, which had been reyra, thinking them only a corps gained with comparatively a trifling of observation, ordered them to be loss, proved as decisive for the leattacked by his cazadores, while the dependents of Venezuela and New main body of the army continued Grenada, as that of Maipo, last year, its march. By a rapid movement, for those of Chili and Buenos Ayres. Bolivar, with the whole of his in- On the 10th of July, Bolivar esfantry in column, took possession tered Santa Fé de Bogota in triof a height which commanded the umph, and was received by the peoposition, and forced the enemy ple with loud acclamations, and hailto deploy in his turn, pass the ed as their deliverer from a yoke bridge, and take up a position on which they detested. He had reathe opposite side. After several son to congratulate himself on his partial attacks, the royal army made extraordinary success; for, just three

towards its right, years before, he had been driven which however was stopped by the from the same place by General carabineers and the English compa- Morillo, who then appeared to carry nies; and then the action became every thing before him. Here also general along the whole line. Ge. he received numerous recruits, be. neral Anzuategui, who commanded sides three millions of piastres which the centre of the Independents, the Viceroy had left in his coffers. forced the Royalists to retire to Bolivar did not fail to improve his the height, where they endeavour. victory to the utmost; but one of ed for some time to maintain them the most remarkable consequences selves; but having succeeded in of it was, the union of the republics

• About 1000 men, enlisted at London, and subsequently regimented at Margarita, had -joined Bolivar, at the commencement of this memorable march across the Cordiileras.

a

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of New Grenada and Venezuela into pied Varinas and Guanara with about one state, under the title of the Re- 4,000; and Marino and Saraza were public of Columbia ; an event memo- stationed near the coast with native Cable in itself, and brought about troops and the Irish legion, which solely by the wisdom and conduct of had lately arrived under Devereux; Bolivar, who appears to possess all consisting in all of 5,000 men, the the qualities necessary for the sin- élite of the army. On the 24th of gular situation in which fortune has December, Bolivar Jeft Angostura placed him. At the same time that for the purpose of opening a camthis union was ratified by the Con. paign which had been planned on a gress of Venezuela, it was resolved grand scale; flattering himself that that a new capital should be built, he should reach Caraccas by the midand named after the man who had dle of February, and even be able to established the independence of his co-operate with the Independents of country; and that, while its build- Peru, by means of the corps which ing was in progress, the General he had sent fro'n Popayan to Quito, Congress of Columbia should assem- where General Anzuategui met with ble in the central city of Rosario de but little resistance. Cucuta.

To carry on the campaign against While General Bolivar was occu. this formidable body, and to occupy pied with the political organization his strong places, the capital of the and the union of New Grenada and Government, and nearly the whole Venezuela, Paez was as active as the coast from Carthagena to Cumana, rainy season would permit. Morillo General Morillo had only between had left about 500 men in the fort 9 and 10,000 men, most of them of San Fernando d'Apure, and, on Creoles, upon whom no dependance the river, a vessel mounting ten could be placed.

could be placed. In this critical guns, which commanded the naviga. predicament his only resource was tion, and assisted in the defence of to dispatch one of his aides-de-camp, the place. By a vigorous attack, Colonel Leon d'Oterga, to Spain, to Commodore Diaz carried the vessel represent the necessity of immediate on the 30th of September; and, on supplies of troops ; but he only arthe 15th of October, Paez took pos- rived in time to be a witness of the session of San Fernando, which the revolution of the 1st of January 1820, Spaniards had evacuated in such to which we formerly alluded! haste that they had time neither to The independent cause this year destroy the works nor to carry off the made little progress in Peru and ammunition. In this manner, the on- Buenos Ayres. Lord Cochrane made ly loss sustained during the campaign two unsuccessful attempts on the was retrieved, while the Royalists Spanish frigates Venganza and Eswere defeated at every point, and meralda in the harbour of Callao, drived from every position which they and Buenos Ayres was so torn by had occupied at its commencement, intestine broils and factions, that with the solitaryexception of Cumana. the director Puyerredon, no longer

The Independents were now in a able to struggle with this violence, situation to procure recruits at plea. resigned his office on the 9th of June, sure for the army, and money and and returned to his original rank of provisions for its subsistence. The a colonel in the army. General Don principal division, under Bolivar, Jose Rondeau ,was appointed his consisted of 6,000 men ; Paez occu- successor. The democratical fac,

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