PROFESSOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN THE UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN ; HON. MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS ; ASSOCIATE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.
Velocity of water flowing from an orifice, Law of Torricelli Experimental Proofs, } Velocity when other pressures than the atmosphere exist. Examples, . - - - - Discharge, contraction of fluid vein, causes of, Effects of Form of and numerical dimensions, Discharge through a thin plate, coefficient, - Contraction suppressed on one or more sides. For- mula of Bedone, - - - - Orifices in plates not being true planes, - - External and internal tubes attached. Limits of the value of the coefficient, - - - Practical rules for discharge per minute and per second, . - - • - - - - ANTECEDENT VELOCITY.—Effects on discharge; formula for, . - - - - - - CYLINDRICAL ADJUTAGES, discharge from, Illustration, mean coefficient, formula for, Coefficients of discharge and velocity compared, CONICAL CONVERGING ADJUTAGES.—Discharge, Coefficients for; best angle of convergence, . - CONICAL DIVERGING ADJUTAGES.—Coefficient; discharge from ; best angle of divergence, Discharge with very small charges; true formula; error of approximate do.; tabular statement of difference, &c., - - - - - - True measurement of the charge or head, True coefficient of discharge. Example,
Overfalls with channels attached, Drowned weirs, formula for, - Gauging discharge by overfalls, &c., - - Experiments by Blackwell and Francis, - - Table giving coefficients by different experiment- ers, &c., - • - - - - - Formula for weirs in Beardmore's Tables,
CHAPTER II. FLOW OF WATER UNDER VARIABLE HEAD.
General principles of velocity and discharge, Volume discharged; *::::::::: - - Time of complete and partial discharge, &c., Mean hydraulic charge, - - - - - Basin receiving constant supply while discharging, Analogous cases of discharge by weirs, - Basins not being prismatic, - - Discharge from one reservoir into another,
EXAMPLES AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS.
SLUICES.–Practical Rules, - - Various arithmetical examples, . - - Measures of water on Italian irrigation canals Apparatus for constant discharge, by Thom, - do. do. at Kilmarnock, by Gale, . - do. do. Canal of Isabella II., in Spain, do. do. Marseilles Canal, in France, - do. do. Henares Canal, by Bateman, Pitot's tube for measuring velocity in rivers, Ramsbottom's apparatus for filling tenders, - Floating Britannia tubes; pressure on pontoons, The “catarast ’’ in Cornish pumping-engines, Clepsydra or water-clock, . - - - WEIRs.--Arithmetical examples, . - - - Self-acting separation of turbid from clear water, Lowell experiments, - -
FLOW OF WATER UNDER A VARIABLE HEAD.
FLOW THROUGH PIPES, CHANNELs, AND RIVERs.
General principles, - . . . - - - Laws of friction of solids and fluids; formulae; con- stant, hydraulic mean depth, . - - - Action of water on bottom and sides of channels, Best form of channel, - - - Mean velocity by inspection of channel,
ing, conveying, and distributing the necessary supply of water, for mill-power, or for the summit-levels of canals; or for the supply of cities; and, generally, of all such works as depend for their suitable construction and proportions upon the result of calculations requiring a knowledge of the pressure and motion of fluids. - 2. Fluids are defined to be bodies whose particles, by reason of their extreme mobility, yield to every the least
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