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cafe infe&ted at the same time; " woman, who had long before eherefore, the child not infected « suffered the small pox, nursed by the mother.

“ 'her husband, under that difDr. Mead afferts, that when a " eale, towards the end of her woman in the small pox suffers an “ pregnancy; and was brought abortion, the fætus is generally " to bed at the due time. The full of the contagion; but that “ child was dead, and covered this. does not happen always. “ all over with variolous puftules." This variery, he says, depends on With respect to the case quoted the state of the mother's puftules from Mauriceau, it has been prove when the child is born; that is, ed by Sir George Baker, Med. whether they are or are not in a 'Transact. vol. ii. p. 275.) that ftate of purulence. Whence he Dr. Mead drew a conclusion from has observed it sometimes to hapo it directly contrary to the author's pen, that on the second day from meaning. The negative opinion the birth, or the third, or any appears evidently to be supported day before the eighth, the disease by that history. caught from the mother news it- Sir George Baker mentions in felf in eruptions on the child. the same paper the case of two when the is infected, it may be mode of recovering people in alked, why does not this happen Russia, who are apparently deoftener? In answer to this we prived of life by the principle may suppose, that this is not so emitted from burning charcoal, or ready a way as when the child is by the incrustation formed upon exposed to catch it after the birth, the insides of the boors huts when as we find too that a difference it thaws. can be produced after birth : viz. People of condition in this inoculation is a much readier way country have double windows co of catching it than what is called their houses in winter ; but the the natural way. It may likewise commoner sort have only single be said, that many women who ones, which is the reason that, are with child, and have the small during a severe frost, there is an pox during pregnancy, do not incrustation formed upon the inrecover; therefore both mother sides of the glass windows. This and child die before the disease seems to be composed of con, can have time to produce crup. denied breath, perspiration, &c, tions upon the child. Finally, in as a number of people live and many of those cases, where the sleep in the same small room, mother recovers, there is some- especially in great cities. This times produced a miscarriage, excrementitious crust is farther ims? which also hinders the infection pregnated with the phlogiston of from taking place in the child. candles, and of the oven with which However, many women go through the chamber is heated. the whole disease, and the child When a thaw fucceeds a hard Mews no marks of the small pox. frost of long duration, and this

Dr. . Mead here relates the pregnant women who were inohistory of a lady of quality, of culated at Hertford. They both which this is the subítance. A had the small pox favourably, and lady, in the seventh' month of her afterwards brought forth their pregnancy, had the confluent children perfectly healthy at the small pox, and on the eleventh usual time. Both these children, at day of the disease brought forth a the age of three years, were inocu. fon, having no signs of the disease lated with effe&t. on his body; and she died on the Sir George Baker likewise menfourteenth day. The infant hav. tions a cafe which fell under the ing lived four days, was seized observation of Dr. Clarke of Ep. with convulsions, and, the small fom. ," A woman towards the pox appearing, died. The doctor “ end of her pregnancy had the infers from hence, that the suppu. " small pox, from which the narration being in fome measure “ rosvly escaped. Five weeks compleated on the eleventh day, " after the crisis she was delivered the mother's diseafe was commu- “ of an healthy female child, who picated then to the fætur, and “ having numerous marks on her made its appearance on the child « kin, was judged by all who after eight days.

“ saw her to have undergone the If there be no abortion, Dr. sc fame distemper before her birth. Mead pronounces, that the chiid " However, at the end of twelve will ever be free from the disease, “ months the had the small pox unless the birth should happen be- “ in a very severe manner. Both fore the maturation of the puftules. “ the mother and child were lately He brings a cale to prove, that “ living at Epsom." the fætus in the womb may be Since then we see that it is infected by the contagion of which very probable, that the small pox the mother does not partake, “ A may be caught from the mother

when

Thus have I stated facts relative plate of ice is converted into wa. to the present subjeci, with some ter, there is a principle let loose, of the best authorities on both which produces all the terrible fides of the quelion; and shall effects upon the human body now leave the reader to form his which the principle emitted from own judgment,

charcoal is so well known to do in this country, where people every day suffer from it. However, the

Rusians constantly lay the blame Dr. Guthrie's Account of the Ruf- uron the oven, when they are

fian Manner of treating Persons affected by the thawing of the affected by the Fumes of burning cruft, as the effects are perfectly Charcoal, and other Effluvia of similar, and they cannot bring ihe fame Nature. From the same. themselves to believe, that the

diffolving of so small a portion of St. Petersburg, O&. 12, 1778. ice can be attended wiih any bad Dear Sir,

consequence, when they daily melt

larger masses without danger: yet T SHALL endeavour to recol- the oven does not at all account

lect, according to your desire, for the complaints brought on ar the particulars of that part of my this period; for, upon examin. furmer letter which related to the ation, they generally find every

thing

thing right there, and fill the feels (or is sensible of nothing: ugar, os hurtful vapour, remain. There is no spasm excited in the ing in the room.

trachea arteria or lungs to roule As the effects of both are simi. him, nor does the breathing, by lar, as I have faid above, and all accounts, seem to be particu. likewise the mode of recovery, Ilarly affected : in short, there is no Thall only give you an account of one symptom of suffocation ; but the operation of the principle emit- towards the end of the catastrophe, ted by burning charcoal, and of a sort of groaning is heard by peothe method of bringing those peo- ple in the next room, which brings ple to life who have been suffocated them sometimes' to the relief of the by it (as I think it is erroneously sufferer. If a person only fits in termed); this will supersede the the room, without intention to necellity of giving the hittory of feep, he is, after some time, seizboth, or rather it will be giving ed with a drowziness and inclina. both at the same time.

tion to vomit. However, this Russian houles are heated by the last symptom seldom affects a Rufmeans of ovens; and the manner fian, it is chiefly foreigners who of heating them is as follows. A are awaked to their dangers by a number of billets of wood are naufea; but the natives, in complaced in the peech or stove, and mon with strangers, perceive a dull allowed to burn till they fall in a pain in their heads, and if they do mass of bright red cinders; then not remove dire&ily, which they the vent above is fhut up and are often too sleepy to do, are soon likewise the door of the peech deprived of their senses and power which opens into the room, in or- of motion, insomuch, that if no der to concentrate the heat ; this person fortuvately discovers them makes the tiles of which the peech within an hour after this worst js composed as hot as you desire, stage, they are irrecoverably loft ; and sufficiently warms the apart. for the Rulians say, that they do ment, but sometimes a servant is not succeed in restoring to life fo negligent as to shut up the peech those who have lain more than an or oven before the wood is fuffi. hour in a state of insensibility. ciently burnt, for the red cinders The recovery is always attempi- . fhould be turned over from time to ed, and often effccted, in this mantime to see that no bit of wood re- ner. They carry the patient immains of a blackish colour, but mediately out of doors, and lay that the whole mass is of a uniform him upon the snow, with nothing glare (as if almost transparent) be- on him but a shirt and linen drawfore the openings are fut, else the ers. His ftomach and temples ugar or vapour is sure to succeed to. are then well rubbed with snow, mismanagement of this fort, and its and cold water, or milk is poured effects are as follows.

down his throat. This friction is If a person lays himself down continued with fresh snow until to feep in the room exposed to the livid hue, which the body had the infuence of this vapour, he when brought out, is changed to falls into so found a Deep that it its natural colour, and life renew. is difficult to awake him, but hc ed; then they cure the violent

head

head-ach which remains by binding bath does when a person remains too on the forehead a cataplasm of black long in it. rye bread and vinegar. . In short, I think it is altogether

In this manner the unfortunate a curious subject, whether you take man is perfectly restored, without into consideration the mode of acblowing up the lungs, as is necessary tion of the principle emitted by in the case of drowned persons ; on burning charcoal, and our phlothe contrary, they begin to play of gisticated crust; or the operation themselves so soon as the surcharge of the snow and cold water. How. of phlogiston makes its escape from ever, I Thall by no means take the body.

upon me to decide, whether the It is well worthy of observation, dangerous symptoms related above how diametricaily opposite the are produced by the air in the modes are of restoring to life, those room bcing so faturated with pblowho are deprived of it by water, gitton as to be unable to take up and those who have lost it by the the proper quantity from the lungs, fumes of charcoal : the one confift. which occasions a surcharge in the ing in the internal and external system, according to your theory, application of heat, and the other or whether so subtle a Auid may in that of cold. It may be al- somehow find its way into the ledged, that the stimulus of the circulation, and thereby arrest the cold produces heat, and the fact vital powers; nor shall I deterseems to be confirmed by the Rufe mine whether the livid hue of the fian method of restoring circulation body when brought out is changed in a frozen limb by means of tric. into a paler colour by the armo. tion with snow. But what is fingu- sphere somehow or other absorbing lar in the case of people apparently and freeing the blood from the deprived of life in the manner colouring principle, as you have treated of is, that the body is much thewn to be the case with blood warmer when brought out of the out of the body; these are curious room than at the instant life is inquiries that I shall leave to your restored, and that they awake cold investigation. I have only endeaand livering. The colour of the voured to collect facts from a numbody is also changed from a livid ber of natives who have met with red to its natural complexion, this accident themselves, or have which, together with some other allisted in restoring others to life. circumstances, would almost lead It is so common a cafe here that it one to fufpect, that they are re- is perfectly familiar to them, and lored to life by the show and cold they never call in medical affitt.. water somehow or other freeing ance. them from the load of phlogiston

I am, &c. with which the system seems to be reflete ; for although the first application of cold water to the hu. From Dr. Duncan's Medical Commen. man body produces heat, yet, if

taries, 1780. often repeated in a very cold at. mosphere, it then cools' instead of T he following directions for continuing to heat, jult as the cold 1 preventing fatal effects from

drinking

drinking large quantities of spi- cuate the poison : or else, zdly, to : rits, have been printed and distri. . dilute it, and thereby weaken its buted at Liverpool. They were action. With a view to the first, drawn up by Dr. Houlfton of that, brif; vomits may be given ;- but, place, in consequence of some me from the want of irritability of the lancholy accidents happening from stomach, thefe often will not act, this cause, where proper allistance unless given early, when they are was not sought for. As such ac- of great service in cases of intoxicidents are but too common, it is 'cation. A dock-porter, who died of importance that the most success., in the Liverpool Infirmary from ful practice in those cases should be this cause, Feb. 28, 1780, goce generally known.

down over night, nearly' 12 grains Many persons are destroyed sud- of emetic tartar diffolved, yet it denly by drinking large quantities of produced little or no effect, though Spirits. Their first effects are sti. he lived till the next day. Purges xulant ; they quicken the cucu- are also proper, but liable, though lation, and occasion much blood in a less degree, to the same obto be thrown upon the head. They jections. Sharp gyfers may be ad. afterwards prove fedative; they ministered, and will produce some bring on stupor ; loss of reason, evacuation, but their operation total; of motion and sensation, al- does not extend far enough. Large most total. Their effects may be slyfters, of water only, or of wapartly owing to their entering, in ter in which purging salts are dis1ome degree, into the circulation, solved, thrown up with some force but depend chiefly, when violent, by á fyringe, might be of more on their action on the nerves of service. the stomach. In consequence, the Oil has been advised to be given, brain is affected, and the rervous to help to evacuate the fpirit, influence suspended if not destroy. or to weaken its action. But ed. All the parts of the body when the inactivity of the ftomach therefore partake of this infenfibi- . is become so great, and the danger lity. As the skin in some cases fo preling, there scems more reamay be burnt even without feel- son to expect success, from largely ing, so the ftomach and intestines diluting chat poison, which we in may be ftimulased confiderably vain attempt to evacuate. When without any effect. The motion intoxication has been produced by of the heart and Jungs is much en- drinking strong liquors, large quanfeebled and interrupted, but con- tities of water, or weak liquids, tinues irregularly till death en. drank are found to lessen it very fues.

considerably. And though the To rescue the person from so power of swallowing be loit, yet dangerous a late is extremely dif- by means of a pipe (as a catheter) ficult. To counresact these effects pafled beyond the glottis, or even by medicine is lels likely, buch as down into the stomach, wcaler the power of. swallowing is lost, night be poured in, in such quan2nd as, probably, little or no ab. tity as was judged sufficient to diforption then takes place. But, lute and carry off the liquor in the we ought to endeavour, if, 10 evo- ftomach. To the water might be

added,

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