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tiques, the twelve satyrs who are introduced at the sheep-shearing festival, are alluded to. Malone.

Sir Thomas Hanmer gave himself much needless concern that Shakspeare should consider Bohemia as a maritime country. He would have us read Bythinia: but our author implicitly copied the novel before him. Dr. Grey, indeed, was apt to believe that Dorastus and Faunia might rather be borrowed from the play; but I have met with a copy of it, which was printed in 1588.-Cervantes ridicules these geographical mistakes, when he makes the princess Micomicona land at Ossuna.-Corporal Trim's king of Bohemia "delighted in navigation, and had never a sea-port in his dominions ;" and my Lord Herbert tells us, that De Luines, the prime minister of France, when he was embassador there, demanded, whether Bohemia was an inland country, or lay "upon -There is a similar mistake in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, relative to that city and Milan. Farmer.

the sea?"

The Winter's Tale may be ranked among the historic plays of Shakspeare, though not one of his numerous criticks and commentators have discovered the drift of it. It was certainly intended (in compliment to Queen Elizabeth) as an indirect apology for her mother, Anne Boleyn. The address of the poet appears no where to more advantage. The subject was too delicate to be exhibited on the stage without a veil; and it was too recent and touched the Queen too nearly, for the bard to have ventured so home an allusion on any other ground than compliment. The unreasonable jealousy of Leontes, and his violent conduct in consequence, form a true portrait of Henry the Eighth, who generally made the law the engine of his boisterous passions. Not only the general plan of the story is most applicable, but several passages are so marked, that they touch the real history nearer than the fable. Hermione on her trial says: for honour,


""Tis a derivative from me to mine,
"And only that I stand for."

This seems to be taken from the very letter of Anne Boleyn to the King before her execution, where she pleads for the infant Princess his daughter. Mamillius, the young Prince, an unnecessary character, dies in his infancy; but it confirms the allusion, as Queen Anne, before Elizabeth, bore a still-born son. But the most striking passage, and which had nothing to do in the tragedy, but as it pictured Elizabeth, is, where Paulina, describing the new-born Princess, and her likeness to her father, says: "She has the very trick of his frown." There is one sentence indeed so applicable, both to Elizabeth and her father, that I should suspect the poet inserted it after her death. Paulina, speaking of the child, tells the King:

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'Tis yours;

"And might we lay the old proverb to your charge,
"So like you, 'tis the worse."-

The Winter's Tale was therefore in reality a second part of Henry the Eighth. Walpole.


Leontes, king of Sicilia:

Mamillius, his son.

Antigonus,Sicilian lords,



Another Sicilian lord.

Rogero, a Sicilian gentleman.

An attendant on the young prince Mamillius.
Officers of a court of judicature.

Polixenes, king of Bohemia:

Florizel, his son.

Archidamus, a Bohemian lord.
A mariner.


An old shepherd, reputed father of Perdita:
Clown, his son.

Servant to the old shepherd.

Autolycus, a rogue.

Time, as Chorus.

Hermione, Queen to Leontes.

Perdita, daughter to Leontes and Hermione.

Paulina, wife to Antigonus.

Two other ladies, attending the queen.

Dorcas, shepherdesses.

Lords, ladies, and attendants; satyrs for a dance; shepherds, shepherdesses, guards, &c.


Sometimes in Sicilia, sometimes in Bohemia.



Sicilia. An Antichamber in Leontes' Palace.


Arch. If you shall chance, Camillo, to visit Bohemia, on the like occasion whereon my services are now on foot, you shall see, as I have said, great difference betwixt our Bohemia, and your Sicilia.

Cam. I think, this coming summer, the king of Sicilia means to pay Bohemia the visitation which he justly owes him.

Arch. Wherein our entertainment shall shame us,1 we will be justified in our loves: for, indeed,

Cam. 'Beseech you,

Arch. Verily, I speak it in the freedom of my knowledge: we cannot with such magnificence-in so rareI know not what to say.- -We will give you sleepy drinks; that your senses, unintelligent of our insufficience, may, though they cannot praise us, as little accuse us. Cam. You pay a great deal too dear, for what's given freely.

Arch. Believe me, I speak as my understanding instructs me, and as mine honesty puts it to utterance.

Cam. Sicilia cannot show himself over-kind to Bohemia. They were trained together in their childhoods; and there rooted betwixt them then such an affection, which cannot choose but branch now. Since their more mature dignities, and royal necessities, made separation

1 — our entertainment &c.] Though we cannot give you equal entertainment, yet the consciousness of our good-will shall justify us. Johnson.


of their society, their encounters, though not personal, have been royally attornied, with interchange of gifts, letters, loving embassies; that they have seemed to be together, though absent; shook hands, as over a vast; and embraced, as it were, from the ends of opposed winds.3 The heavens continue their loves!

Arch. I think, there is not in the world either malice, or matter, to alter it. You have an unspeakable comfort of your young prince Mamillius; it is a gentleman of the greatest promise, that ever came into my note.

Cam. I very well agree with you in the hopes of him: It is a gallant child; one that, indeed physicks the subject, makes old hearts fresh: they, that went on crutches ere he was born, desire yet their life, to see him a


Arch. Would they else be content to die?

Cam. Yes; if there were no other excuse why they should desire to live.

Arch. If the king had no son, they would desire to live on crutches till he had one. [Exeunt.

2 royally attornied,] Nobly supplied by substitution of embassies, &c. Johnson.

3 shook hands, as over a vast; and embraced, as it were, from the ends of opposed winds.] Thus the folio, 1623. The folio, 1632:-over a vast sea. I have since found that Sir T. Hanmer attempted the same correction; though I believe the old reading to be the true one. Vastum was the ancient term for waste uncultivated land. Over a vast, therefore, means at a great and vacant distance from each other. Vast, however, may be used for the sea, as in Pericles, Prince of Tyre:

"Thou God of this great vast, rebuke the surges."


Shakspeare has, more than once, taken his imagery from the prints, with which the books of his time were ornamented. If my memory do not deceive me, he had his eye on a wood cut in Holinshed, while writing the incantation of the weird sisters in Macbeth. There is also an allusion to a print of one of the Henries holding a sword adorned with crowns. In this passage he refers to a device common in the title-pages of old books, of two hands extended from opposite clouds, and joined as in token of friendship over a wide waste of country. Henley.

physicks the subject,] Affords a cordial to the state; has the power of assuaging the sense of misery. Johnson. So, in Macbeth:

“The labour we delight in, physicks pain." Steevens.


The same. A Room of State in the Palace.

CAMILLO, and Attendants.

Pol. Nine changes of the wat❜ry star have been
The shepherd's note, since we have left our throne
Without a burden: time as long again

Would be fill'd up, my brother, with our thanks;
And yet we should, for perpetuity,

Go hence in debt: And therefore, like a cipher,
Yet standing in rich place, I multiply,

With one we-thank-you, many thousands more
That go before it.


Stay your thanks awhile;

And pay them when you part.


Sir, that 's to-morrow.

Mlay there

I am question'd by my fears, of what may chance,
Or breed upon our absence: "That may blow
No sneaping winds at home, to make us say,
This is put forth too"truly!" Besides, I have stay'd carly
To tire your royalty.

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No sneaping winds-] Dr. Warburton calls this nonsense; and Dr. Johnson tells us it is a Gallicism. It happens, however, to be both sense and English. That, for Oh! that—is not uncommon. In an old translation of the famous Alcoran of the Franciscans: "St. Francis observing the holiness of friar Juniper, said to the priors, That I had a wood of such Junipers!” And, in The Two Noble Kinsmen :


In thy rumination,

"That I poor man might eftsoons come between!" And so in other places. This is the construction of the passage in Romeo and Juliet:

"That runaway's eyes may wink!"

Which in other respects Mr. Steevens has rightly interpreted.


sneaping winds —] Nipping winds. So, in Gawin Douglas's Translation of Virgil's Eneid. Prologue of the seuynth Booke: "Scharp soppis of sleit, and of the snyppand snaw."

H. White.

6 This is put forth too truly!] i. e. to make me say, I had too good reason for my fears concerning what might happen in my absence from home. Malone.

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