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only had been regarded as our na.' could not, at present, resent nor tural friend and ally, but which remedy. She expostulated with the had been even held out as our court of Petersburgh, on the con. Thect anchor, in any case of ne. ftant attention and regard, which cefsity, which might occur in the she had hitherto on every occasion present war. Indeed this evil was shewn to her flag and commerce ; so great and so grievous, chat it the declared a continuance of the mighe well have been considered as same conduct and dispofition, and filling up that measure of calamity, the reminded Russia, of the reci. to which we had been doomed by procal ties of friendship, and the our fatal civil discord. in common interests, by which they

It needs scarcely to be noticed, were mutually bound. chat the courts of France and But although the northern con. Spain, expressed the utmost appro- federacy was too formidable to be bacion of a system so exactly cal. meddled with, the weak ftate of culaced, and immediately suited Holland, with respect both to her to their own views, and which military and marine force, tothey could at a future timę find gether with the particular situation means easily to shake off. They, of that country, and the divisions accordingly, were little less than among the people, who were split loft in astonishment, at the confi- into violent factions, by no means deration of that wisdom, justice, afforded any such operative moliberality of sentiment, and be. tives of condu&. It was accord. nevolence, which had produced ingly determined, by strong mea. ideas fo fimilar to their own. It sures, not only to endeavour to was upon the same principle, of a prevent the republic from acceding liberal and free commerce, and an to the northern confederacy, but unrestrained navigation to all na. likewise thereby to induce that tions, that they had taken part state to afford ihe fuccours ftipu. with the Americans, and were now lated by treaty to England, and expending their blood and treasure which all negociation had hither. in a war with England. As they to failed of obtaining. It was al. did not fully comprehend the new fo, undoubtedly expected, that an system, nor know to what extent appearance of vigorous determi. it was to be carried, they waited nation, along with a warm exprelwith deference, for those further fion of resentment on the subject, regulations or explanations, which would tend much to support and the Empress of the Russias might Irengthen the English party in think proper to communicate ; but Holland and to discourage and were convinced, from the congeni- depress the French ; the latter of ality of sentiments on both lides, which, from various causes and that nothing could happen, in the motives, had increased exceeding. intermediate time, on theirs, which ly in firength and number, during would afford any diffatisfaction to the progress of the American war; her.

a war, which we have formerly The solitary court of London, seen, had been early deprecated was obliged to suppress her indig. and regretted by the friends of pation at an injury, which the England in that country. The

expectaexpectation formed from those Having thus taken a general measures was much disappointed. view of our affairs in Europe, it The Dutch are certainly much will be necessary to look to those hurt and weakened; but their in other parts of the world; and connections with our enemies in the first place, to take a retro. of all descriptions is grown much spect of such matters in America closer, and their alienation from and the West Indies during the year Great Britain much more decided 1779, as did not come within our and hostile.

line in the last volume. Upon these, and other grounds, It appears from various circumafter previous, but ineffectual stances, that the Spanish goverwarning, given by the British nors and commanders in America minifters, both at London and the and the West Indies, had been ac. April 17th.

och Hague, a royal pro- quainted with the intended rup"17" clamation was issued ture between Spain and England, at the former of these places, in long before the declaration prewhich the non-performance of the sented by their minister to the States General, with respect to the court of London, on the 16th of Luccours ftipulated by creaty, be- June, 1779. It would even seem, ing confidered as a dereli&tion of that they were informed of the the alliance so long fubfifting be. precise time, or very near it, at tween both countries, and that which that event would take place : they have thereby placed them. for it is asserted, that war was felves in the condition of a neutral declared in the island of Porto power, bound by no treaty or con. Rico, in a few days after the denection with this kingdom, it is livery of that rescript in London ; therefore held, that upon every and it is certain, that English principle of wisdom and justice, vessels were carried into the Hathey should from henceforward be vannah as prizes, before any inconfidered, as standing only in telligence of that measure could that diftant relation in which they have been possibly received in had placed themselves. It is there. America. Plans were accordingfore declared, that the subjects of ly laid, and preparations made to the United Provinces, are hence- the time, which afforded advanforward to be considered upon the tage in the commencement of hosfame footing with those of other tilities Deutral states, not privileged by But in no instance was the eftreaty; and his majesty suspends fect of this pre-intelligence so provisionally, and cill further or ruinous, as in the loss which it der, all the particular ftipulations occasioned of the British settlerespecting the subjecls of the States ments on the Misfilippi, along General, contained in the several with the capture of the troops treaties now subGifting; and more deftined to their protection. We particularly those contained in have heretofore shewn, that the the marine treaty between Great ferdements in that part of Loui. Britain and the United Provinces, Gana, being yet too weak for a concluded at London, on the Sith particular government, were ans of December, 1674.

nexed to that of West Florida ;


which was, however, too distant stationed for the protection of the to afford any effectual protection. country, did not amount to five hunWe have also seen that in the pre- dred men ; and these had no other ceding year, a party of Americans cover against a superior enemy, but visited that country, and received a newly constructed fort, or more a temporary submission from the properly Field Redoubt, which inhabitants, which they did not they had hastily thrown up, at a stay to maintain. That Ameri- place called Baton Rouge. In this can expedition, and the defenceless place, however, Lieutenant Colo. state of the settlements, which 'it nel Dickson, of the 16th regihad rendered apparent, were uné ment, stood a fiege of nine days; doubtedly the causes, thai some and when the opening of a battery troops had since been sent for their of heavy artillery had rendered protection.

- all farther defence impracticable, Don Bernardo de Galvez, the he obtained conditions very ho. Spanish Governor of Louisiana, nourable to the garrison, and having collected the whole force highly favourable to the inhabit

w of his province at New ants. The troops, from the naAug. 19th,

1941. Orleans, first publicly ture of their situation, were neces1779. declared the indepen- sarily obliged to surrender prisoners deney of America by beat of of war; and it is to be rememdrum, and then set out on this bered, highly to the honour of the expedition. He had previously Spanish governor and commander, concerted his measures so well in Don Bernardo de Galvez, that upfecuring the communications, that on this, as well as upon a later ocMajor General Campbell, who casion of the fame unfortunate nacommanded at Pensacola, did not ture, nothing could exceed the good receive the smallest information of faith with which he observed the the danger of the western part of prescribed conditions, nor the huthe province, or even that hoftility manity and kindness with which he was intended, until the design was treated his prisoners, nearly effected. With similar ada The languid nature of the camdress, and profiting of the security, paign on the side of New York, which prevailed on our side, he had, enabled the Americans, in the be. by surprize and ilratagem, taken a ginning and progress of the auroyal floop of war, which was fta- tumn, to take a heavy vengeance tioned on Lake Pontchartrain, and on the Indians, for the cruelties was equally successful in seizing fe. and enormities which they had so veral vessels on the lakes and rivers, long practised on the frontiers. laden with provisions and necessa- So formidable was this enemy now ries for the British detachment, and grown, through the accesion of one, containing some troops of the itrength and discipline which it de. regiment of Waldeck,

rived from the refugees and white Such lucky circumstances, were adventurers, that a small army, not necessary to insure success to with a train of artillery, under the his enterprize. The whole mili. conduct of General Sullivan, artary force, British and German, filled by some other officers of name, were destined to this ser- known to have taken' any direct vice. The famous confederacy of part against the Americans. They the five or of the six nations, as were accordingly destined to elit has been differently called ; that cape the intended general destrucconfederacy which exhibited the tion. For the principle of this rude outlines of a rcpublic, in the war was extermination; so far as moft hidden derarts of America, that can be carried into execution was the object of the present ex- against an enemy, who seldom can pedition.


be caught or found, except when, Thele nations lying at the backs from motives of advantage, he of the northern and middle colo- chooses to stay, or to reveal himnies, amidst the great lakes, rivers, felf. They were of opinion that and impenetrable forests, which nothing less than driving them separate them from Canada, bad totally and far from their present long been renowned for the cou- poffeffions, could ever afford any rage, fidelity, and conllancy, with permanent prospect of security and which they had adhered to the quiet to their numerous infant English in their wars with the settlements; which they knew, French; and had even afiiled them“ under chele circumstances, would frequently against different na- soon become the great fources of *tions of their own countrymen. wealth and strength to their respecIn the beginning of the present tive states, contest, they had concluded a trea. The Indians marched boldly toty with the Americans, by which wards the frontiers of their coun. they bound themielves to observe a try to meet the invaders. They Atrict neutrality during the progress were headed by Butler, Brandt, of the fruggle, The Americans Guy Johofon, and Macdonald ; faid, that they offered at that time and, besides assembling all their to take up the hatchet against the own tribes and allies, were joined English, but that they had rejected by some hundreds of refugees, or, the offer upon principle; only re. as the Americans call them, Tories. quiring of them to adhere strictly to They possessed themselves of a. the neu'nality.

difficult pass in the woods, beThe power of presents, with twen Chemung and Newtown, in the influence of Sir William John the vicinity of the Teaoga River ; son, and some others who had in where they constructed a strong terest among them, operating upon breall-work, made of large logs, their own natural propensities, of above half a mile in extent ; foon led them to depart from this from whence other works, of less pacific line of conduct, and they strength, reached a mile and a took a distinguished part in that half, to the top of a mountain in cruel and destruclive war, which, their rear, where a second breast. we have more than once seen, was work was formed. carried on against the back setile A warm attack and a ment. The Oneida Indians were defence took place,

Aug. 29th, the only nation of the confede- and was continued for "779. racy, who had adhered to the neu- two hours; in which Sullivan trality; or at leait, who were not found that he had full occafion for VOL. XXIII.


' his

his artillery to make any effectual This expedition was worthy of impression on the breast-work. note, as it discovered a greater The route of the confederates degree of policy, and rather an was accelerated and completed, higher fate of improvement, a-through the movements that were mong those Indian nations, than made by the generals Poor and had been expected, even by those Clinton, for turning their fanks, who had lived near, and almost and thereby cutting off :heir re- in the midst of them. Sullivan treat. The victory was so com- discovered, to his surprize, that no plete, that they never attempted to guides could be procured who make another stand during the sub- knew any thing at all of the counsequent desolation of their coun- try; and that the only means he try.

had of finding his way to the InThis action only opened the dian towns, wcre those which beway to the commencement of Sul- tray a wild beast in his den, the livan's expedition ; and there was track of the inhabitant; which a difficulty still remained, which was a much more difficult clue in was capable of rendering it in a the former case than the latter, as great measure inefective. To ren- the last of an Indian file always der the service in any considerable smooths and covers over with degree effectuai, it was necessary leaves the tracks made by his fel. that the army should be out a lows and himself; fo that it remonth, at least, in a country to- quires much experience, as well tally unknown, and where no fup. 'as patience and industry, to be plies of any fort could be hoped able to develop and trace them. for; but with all Sullivan's in- The degree of culture about the duftry, and the aid of his employ- Indian towns was confiderably ers, the distance, roads, and other higher than could be supposed circumstances, rendered it imprac. from former observations and opitieable to provide provision for nions relative to the customs and more than half the time ; nor, if manners of these people. The there had been more, were pack beauty of their situation, in horses to be found for its convey- many instances, indicating choice ance ; although to lighten the car. and design, together with the riage, the cattle which they were fize, the construction, and the to live upon were driven along neatness of their houses, were the with the army. The spirit of the first great objects of admiration in foldiers, the hearty zeal of the of this new country. Sullivan fays, ficers, with an animating speech in several places, that the houses from their general, removed all were not only large, but elegant ; impedinent to the design: the and frequently mentions their beprorofai of short allowance was ing built of frame-work. The received with the loudert fonts of size of their corn fields excited his approbation; and the ration for wonder, as well as the high de24 hours was fixed, with universal gree of cultivation which they conlent, at half a pound of flour, Thewed. Some idea may be formand as much frelh beef; the re. ed of both, from the quantity of duction going even to the falt. corn the Americans destroyed in

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