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CHAP. mingled with those of Austria and Prussia, were to

give to the world an example of brotherly love, 1820-48. failed completely. It was in March of this year Emperor (1835) that the Emperor Francis died, the last

Hapsburg who had borne the German Crown.

Francis.

CHAPTER II.

Meetings in Baden-The Vor Parlament—Dissolution of the Diet

Revolts in Baden-Plans for a New Constitution—Election of
Emperor-Refusal of King of Prussia to accept Imperial Crown-
Appointment of Particularist Ministry—Resignation of Members of
Parliament—Three King's Alliance-Meeting of the Old Diet-
Results of the Revolution of 1848.

11.

THE July revolution of 1830 passed by, as has been CHAP. said, almost without notice; but in 1848 the longrepressed bitterness and discontent found expression. The first symptoms of the coming revolution in Meetines. Germany were visible in Baden, where meetings were held with a view of altering the present Constitution. The demands which were then made, and which were afterwards accepted as the Liberal programme throughout Germany, were as follows: A German parliament, elected by and from among the whole male population ; trial by jury; freedom of the press; arming of the people; equality of all religions; abolition of feudal burdens. The Diet at the first rumbling of the storm lost its head completely, and made concession after concession. The smaller States immediately followed its example, and granted all these demands, with the exception of that for a German parliament, which was beyond their

Meeting powers. The leaders of the revolutionary move- and proment, Itystein, Gagern, Struve, and others, met and revolution

gramme of

ary leaders.

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Diet's con

cessions.

CHAP. formed a commission to prepare the way for a

*- national representation. A preliminary parliament 1848.

(Vor Parlament) was to be called together, formed of members elected from the Assemblies of the different States, to debate upon the best mode of obtaining a National Diet. The Diet endeavoured to anticipate the demands of the people by declaring every German State to be at liberty to abolish the censure; by calling upon the several Governments to depute delegates for a revision of the Constitution on a more national basis; and finally by decreeing elections for a German parliament. All these resolutions merely showed the weakness of the Diet, as the leaders of the new movement steadily pursued their course, and showed themselves perfectly in

different to the proceedings of that body. Concessions The disturbances which took place simultan

eously at Berlin and Vienna forced the Governments of both countries to make the desired concessions, and they attempted to conciliate the popular mind by taking the chief reformers into their ministries. While, however, the Government of Austria limited their concessions to matters of internal government, the King of Prussia went a step farther, and on March 18, after abolishing the censure and promising to call the Landstag together, he declared himself ready to replace the Confederation by a Federal State. This statement created considerable dissatisfaction and distrust at Vienna and other capitals; it appeared as if Prussia were taking advantage of

of Austria and Prussia.

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II.

constitu

reform.

the disturbed state of Germany to further her own CHAP. projects and ambition.

The Vor Parlament' met in Frankfort on March 31, in the Church of St. Paul.

Meeting of The several States the Vor

Parlawere most unequally represented. Prussia, for ex- ment." ample, sent one hundred and forty-one deputies, Austria two, and Hesse Darmstadt eighty-four. The majority were inclined to constitutional monarchical principles, but there was a large and active minority who desired to see a constitution framed on the model of that of the United States of America, introduced into Germany. It was determined that Plan for the Constitution of Germany should consist in a tionaltu chief of the Empire, assisted by a diet composed of a senate and a representative assembly. All the demands made at Baden were ratified, and it was decided that the future Constitution of the Empire should be settled by the National Assembly about to be elected, without reference to the several Governments. This was placing all power in the hands of the democratic party. The advanced party, led by Hecker and Struve, attempted to have the German Republic declared, and then the permanency of the · Vor Parlament' voted, but in vain. It was now Separation that the extreme party separated itself entirely from party from Gagern and the moderate reformers, and proceeded reformers. to acts of overt rebellion, which took some time to suppress. No greater mistake could be made than to suppose that the majority, either in the · Vor Parlament,' or in the Assembly which it called into life,

er

of extreme

moderate

II.

for a Gerinan

CHAP. were in any way imbued with republican principles.

A committee of fifty was appointed to watch over 1848.

the affairs of the Confederation till the meeting of the new Parliament, and the · Vor Parlament' then

dissolved itself. Meeting of · The delegates from each State, to the number of delegates summoned seventeen, which the Diet had summoned to prepare by Diet.

a new Constitution, had in the meanwhile met. But the Diet had practically ceased to live. It lingered on for a few months longer, but on the acceptance

of the office of Administrator of Germany by the Dissolution Archduke John, it resigned its phantom power into of Diet.

his hands, and died unregretted. Elections The elections for the new Parliament were now

proceeded with, and were aided by the several Parliament.

Governments. The terrible warning these latter had received from the great events in Vienna, Berlin, and elsewhere had convinced them that the only means of salvation was concession. The electoral machinery was simple. One deputy was to be

elected to every 50,000 souls by direct votes. Meeting of On May 18, the new Parliament, consisting of

three hundred and thirty members, met at Frankfort in the Paul's Kirche, and Herr v. Gagern was elected President. The democrats formed but a small party in this Parliament. Till the Parliament had decided on the prince whom they would select for the head of the empire, it was necessary to appoint a

provisional holder of the office, and after an eight se days' debate the post was offered to Archduke John

German Parliament.

Archduke
John an-

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