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would be apt to conclude it was made for our pleafure. The sun, which is as the great soul of the universe, and produces all the necessaries of life, has a particular in Auence in chearing the mind of man, and making the heart glad.
Those several living creatures which are made for our service or suítenance, at the same time either fill the woods with their music, furnish us with game, or raise pleasing ideas in us by the delightfulness of their appearance." Fountains, lakes, and rivers, are as refrelhing to the imagination, as to the soil through which they pass.
There are writers of great distinction, who have made it an argument for Providence, that the whole earth is covered with green, rather than with any other colour, as being such a right mixture of light and shade, that it comforts and strengthens the eye instead of weakning or grieving it. For this reason, several painters have a green cloth hanging near them, to ease the eye upon, after too great an application to their colouring. A famous modern philosopher accounts for it in the following manner: all colours that are more luminous, overpower and diffipate the animal spirits which are employed in fight; on the contrary, those that are more obscure do not give the animal spirits a sufficient exercise; whereas, the rays that produce in us the idea of green, fall upon the eye in such a due proportion, that they give the animal spirits their proper play, and, by keeping up the struggle in a juft balance, excite a very pleasing and agreeable sensation. Let the cause be what it will, the effect is certain; for which. reason, the poets ascribe to this particular colour the epithet of chearful.
To consider further this double end in the works of nature, and how they are, at the same time, both; useful and entertaining, we find that the most important parts in the vegetable world are those which are the most beautiful. These are the feeds by which the several races of plants are propagated and continued, and which are always lodgedin flowers or blossoms,
Nature seems to hide her principal design, and to be industrious in making the earth gay and delightful, while she is carrying on her great work, and intent upon her own preservation. The husbandman, after the same manner, is employed in laying out the whole country into a kind of garden or landskip, and making every thing smile about him, whilst, in reality, he thinks of nothing but of the harvest, and increase which is to arise from it.
We may further observe how Providence has taken care to keep up this chearfulness in the mind of man, by having formed it after such a manner, as to make it capable of conceiving delight from feveral objects which seem to have very little use in them; as from the wildness of rocks and deserts, and the like grotesque parts of nature. Those who are versed in philosophy may ftill carry this consideration higher by observing, that, if matter had appeared to us endowed only with those real qualities which it actually possesses, it would have made but a very joyless and uncomfortable figure ; and why has Providence given it a power of producing in us such imaginary qualities, as tastes and colours, founds and smells, heat and cold, but that man, while he is conversant in the lower stations of nature, might have his mind cheared and delighted with agreeable sensations? In short, the whole universe is a kind of theatre filled with objects that either raise in us pleasure, amusement, or admiration.
The reader's own thoughts will suggest to him the viciffitude of day and night, the change of seasons, with all that variety of scenes, which diversify the face of nature, and fill the mind with a perpetual succeffion of beautiful and pleasing images.
I shall not here mention the several entertainments of art, with the pleasures of friendship, books, conversation, and other accidental diversions of life, be. cause I would only take notice of such incitements to a chearful temper, as offer themselves to perfuns of all ranks and conditions, and which may sufficiently thew us, that Providence did not defign this world should be
filled with murmurs and repinings, or that the heart of man should be involved in gloom and melancholy. : I the more inculcate this chearfulness of temper, as it is a virtue in which our countrymen are observed to be more deficient than any other nation. Melancholy is a kind of demon that haunts our island, and often conveys herself to us in an easterly wind. A celebrated French novelist, in oppofition to those who begin their somances with a flowery season of the year, enters on his story thus : In the gloomy month of November, when the people of England hang and drorun themselves, a difconfolate lover walked out into the fields,. &c. : Every one ought to fence against the temper of his climate or conftitution, and frequently to indulge in: himself those considerations which may give him a serenity of mind, and enable him to bear up chearfully against those little evils and misfortunes which are common to human nature, and which, by a right improve.ment of them, will produce a saciety of joy, and an uninterrupted happiness....
At the same time that I would engage my.reader to consider the world in its most agreeable lights, I muit own there are many evils which naturally spring up, amidst the entertainments that are provided for us ; but these, if rightly considered, should be far from overcasting the mind with forrow, or destroying that chearfulness of temper which I have been recommend.. ing. This interspersion of evil with good, and pain with pleasure, in the works of nature, is very truly ascribed by Mr. Locke in his Essay upon Human Unders standing, to a moral reason, in the following words :
Beyond all this, we may find another reason why God hath scattered up and down several degrees of pleasure and pain, in all the things that environ and affect us, and blended. them together, in almost all that our thoughts and senses have to do with; that we finding imperfection, disatisfaction, and want of compleat happiness in all : The enjoyments which the creatures can afford us, might be led to seek it in the enjoyment of him, with whoin there is fulness of joy, and at whose right hand are pleasures for evermore.
On Cruelty to Brutes, with an Elegy on a Black-bird.
[Advent. No. 37.)
T Hough it be generally allowed, that to comT m unicate happiness is the characteristic of virtue, yet this happiness is seldom considered as extend. ing beyond our own species ; and no man is thought to become vicious, by facrificing the life of an animal to the pleasure of hitting a mark. It is, however, certain, that by this act more happiness is destroyed than produced; except it be supposed, that happiness should be estimated, not in proportion to its degree only, but to the rank of the being by whom it is enjoyed : but this is a supposition, which perhaps cannot easily be supported. Reason, from which alone man derives his superiority, should, in the present question, be confidered only as SensIBILITY: a blow produces more pain to a man, than to a brute ; because to a man it is aggravated by a sense of indignity, and is felt as often as it is remembered ; in the brute it produces only corporal pain, which in a short time ceases for ever. But it may be justly asserted, that the same degree of pain in both subjects, is in the same degree an evil; and that it cannot be wantonly inflicted, with. out equal violation of right. Neither does it follow from the contrary positions, that man should abstain from animal food; for by him that kills merely to eat, life is sacrificed only to life ; and if man had lived upon fruits and herbs, the greater part of those ani. mals which die to furnish his table, would never have
ved ; instead of increasing the breed as a pledge of plenty, he would have been compelled to destroy them to prevent a famine.
There is great difference between killing for food, and for sport. To take pleasure in that by which pain is inflicted, if it is not vicious, is dangerous; and every practice which, if not criminal in itself, yet wears out the sympathizing sensibility of a tender mind, must render human nature proportionably less fit for society. In my pursuit of this train of thought, I considered the inequality with which happinels appears to be distributed among the brute creation, as different animals are in a different degree exposed to the capricious cruelty of mankind; and in the fervor of my imagination, I began to think it posible that they might participate in a future retribution ; especially, as mere matter and motion approach no nearer to sensibility, than to thought: and he, who will not venture to deny that brutes have sensibility, should not hastily pronounce, that they have only a material existence. While my mind was thus bufied, the evening stole imperceptibly away; and at length morning succeeded to midnight : my attention was remitted by degrees, and I fell asleep in my chair.
Though the labours of memory and judgment were now, at an end, yet fancy was still busy: by this roving wanton I was conducted through a dark avenue; which, after many windings, terminated in a place which she told me was the elysium of birds and beasts. Here I beheld a great variety of animals, whom I pera ceived to be endowed with reason and speech : this prodigy, however, did not raise astonishment, but curiosity. I was impatient to learn, what were the topics of discourse in such an assembly; and hoped to gain a valuable addition to my remarks upon human life. For this purpose I approached a HORSE and an Ass, who seemed to be engaged in serious converfation ; but I approached with great caution and hu. mility : for I now considered them as in a state superior to mortality; and I feared to incur the contempt and indignation, which naturally rise at the sight of a tyrant who is diverted of his power. My caution was, however, unnecessary, for they seemed wholly to disregard me; and by degrees I came near enough to overhear them. ...
“ If I had perished,” said the Ass, “ when I was “ dismified from the earth, I think I should have been “ a loser by my existence ; for during my whole life, “ there was scarce an interval of an hour, in which I