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9. State reimburses local communities through high-school act for tuition

expended. 10. No age limitations. 11. Minimum of 15 pupils required for formation of class.

PENNSYLVANIA.

1. Units of organization are districts or joint districts. 2. Types are regular day, part-time day, and evening schools or classes. 3. Not compulsory. 4. Approved by State board of education. 5. Restricted to such courses in part-time schools as are supplementary to

regular employment. Exception: Vocational courses for women in even

ing classes do not have to be supplementary to regular employment. 6. Established and maintained by regular school authorities. 7. Local board of inspection is appointed by school board and ratified by

State board of education. 8. State reimburses local communities maintaining regular day, part-time, and

evening vocational schools and classes to the extent of two-thirds of cost

of instruction, not to exceed $5,000 in any one district for any one year. 9. State reimburses local communities for tuition to extent of $25 per child

through other act. 10. No age limitations.

WISCONSIN.1

1. Units of organization are school districts. 2. Types are all-day, part-day, and evening schools or classes. 3. Compulsory education in part-time day, ages 14 to 16, 5 hours per week. 4. Approved by the State board of industrial education, consisting of 9 mem

bers-3 employees, 3 employers, and 3 educators. 5. All cities with 5,000 or more inhabitants required to provide boards for in

dustrial education; these boards to be appointed by the local boards of education, and to consist of 6 members—2 employees, 2 employers, the

superintendent of schools, and the high-school principal. 6. State aid provided for four types—industrial, commercial, continuation, and

evening schools. 7. State reimburses local communities maintaining above types to the extent

of one-half expense of instruction, up to $3,000 for each school main

taining all four types, but not to exceed $10,000 to any one community. 8. Employers must pay wages to “permit pupils” for the five hours spent in

continuation schools.

1 The Wisconsin laws covering this topic were not available, so this digest was gleaned from various secondary sources.

INDEX.

Administration, problems, 153.
Advisory committee, 67..
Agricultural arts. 68.
Agricultural arts education, 45.
Agricultural education, 44; early forms, 12; problems, 153.
Agricultural schools, types, 16.
Apprenticeship, ref., 52, 120.
Boston Home and School Association, ref., 126.
Boston schools, circular of vocational guidance, 133; vocational guidance, 122.
Boston University, vocational guidance course, 124.
Boston vocational counselors, topics treated, 125.
Central committee for vocational education, 75.
Classes in vocational education, size, 86.
Commercial education, 43; problems, 152.
Commercial schools, types, 17.
Committee, composition of, 6, 7.
('ommittee of vocational education and vocational guidance, inquiry from, 15.
Conferences of vocational education, 74.
Continuation schools, def., 33; conditions for, 91.
Continuation vocational schools, def., 64.
Cooperative vocational schools, 60.
Corporation vocational schools, 139.
Correlation of technical studies and practical work, 58.
Cost of vocational education, 130.
Directors, qualifications, 83.
Domestic science courses, early stages, 13.
Dual administrative control, 65.
Dual vocational school, 60.
Employment Managers' Association, ref., 127.
Evening vocational schools, def., 33, 63.
Evening industrial schools, conditions, 94; short unit courses, 96.
Extension schools. See Continuation schools.
Federal aid, vocational education, 137.
Finance of vocational education, 130–142.
Financing vocational education by Federal aid, 137.
Full responsibility vocational school, 61.
General education, compared with vocational education, 38; related to voca-

tional education, 143.
General vocational education, 145.
Handwork in home, 9.
Homemaking education, 47; problems, 152.
Homemaking schools, types, 19.
Household arts, 68.

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House painting, analysis, 111-117.
Industrial arts education, 47.
Industrial education, 45; problems, 149.
Industrial schools by day, conditions, 90.
Industrial schools, types, 18.
Industrial workers, gathering data regarding, 98.
Industries, analyses, 111-117.
Industry, evolution, 10.
Instructors, qualifications, 83.
Investigation of need of vocational education, 98.
Legislation, vocational education, digest, 157–159.
Liberal education, related to vocational education, 143.
Manual arts, 67.
Manual training, 68.
Massachusetts, industrial commission, 11.
Morrill Act, ref., 138.
National Education Association, 5.
National Society for Promotion of Industrial Education, 6.
Nautical education, ref., 49.
Painting, house, analysis, 111-117.
Part responsibility school, 61.
Part time schools, def., 3+; conditions, 91.
Practical arts, education, ref., 39; schools and studies, 67.
Practical arts high school, 68.
Practical work, productive, 51.
Prevocational education, 69; ref., 71.
Problems of vocational education, 143–156.
Professional education, 42; problems, 147.
Project, def., 58.
Pupils in vocational schools, free tuition, 136.
Redfield, William C., Secretary of Department of Commerce, ref., 138.
Reimbursement in vocational education, 135.
Richmond, Virginia, survey, 103–110.
Short unit courses, 58.
Single (or unit) administrative control, 66.
Smith-Lever bill, ref., 138.
St. Paul meeting, 5.
State-aided vocational schools, to be free, 136.
Support of vocational education, by employers and labor, 140; sources of, 131.
Survey, aims, 101 ; for vocational education, 76; methods, 98, 102; methods for

vocational education, 98–117; preliminary, 73; schedules, 103–110.
Teachers for vocational schools, 136.
Teachers of vocational education, classes, etc., 84.
Technical education, 53.
Technical high schools, ref., 19.
Technical schools, 54.
Technical studies correlated with practical work, 58.
Transfer of results of training in vocational education, 146.
Unemployment, causes, 119.
Unified vocational schools, 66.
Unit administrative control, 66.
Vocational Bureau of Boston, ref., 120.
Vocational department, def., 66.

Vocational education, administration, 65; as related to vocation guidance,

118–129; by other agencies than schools, 40; classification of schools for, 59; compared with practical arts education, 39; def., 36; definitions, 35–71 ; digest of laws relating to, 157–159; direct and indirect, 39; established in States, 11; Federal aid, 137; financing, 130-142; graphic scheme of organization, 79; history of term, 9; legislation, 11, 12; local administration, 81; local support, 133; major divisions equal with, 38; major divisions, 40; methods of introduction, 72–77; methods of organization, 78–97 ; needed to offset inefficiency, 100; pedagogical divisions, 56; pedagogical phases, 49; private, 139; private schools, 40; practical or concrete phase, 50; problems, 143–156; providing facilities, 86; public support, 132; State administration,

78; technical phases, 53. Vocational guidance, 70, 71, 118–129; college courses, 123; cooperative with

schools, 121 ; through employers' associations, 127. Vocational schools, classes, 89; classified, 33, 59; equipment, 87; location, classi

fied by States, 20–32; training of teachers, 136.
Vocational secondary schools, types, 15–34.
Vocational studies, general, 55.
Vocational survey, facts to be gathered, 99.
Vocational survey of Richmond, Virginia, 103–110.

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