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Nevertheless, the fact that there are within the State considerable numbers of persons of foreign descent, grouped for the most part in settlements more or less clearly differentiated by language or racial characteristics, inevitably creates special difficulties for the schools. Not only the common schools, but the higher institutions of learning as well, must adapt themselves to the special conditions that exist, if they are to render their full service to the State.

The character of the foreign-born population is shown by the fact that more than one-half of the farm operators are foreign-born, although only 27.1 per cent of the total population are foreign-born.

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According to the United States census figures for 1910, Table 2, presented graphically in Figure 2, the population of North Dakota contains slightly more than average proportions in the age groups under 25 years, and slightly less than the average in the groups above this age. Comparing North Dakota in this respect with the neighboring agricultural States of South Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa, it appears that North Dakota contains slightly larger proportions in the age groups under 45 years, and slightly smaller proportions in the groups above this age. (See Figure 3.)

There are apparently no special conditions as regards the age composition of the population which affect the educational problems of the State.

TABLE 2.-Age distribution of total population, 1910.

Age groups.

North
Dakota.

South
Average Dakota,
for United Nebraska,
States. and Iowa

combined.

Par cent.

11.6 21.0

Under 5 years
5 to 14 years
15 to 24 years.
25 to 44 years.
45 to 64 years
65 years and over.

Total.

Per cent.

14.3 22.4 20.5 29.0 11.3 2. 2

Per cent.

11.6 20.5 19.7 29.1 14.6 4.3

27.9 14.4 3.3

100.0

100.0

100.0

AGE DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL POPULATION: 1910

NORTH DAKOTA. COMPARED WITH U.S.

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Dakota, but to the fact that the immigration from other States has small percentage of illiteracy is due not only to the schools of North less in both classes than the average for the United States. This

19.7

15 TO 24

20.5

per cent; in the foreign-born white population, 1.7 per cent, much

The percentage of illiteracy in the native white population is 1.5

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AND ILLITERACY.

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FIGURE 2.
The population of North Dakota contains slightly more than average proportions in the age groups under 25 years, and

slightly less than the average in the groups above this age.

AGE DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL POPULATION: 1910
NORTH DAKOTA COMPARED WITH SOUTH DAKOTA, NEBRASKA, & IOWA

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ing illiteracy. also the effectiveness of the elementary schools of the State in reducages of 10 and 20 were reported as illiterate in 1910. This shows sal. Only 1.7 per cent of the population of all classes between the

States in which elementary education, at least, is practically univerwhile the foreign immigration has been very largely from European been mostly from those with good school systems of long standing,

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FIGURE 3.
The population of North Dakota contains slightly larger proportions in the age groups under 45 years, and slightly

less than the average in the groups above this age, as compared with the neighboring agricultural States of South
Dakota, Nebraska, and lowa. There are apparently no special conditions as regards the age composition of the popula-
tion which affect the educational problems o fthe State.

[graphic]
[graphic]

In 1910, of all children from 6 to 9 years old, 70.6 per cent attended schools; from 10 to 14 years, 90 per cent; from 15 to 17 years, 57.4 per cent; from 18 to 20 years, 17.4 per cent.

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In North Dakota 85 per cent of farms and 83 per cent of farm acreage are operated by the owners.

MANAGERS 0.7

TENANTS

14.3

NUMBER OF FARMS OPERATED BY:

OWNERS 85.0%

Of urban children from 6 to 14 years of age, 84.2 per cent attended school; of urban children from 15 to 20 years, 43.1 per cent. Of rural children from 6 to 14 years, 80.4 per cent, and of rural children from 15 to 20 years, 37.7 per cent. (See Table 3.)

TABLE 3.-Percentages of children of specified ages in North Dakota reported as

attending school, 1910.

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In 1910 less than 5 per cent of the farms contained less than 100 acres each, and only

20.2 per cent contained more than 500 acres.

FARMING AND OTHER INDUSTRIES.

The nature of the farming in North Dakota is indicated by the following facts from the census of 1910:

Of the whole number of farms, 85 per cent are operated by their owners, 14.3 per cent by tenants, 0.7 per cent by managers. (See Table 4 and Figure 4.)

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