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PROFESSOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN THE UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN ;
HON. MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS ;
ASSOCIATE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.

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Velocity of water flowing from an orifice,
Law of Torricelli Experimental Proofs, }
Velocity when other pressures than the atmosphere
exist. Examples, . - - - -
Discharge, contraction of fluid vein, causes of,
Effects of Form of and numerical dimensions,
Discharge through a thin plate, coefficient, -
Contraction suppressed on one or more sides. For-
mula of Bedone, - - - -
Orifices in plates not being true planes, - -
External and internal tubes attached. Limits of
the value of the coefficient, - - -
Practical rules for discharge per minute and per
second, . - - • - - - -
ANTECEDENT VELOCITY.—Effects on discharge;
formula for, . - - - - - -
CYLINDRICAL ADJUTAGES, discharge from,
Illustration, mean coefficient, formula for,
Coefficients of discharge and velocity compared,
CONICAL CONVERGING ADJUTAGES.—Discharge,
Coefficients for; best angle of convergence, . -
CONICAL DIVERGING ADJUTAGES.—Coefficient;
discharge from ; best angle of divergence,
Discharge with very small charges; true formula;
error of approximate do.; tabular statement of
difference, &c., - - - - - -
True measurement of the charge or head,
True coefficient of discharge. Example,

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WEIRS, WASTE-BOARDS, OR OVERFALLS.

Formula for discharge by ; coefficients, - -
Velocity of approach, effects of; formula including,
Experimental tests of formula, - - - -
Ratio of discharges to length of overfall, &c.,

(l

53–55

56 57 61 62–66

55 56, 57

58–61

69 82

Overfalls with channels attached,
Drowned weirs, formula for, -
Gauging discharge by overfalls, &c., - -
Experiments by Blackwell and Francis, - -
Table giving coefficients by different experiment-
ers, &c., - • - - - - -
Formula for weirs in Beardmore's Tables,

CHAPTER II.
FLOW OF WATER UNDER VARIABLE HEAD.

General principles of velocity and discharge,
Volume discharged; *::::::::: - -
Time of complete and partial discharge, &c.,
Mean hydraulic charge, - - - - -
Basin receiving constant supply while discharging,
Analogous cases of discharge by weirs, -
Basins not being prismatic, - -
Discharge from one reservoir into another,

EXAMPLES AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS.

SLUICES.–Practical Rules, - -
Various arithmetical examples, . - -
Measures of water on Italian irrigation canals
Apparatus for constant discharge, by Thom, -
do. do. at Kilmarnock, by Gale, . -
do. do. Canal of Isabella II., in Spain,
do. do. Marseilles Canal, in France, -
do. do. Henares Canal, by Bateman,
Pitot's tube for measuring velocity in rivers,
Ramsbottom's apparatus for filling tenders, -
Floating Britannia tubes; pressure on pontoons,
The “catarast ’’ in Cornish pumping-engines,
Clepsydra or water-clock, . - - -
WEIRs.--Arithmetical examples, . - - -
Self-acting separation of turbid from clear water,
Lowell experiments, - -

FLOW OF WATER UNDER A VARIABLE HEAD.

Arithmetical examples,

CHAPTER III.

FLOW THROUGH PIPES, CHANNELs, AND RIVERs.

General principles, - . . . - - -
Laws of friction of solids and fluids; formulae; con-
stant, hydraulic mean depth, . - - -
Action of water on bottom and sides of channels,
Best form of channel, - - -
Mean velocity by inspection of channel,

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ing, conveying, and distributing the necessary supply of water, for mill-power, or for the summit-levels of canals; or for the supply of cities; and, generally, of all such works as depend for their suitable construction and proportions upon the result of calculations requiring a knowledge of the pressure and motion of fluids. - 2. Fluids are defined to be bodies whose particles, by reason of their extreme mobility, yield to every the least

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