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of his death at Rhodes; and all the Arabs to whom I had spoken of it, only replied with the flashing glance of pleasure, "Allah Akbar," God is great. The Turks uniformly seemed pleased at the accession of a pious, bigoted Mussulman like Abbas, as the Arabs were glad to be rid of the tyranny of Ibrahim. Abbas was on his way to Mecca. Mohammed Ali merely replied, on hearing of the death of Ibrahim, that it was sad a father should live to see the day that he could not regret the death of his own son. Nearly four months after this, Abbas Pacha returned from Constantinople, where he had been to visit the Sultan, on receiving the hatti scheriff investing him with the Pachalik; which was read soon after his accession, in the citadel.
On his visit to the Sultan, his Mussulman character gained him the title of Vizier (or Mushir, the highest, next the Sultan) and Pacha of Nubia; and his return, in February, was celebrated by illuminations throughout Cairo for three days. The English policy was much gratified by this, as they wished to reduce Egypt to a mere province, to weaken French influence there; and thus it has lost the progressive independence of government that Mohammed Ali had given it. The English consul-general, Hon. Charles Augustus Murray, has availed himself of the weakness of Abbas Pacha's habits and government, to gain free passage for armed English troops to India, and many other important advantages; while the Egyptian fleet transferred to the Sultan, and the strong measures of Admiral Parker against the aggression of Russia in the prohibited Bosphorus, has aided England's design of increasing the power of the Porte, and augmented, also, her own influence in Egypt. Whether the establishment of our own lately appointed consul-general there, Mr. Macauley, who, from his long residence in Barbary, is fully acquainted with Turkish manners, language, and diplomacy, may lessen the encroachments of English influence, is a matter that belongs alone to diplomatists. Soon after his arrival there, in the United States frigate "Constitution," the assault of one of the Arab soldiers on the person of a passed midshipman, who commanded one of the boats' crews of men ashore, called for Mr. Macauley's interference, and he was prompt enough to treat the dissimulating procrastination of the government relative to the punishment of the soldier, with the threat that he would haul down his consular flag, if an answer were not given by sunrise. Such decision, and his course with the Bashaw of Tripoli, will doubtless make his representation of our country valuable.
I rode to Ghizeh, and over the plain to the pyramids. Dragged to the summit, like thousands of others, I stood on Cheops' pyramid, where Diodorus had once stood. I could not find the name of Herodotus; but that of my hotel-keeper was boldly chiselled, and so was "Day and Martin's blacking." An Arab offered to go up the Cephrenes pyramid for a shilling, then for a sixpence. I was awed before the Sphinx; for, mutilated as it is, there is something in that expression alike Caucasian and great. I read the records of the fourth dynasty in the chambers; and found Scripture proofs clear in the records of the tombs on the Libyan chain, stretching through the whole Necropolis to the Saccara and Dashoor pyramids, with its cut mummy-pits. All this, is it not written fully in the three huge volumes of Colonel Vyse?
And Memphis—that desolate plain! One can find interest here, although the temple of Vulcan, the site of which is spoken of by antiquarians as the square where, according to Herodotus, the bull Apis was kept, is gone. But the great object of interest is the Acherusian lake, which gave to the Grecians and Romans the mythology which the latter cherished in Campania. Over this, in the sacred boats, so they fabled, the souls of the dead heroes were carried. The dark groves upon its banks, the jutting points, and the setting sun over the shades, made it peculiarly picturesque. 1 had been over the scene of the mythologies of the ^Jneid from the grotto of the Sibyl to the Lake Avernus and Elysian Fields, and had explored Greece. How pleasant to trace here the source of these superstitions!
As for the statue of Remeses the Great, and his son and daughter, I have seen the copy in the British Museum, and it is far more impressive than the original here lying in the mud.
The site of Memphis has received its best consideration in the pages of Mr. St. John, Dr. Richardson, Conder, and Shaw —and the confusion on the subject is well accounted for by Gibbon, on the supposition that it extended numbers of miles. But how unsatisfactory the exploration from Ghizeh to Mitraheny! The fallen colossal statue alone, which is so perfectly revived in the cast in the British Museum, is all. And yet how much is here! Was it not the first founded city by the immediate descendants of Noah? That it was the oldest, the decay of its monuments attest, while Thebes remains. Allowing even the superiority of the climate of the Said for the preservation of temples and sculptures, how could the granite of Syene have disappeared so entirely were it not a ruined city, after the decay of the latter Pharaonic dynasty? How full of deep interest is this spot! The scene of the Mosaico-Egyptian history, the site of a city that, from the rule of Menes over this locality to that of Abbas Pacha, has seen a greater number of successions, preserved a greater permanence of locality for civilization, than any spot in the world. Rome and Athens are but of yesterday in comparison with Memphis. When I stood on the tomb of Cecrops in the Acropolis, I was awed by the antiquity of the pioneer of Egyptian emigration to Greece; it was from Memphis that he went forth. Jerusalem was founded earlier still. Babylon, its nearer contemporary, is a howling desert: and Nineveh furnishes few wrecks of Assyrian sway; but old Memphis is here. Standing on the roof of your sojourning house in the place, Esbekiah, you may turn from glittering Turkish-Arab-JewishCoptic-Cairo of to-day, to the Citadel, and bring up the Mameluke-Turcoman-Saracen-Caliph-governing-Cairo of yesterday; live over the histories of Masr-el-Atikeh and Masr-elKebyr,—new Cairo and old Cairo;—turn to the tombs of the Caliphs, and the thousand mosques and monuments of that era; and then to the Coptic churches, and the memorials of Christian patriarchal sway in the distance; and then a little north your eyes wander upon Rhoda island and the shores, whose musical palaces of Beys are the sites of the palaces of the Pharaohs of Jewish memory; and then wandering to the pyramids, the sphinxes, the caves, and tombs on the Libyan mountain ridge, with names of kings and records of Egypt to her fourth dynasty; and a little further rest on the plains and mounds, which need yet the labors of a Belzoni or a Vyse— where Menes and Misraim subjects gained the first wealth of this fertile valley of the generous Nile.
Many flatter themselves that Egypt is yet to be more fully unveiled, that there are evidences in the mounds and passages under Memphis which will bring to light more truth. There were those too who believed that deep under yon pyramid of Ghizeh lay concealed the table of emerald on which the thrice great Hermes engraved the secret of alchemy, which was lost before the flood; and that Egypt, through the whole valley of the Nile, was traversed by a subterranean realm, which kings who had that art which gave gold at will, used for their purposes.
Devoting a little time to investigations of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, at Heliopolis; arriving at the conclusions of Hengstenberg; and glancing at the subject of Pithom, the Patumos of Herodotus, which I did without visiting the interesting site of Sais, where Herodotus and Plato found so much, or the modern towns of Mansoura, the rice granaries of Damietta, and rich fertility of the Delta, with its peculiar Levantine characteristics, from Rosetta to Damietta; and having spent some investigation on the fine papyri of Dr. Abbot's museum and literary association, where I enjoyed the advantage of acquaintance with one of the best Coptic scholars living; and having gained much aid from the library of the Egyptian Association, (which, by the beneficence of English noblemen, has become a mine of treasure, under the superintendence of Dr. Lieder, containing all published on the subject, as well as all European facilities,) I engaged my boat, made a contract, employed a dragoman, and prepared for my voyage to the temples of the Nile. My boat was small, its cabin only sufficient for one; but being recommended for speed by an English gentleman, who had just returned from the first cataract in it, I was well satisfied.
Coming down from a visit to the citadel, I was told a fine lion from Dongola was shown here, belonging to Mohammed Ali, and I stopped to take a look at his majesty. We went