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obtaining teachers who have had experience in the occupation for which training is being given; (b) problems of keeping these teachers in intimate contact with the practical requirements of these occupations; (c) problems of maintaining or providing, in connection with the executive authority in charge of the schools, specialists in vocational education; and (d) problems of providing, either in the legislative authority in charge of the schools or in an advisory relationship, representatives of the fields for which training is being given.

Problem 1. To what extent and under what conditions can teachers in vocational departments be equipped with practical experience obtained through actual participation in the callings for which they are giving education?

(a) Experience seems to prove that effective vocational education can only be given by persons who have had sufficient experience in a practical capacity, in a particular occupation, to enable them to succeed on a commercial basis.

For example, where normal schools undertake to train teachers for successful teaching (and not merely to teach prospective teachers certain subjects of study) experience seems to show that such teachers must themselves have been successful in the field of practical work. In medical colleges it is rare to find successful teachers who have not been commercially successful in practice. The best engineering teachers are those who have served some years at commercial work. In such trades as plumbing, pattern making, and others it is now agreed that a successful teacher must himself have reached a stage where he could readily procure profitable employment. The situation is not clear as regards commercial and agricultural teachers, but doubtless the same principles apply in these fields, as well as in homemaking

(6) Granting the necessity of a considerable amount of practical experience on the part of teachers, the following are methods by which it could be obtained in conjunction with suitable training in the art of teaching: Vocational schools might take as teachers only persons who have already demonstrated their capacity in the world of practical effort, giving them in greater or less degree, just prior to their entrance on teaching, such training in the art of teaching as is practicable.

This method has been followed in the past by medical colleges, theological schools, and to some extent, engineering colleges and law schools. It is now followed by trade schools, and to a small extent, by schools of agriculture.

(c) A person seeking to become a teacher in a vocational field might take pedagogical courses, followed by a certain amount of practical experience as a prerequisite before taking up teaching. This is the prevailing method in normal schools and in some engineering schools.

(d) A course of training might be devised whereby the prospective teacher would first take a course in a school looking toward teaching, followed by one or more years of practical participation in commercial work, this to be succeeded by a definite period of study of the art of teaching, preliminary to taking a teaching position. This method is now being proposed as a basis for the training of teachers of commercial subjects, etc.

Problem 2. To what extent and by what means shall teachers in vocational schools be required to keep in close contact with the occupational fields for which they are giving training ?

It is probable that in fields like industry and agriculture and others where changes are taking place efficiency can be produced only by strongly requiring that teachers shall not only observe but actually participate, on a commercial basis, from time to time in the work in fields in which they are giving training. The most available means to this end would be periods of leave given from the school, during which teachers would participate in such work. This is now found in some engineering fields.

Problem 3. To what extent and by what means shall specialized direction be provided in the executive administration of vocational education ?

(a) The problem is one affecting (1) the headship of a department; (2) the directorship of a vocational school; (3) the general supervision of vocational education in an administrative unit, such as a town or city; and (4) the administrative supervision of vocational education on behalf of the State, or other large unit of administration.

(6) It is assumed that the headship of a department must be in the hands of one who is a specialist himself in the occupation for which training is being given.

(c) The directorship of a large vocational school having several departments will probably not be in the hands of a specialist in any one department, but rather in the hands of one who is a pedagogical expert in many lines and a good administrator. Eventually, such a position will probably be filled by promotion from headships of departments, such selection being made on the basis of natural ability for an administrative position.

(d) There are good grounds for believing that in each city, or other administrative unit having many vocational schools, there should be an assistant superintendent specializing in the field of vocational education, including thereunder industrial, commercial, homemaking, and agricultural work offered, but not including professional. Whether he should also have supervision of the practical arts work as a phase of general education or when offered prevocationally is doubtful.

(e) Similarly, where the administration of vocational education is supervised on behalf of the State there should be organized a separate department, dealing exclusively with vocational education.

Problem 4. To what extent and under what conditions shall representatives of the various vocational fields participate in the lay administration of vocational schools?

(a) It should be assumed that every single vocational department in a system should feel the influence of representatives of laymen in the occupational field concerned (including both employers and employees, where these distinctions are clearly defined).

(5) Obviously, it is impracticable to include laymen in this capacity in the school committee or board itself without making the latter unduly large. It may be assumed that a layman from one occupational field has no more capacity to assist in the administration of vocational education in another than any other layman.

(c) Experience seems to demonstrate that the more effective course is to place all vocational schools under the administration of the regularly constituted school authorities, because these are supported by public money, and to provide for each distinctive department a small advisory committee for the activity of which the department head shall be primarily responsible.

APPENDIX.

DIGEST OF LAWS OF STATES THAT PROVIDE STATE AID FOR A MORE OR LESS STATE-WIDE SYSTEM OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION.

INDIANA.

1. Units of organization are cities, towns, and townships. 2. Types are separate schools, regular day schools, part-time day, and evening

schools or classes. 3. Compulsory education in part-time day schools, ages 14 to 16, 5 hours per

week. But only when local communities have first established the school.

The education is not compulsory upon all, as is the case in Wisconsin. 4. Approved by State board of education. 5. Restricted to such courses in part-time schools as are supplementary to

regular employment. 6. Established and maintained by regular school authorities. 7. Local board of inspection is appointed by school board, ratified by State

board of education. Three members suggested for each separate vocation

taught. 8. State reimburses local communities maintaining regular day, part-time,

and evening vocational schools and classes to the extent of two-thirds of

net cost of maintenance, less tuition collected. 9. State reimburses local communities to extent of one-half amount expended

for tuition. 10. Age limits are, for regular day and part-time day schools, 14 to 25.

MAINE.

1. State aids elementary schools teaching manual training and domestic

science to the extent of two-thirds of the teacher's salary, not to exceed

$800 for each teacher. 2. Approved by superintendent of public instruction. 3. State aids secondary schools providing instruction in agriculture, domestic

science, and mechanic arts to the extent of two-thirds of cost of in

struction, but not to exceed $500 to any district for any one year. 4. State aids certain selected vocational schools teaching agriculture, domestic

science, manual arts and trades, to the extent of two-thirds of the cost of instruction, but not exceeding $2,000 for any one district.

MASSACHUSETTS.

1. Units of organization are counties, cities, and townships. 2. T'ypes are regular day, part-time day, and evening schools or classes. 3. Compulsory education in part-time day schools, ages 14 to 16, 5 hours per

week. But only when local communities have first established the school. The education is not compulsory upon all, as is the case in Wisconsin.

4. Approved by State board of education, 5. Restricted to such courses in part-time schools as are supplementary to

regular employment. Exception: Vocational courses for women in even

ing classes do not have to be supplementary to regular employment. 6. Established and maintained by regular school authorities or by independent

boards. 7. Local board of inspection is appointed by school board and ratified by State

board of education. Three members suggested for each separate vocation

taught. 8. State reimburses local communities maintaining regular day, part-time, and

evening vocational schools and classes to the extent of (a) one-half net cost of maintenance less tuition collected, (b) two-thirds net cost of maintenance for vocational courses in regular high schools maintaining agri

cultural courses. 9. State reimburses local communities to extent of one-half of amount expended

for tuition, 10. Age limits are, for regular day and part-time day schools, 14 to 25 years; for

evening schools, 17 or over.

NEW JERSEY..

1. Units of organization are county, joint county, districts, or union of districts. 2. Types are regular day, part-time day, and evening schools or classes. 3. Not compulsory. 4. Approved by State board of education. 5. Restricted to such courses in part-time schools as are supplementary to

regular employment. Exception: Vocational courses for women in evening

classes do not have to be supplementary to regular employment. 6. Established and maintained by regular school authorities. 7. No local boards of inspection. 8. State reimburses local communities maintaining regular day, part-time, and

evening vocational schools or classes to the extent of one-half of net cost of maintenance, but not to exceed $10,000 for any district, county, or joint

district. 9. Tuition reimbursed to local communities to extent of $25 through another

act. 10. No age limitation.

NEW YORK.

1. Units of organization are cities and districts. 2. Types are regular day, part-time day, and evening schools or classes. 3. Not compulsory. 4. Approved by commissioner of education. 5. Not restricted. (See (5) other States.) 6. Established and maintained by regular school authorities. 7. Local boards of inspection are appointed by school board and ratified by

State board of education. Two members suggested for each separate

vocation taught. 8. State reimburses local communities maintaining regular day, part-time, and

evening vocational schools and classes to the extent of (a) one-half of net cost first teacher, not to exceed $1,000; (6) one-third of salary of all additional teachers. Provision is made for a pro rata distribution of part-time teachers in evening, part-time, or other schools.

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