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this country. English practice teaches us that the purpose of grants must be definite. The need for help in a community should be an actual need, grants should be fairly distributed, the amounts should be based on actual community expense, and they are to be granted only upon the maintenance of fixed standards of school efficiency and cooperation between the State and the school.

Şidney Webb, the best-known English writer on this subject, in his book, “Grants in Aid,” tersely states some of the principles developed from English experience in the form of reasons for grants by the English Government to local districts as follows:

It has accordingly become an axiom of political science that, with our English administrative machinery, grants in aid of local governments are indispensable.

1. For an equitable mitigation of the inequalities of burden.

2. To secure effective authority for the necessary supervision and control of the National Government.

3. To encourage the kind of expenditure most desirable in the interest of the community as a whole.

4. To make it possible to attain to anything like a universal enforcement of the “National minimum" that Parliament has prescribed.

These reasons the English people have come to accept as the result of nearly a century of experience, and it is by far the best statement of principles and reasons for granting national aid which has come to our attention in the preparation of this report.

II. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SUPPORTED BY PRIVATE PHILAN

THROPY AND CORPORATIONS.

Private philanthropy has its definite place in American life; that place is to do new things which need to be done, to blaze the trail, pioneer the way, and prove the need. The private school can always experiment, but can rarely consummate on, a large scale. Schools carried on under public auspices can consummate, but can not generally experiment as satisfactorily. Vocational education, therefore, carried on by private funds should look to turning over to the public school the work and methods which it has proved worth while, and make these benefits available for larger groups. As a general thing, gifts to such work should have regard to the final outcome of their benefaction, which should be that of encouraging and stimulating the public to act on a wider and larger scale with public funds when the worth of that work has been proved. It is against good public principle to appropriate public money to private institutions in the control of which the public has no voice.

This division includes schools conducted by individuals, corporations, and institutions, some of which are of a permanent nature, to do the work which the public schools have failed to do or can not well do, especially in the case of older youth and young men

and women, and in the East much more than in the West. Typical examples are the North Bennet Street Industrial School and the Wentworth Institute, in Boston, and the apprenticeship school carried on by the General Electric Co., at West Lynn. Such schools set standards for the public vocational schools, and in a measure round out the system of industrial education. If they were conducted by the State and free to the people of the State, as in the West, they would reach thousands who can not now afford the expense of attendance.

Nor is there lacking evidence that such schools can be taken over by the municipal authorities and carried on successfully. There are already notable examples where this thing has been done; among others may be mentioned particularly the Boston Trade School, which was formerly carried on under private auspices, as was the Manhattan Trade School in New York, and the Milwaukee Trade School in Milwaukee, Wis.

III. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SUPPORTED BY JOINT AGREEMENT

BETWEEN EMPLOYERS' ASSOCIATIONS AND LABOR UNIONS.

Formerly master and workman felt and discharged a common duty and responsibility for the training of workers, in order that the integrity of the craft might be preserved. Modern industry shows a decided tendency to throw the entire burden of expense and trouble of every kind on the schools. Part of this is, of course, due to the fact that the schools have not yet been able to present to modern industry a program of cooperation in vocational education which promises to be put into widespread use. It is certain that the school men can not solve this problem themselves. They must have the close and intimate help of employers and employees in the trades and other occupations dealing with the question. With the school authorities as a third party, an increasing number of employers and trade-unions will undoubtedly be willing to confer together upon ways and means by which they can aid the schools in the training of workers.

Matters which ultimately and vitally concern both the employer and employee are being dealt with by means of joint agreements, known in some industries as protocols. It has come to be recognized that in many industries, as in the case of the garment trades, the training of the worker should be as much a matter of trade agreement as hours of labor or scales of wages. Under the protocol a growing number of employers' and employees' organizations are finding themselves willing to recognize educational training and to go to the trouble to so organize the work as to offer their young workers time away from their employment for such training. Under such private arrangements the vocations themselves must bear either all or a part of the cost. Shops must offer the opportunity for the shop training, leaving the schools to give related instruction; or, in many cases, shops and factories and commercial houses must provide facilities for classroom instruction under the roof of the plant. Some great industries, like the garment trade, draw together large numbers of workers in the unions having large resources. Employers and unions should be led wherever possible to undertake, to a large extent at least, the joint burden of responsibility concerning their own workers. The financing of such schemes should be in part by the workers and in part by the employers, and if in cooperation with the public schools, in part by the public, subject, of course, to such control and approval as is consistent with the expenditure of public money for educational purposes.

The population and industrial nature of a community determine the problem of local taxation for the support of industrial education, as has already been indicated; but State aid or National aid should be available to all communities, large and small, alike, upon the basis at present of local expenditure in proportion to the contribution which the community itself makes and the meeting of certain standards and conditions.

To recapitulate certain financial sources briefly, it may be said

1. That some progress can be made in vocational education by saving effected by reorganization and readjustment in the present plan for education in the community, this to include a segregated budget of school expenditures. The relief afforded by this method will not be sufficient and will not greatly affect the general question. Nevertheless it is one of the methods by which waste may be avoided and the support of the public secured.

2. That in some instances increased taxation of the local community may be resorted to, but that the burdens thus placed upon the various communities will be onerous and unequal.

3. That the problem is State wide and even of national proportions. State aid for communities of varying needs and abilities, and national aid for States of varying economic conditions, are absolutely necessary for any large and lasting solution of the problem. Industrial and educational experience in this country and abroad justifies this point of view. This is the only nation-wide solution.

4. That much may be done by private philanthropy in experimenting, pioneering, and setting of standards.

5. That large communities may settle the question for large industries by educational, industrial, and trade-union cooperation and agreements.

The considerations which have arisen in discussing this problem of finance, as well as the considerations which have arisen in the other chapters of this book concerning the work of vocational education in general, force upon us the conclusion that vocational education is bound up indissolubly with many other vital problems. Among these may be mentioned those which have to do with the efficiency of the workers on the one hand, and with the state of public opinion and the willingness of the public to sacrifice on the other; with the prosperity of the community and the State, as well as with the taxing resources of the community; with the general allotment of funds not only for general education, but for the other needs of the community; and with the methods of taxation in operation in a given State. These problems are all, to a greater or less extent, further complicated by the question of cooperation between worker and employer, by the traditions and methods in use in the great field of education, and by the general progress of industry.

From the fact that these problems are so intricate and subject to such sudden and unexpected changes, it is almost impracticable to suggest methods and plans for financing vocational education which shall meet all of the varying needs of the widely scattered communities in which it may be desired to introduce types of education to serve specific ends.

Chapter IX.

PROBLEMS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION.

Vocational education in schools is of comparatively modern development, especially in other than professional fields. Hence, administrators still encounter a large number of unsolved problems. Furthermore, all education is still in prescientific stages of development; and in proportion as efforts are made to reach scientific stages, new problems are revealed in the fields of liberal or general education, which also affect vocational education. The object of this section is chiefly to attempt to analyze and give definite statement to some of these problems.

It is believed that every attempt looking to clearer analysis and definition of the problems of vocational education will hasten the day of experimental and other systematic attempts at the solution of these problems. This process of analysis and definition should be steadfastly opposed to the thinking in terms of “omnibus” generalizations that is so commonly characteristic of addresses and published articles dealing with the purposes and methods of vocational education. Definition, systematic organization of experience, experiment, measurement of results—these are some of the means by which education may be expected gradually to take its place among the departments of applied science.

I. THE RELATION OF GENERAL, OR LIBERAL, TO VOCATIONAL

EDUCATION.

Problem 1. To what extent do studies designed for liberal education " function "1 as to their content in various fields of vocational training ?

For example, do Latin, ancient history, and algebra “function” at all in the training of the physician for his vocation? Do mechanical drawing and science“ function "in the making of the bookkeeper? Does the study of music and art make any recognizable contribution toward the efficiency, on the vocational side, of the machinist, the farmer, or the cook?

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1 The word " function is used here in the sense that means and methods as adopted lead to results as intended. Studies, as well as methods of instruction, are means to ends; they “ function " when the ends are realized as intended.

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