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If the object he pursued was ob. The bill being read the second tained, he was indifferent to what time without oppofition, just od hand the benefit was owing But after the minister had anhe contended, that the plans were nounced the plan for his com. effentially different; and the one mission of accounts, Mr. Burke made not to supply, but to coun- moved that it might be committed teraet the other.

for the following day. This was The opposition in general cried opposed, on the ground, that as shame on this maneuvre. They it was necessary all bills, and more said it was unfair and indecent; especially those of great moment, and that if it was not an absolute should be proceeded through with violation of established parliamen- caution and circumspection, so tary rules, according to the dead the usage of parliament was, on letter of recorded precedents, it, that account, againt the fending however, militated entirely against of bills directly from the second their spirit; and that it was to reading to a committee. If this tally subversive of that liberality was the rule in other cases, how of conduct, and propriety of be much more necefiary was it with haviour, which it was so neces- respect to a bill of such magpi. sary and becoming for gentlemen tude, which took in such a vari. to observe, both in that house ety of objects, and in the event and without, in their commerce of which so great a number of inwith each other. The various Itric- dividuals were interested, as the tures passed upon the plan, will ap- present, to proceed with the great. pear in their place.

eit caution; and to afford time Mr. Burke's establishment bill, for fully examining its parts, and having been read the first time on duly considering and weighing its the 23d' of February, the author general and particular consequences, proposed the following Tuesday before it was referred to a com. for the second reading. On this mittee. An amendment was acmuch altercation arole; the mio cordingly moved, by which the nitter charging the minority with following Wednesday was to be precipitating a measure not suffi- substituted, in the place of the enciently considered; they on the suing day. other hand accusing him of an in This was direaly charged on tention of delaying all reformathe other fide to the procrastinat. tion until the supplies were grant- ing views of the minister. It was ed, and then precipitately proro- not to be supposed, they said, guing parliament, without any re- that the whole of the bill was dress to so many grievances. The to be immediately confidered ; ils minister was called on to declare, parts were to be taken and treated whether he would oppose it on the separately; and their number rensecond reading, or let it go to a dered it necessary (if any thing committee. After great apparent serious was intended to be done) irresolution, he declared that he did to lose no time in their proceednot intend to oppose the bill in that ing. The first part to be inretti. stage.

gated in the committee was the fimple question, whether the office those reductions would amount of third secretary of state, other precisely, 'without even the usual wise fecretary of state for the A. exception for errors, to the exact merican colonies, was not an of. fuin which he had supposed or fice altogether useless, aud as such fiated? The idea is too ridicuought to be abolitled ? Surely this lous. It will be more manly and was not a question that required such becoming in the noble lord, at depth of thinking, as that there had once to avow his antipathy to not been already full time for its every species and degree of public confideration.

reform. The language which the minis. The question being put at 12 ter now held with respe& to the o'clock at night, in a very full bill of reform, did not leem much house, Lord Beauchamp's amendto correspond with that he had ment to the motion, for substitu. used at tbe first motion for the ting the words “ Wednesday next," bill. He probably thought he in the place of “to-morrow," had gone too far. He coldly obe was carried upon a division by served, that as the bill consilied of a majority of 35; the numbers a variety of allegations, and was being, for the amendment 230, in fact a farrago of incidents, he to 195, who supported the ori. supposed it would not be thought ginal motion. The parties seemed unreasonable, when it came before willing to make a previous trial the committee, if he should then of their strength in these ques. call for evidence in support of thole tions, before they came to the main facts, on which the propositions points; and the numbers in the were founded, as well as a clear minority, on a mere matter of time, account of the value of the savings was a thing very alarming to mito be made.

niftry, Mr. Burkę treated with ridicule We have already observed, that the idea of the noble lord, in re- the Earl of Pembroke had, for the quiring a kind of proof, which first time, voted in the opposition. from its nature he, at the same This conduct was foon followed time, knew was impoflible to by the removal of that nobleman be given. I allert, said he, that from his office of lord lieutenant of the third secretary of state is use the county of Wilts. So remark, leis, and how am I to prove it able a concurrence of incident, but by the notoriety of the fact ? and coming so close upon that Will the deputy, the clerks, or which related to the Marquis of even the fire-lighter, come to prove Caermarthen, could not but exit? Did the noble lord mean, that cite notice and obiervation beth he was to bring such evidence as within doors and without; and the was neceflary to determine quief. matter was taken up by the Earl tions of private property in a court of Shelburne as an object of parof justice, in order to prove all liamentary enquiry, who accordthose places to be useless which ingly summoned the lords upon the he proposed to abolith? And was occasion. he also to bring similar evidence That nobleman o. March 6th, to prove, that the sayings fron pened the business by

Italing,

stating, that the trouble he had served that the conduct of the given them on that day, was for court with respect to those two purposes that equally concerned noblemen was the more seriously the honour, dignity, and indepen- alarming, as the several laws reladency of parliament, and the pre- tive to the militia, which had been servation and support of the consti- pafled fince the year 17;2, had tution. It was to enquire into the thrown that originally constituti. cause of two noble lords near him onal means of national defence, being dismifled their employments, almost totally into the hands of the to whom no charge of delinquency crown; so that being thus warped could poffibly be made, nor even from the proper nature and defiga was pretended; nor could any of the institution, there was scarcely cause be alsigned but this suggei- any thing left, but the public spition, that one noble lord had de- rit and independency of the lords clared the side he should take on a lieutenants of the counties, to pre. question agitated in that house; vent its becoming a mere state enand the other noble lord had abso- gine of corruption; and its being lutely voted on it. These were the even converted into a machine for only crimes they had committed; the subversion of that constitution and for the exercise of this common which it had been created to pre. freedom, inherent in the constitu. serve. tion, and belonging to every mem. From the militia, the noble earl ber of either house of parliament, passed by an easy transition to the they were disgraced in the face of Hate and government of the army; their country.

a ground, on which his early mi. The noble earl pointed out and litary knowledge and service atenforced, with his ulual Tharpness 'forded no small advantage. He and energy, the supposed dangerous particularly reprobated, with a tendency of this mode of proceed- foldierly vehemence, a regulation ing; more particularly at a time lately adopted in that school of like the present, when, as he war, called occasional rank; this said, every body felt and con- he represented, as being equally fessed that the influence of the scadalous in the practice, ruinous crown was carried to such an ex- to the service in the effect, and treme, as affected every depart- humiliating and degrading to the ment, from the minister to the army in its principle. Nothing, lowest officer of excise. He then he said, could operate so direaly entered into a detail of the rise and and effectually towards breaking power of the lords lieutenants of the heart of a soldier, and dampcounties; and endeavoured to thew, ing all military spirit and ardour. that the powers of that great office Indeed the Duke of Richmond were, from its first institution, in and he seemed to want words fuffi. a very considerable degree inde- ciently to express their detestation pendant of the crown; and that of this novel, and, as they deit was always considered as pre- scribed it, abominable pra&ice. serving a sort of balance, between The whole order of things was the rights of the people and the reversed by it. All rank was power of the prerogative. He ob- trampled upon; all subordination

was

was at an end. The high spirit of spirit from the service, to dissemihonour which characterizes a fol- nate dangerous discontents, jea. dier; the emulation of rank, and lousy, and ill-will throughout the the eagerness for fame, which in. whole army, and to deter our clude his very existence, must all young nobility and gentry of weight perish before it.

and fortune, from following the The noble earl said, that al- natural beat of their genius, in though their frequency, within attempting to serve their country. the knowledge he supposed of all For who would devote his time, his the lords, seemed to render it un. fortune, or his life to a service, necessary to cite any instances of where he saw a clerk from behind the abuse, and that he would ra. his dekk, suddenly raised by minither avoid descending to particu- Aerial caprice, and put over the Jars, yet, that it might not be heads of more than a thousand of. thought he dealt merely in decla. ficers; many of whom were of mation, he would ask, what pre- long and tried service, of establishtensions a Mr. Fullarton had to be ed merit in their profession, and railed at once to the rank of a lieu. had been bred up to the art of war tenant-colonel, and to be appoint from their earliest youth? ed commandant of a regiment? The Earl of Shelburne closed a That gentlemen had never held speech of considerable length, full any rank, nor ever been in the ar- of matter and of energy, with a my before ; he had been clerk to motion to the following purport :the noble lord now present in of. Whereas the Marquis of Carmarfice, when on his late embassy in then was dismissed from his emFrance; where perhaps he might ployment of the lieutenancy of have acquitted himself very well the East Riding of the county of with his pen, but never was ac. York, on the morning of that day quainted with the use of the sword; when his opinion to support with yet this clerk in office, this commis, his vote a motion that was made contrary to all military establish- in the house on the 8th of Februments, contrary to all the spirit of ary last was well known; and the army, was now a lieutenant- whereas the Earl of Pembroke was colonel, and had the superiority likewise dismissed from his lieutein command over Lord Harring. nancy of the county of Wilts, foon ton, a young nobleman of the after he gave his vote on the same molt active and enterprizing spirit, question, which office of lieutewho had fought his way, inch by nant has been at all times imporinch, to command, and whose high tant, but molt peculiarly so under rank and great family connections the present constitution of the miserved him in no other respect, litia. And whereas no cause has than to render his services to his been suggested or coin municated to country the more confpicuous, either of che said noble lords for

Such promotions, it was faid, such dismission, this house therefo contrary to the military rules of fore hath every ground to believe, every other country in Europe, as that the same had reference to their well as of this, was sufficient to conduct in parliament. drive every man of honour and And it was therefore moved, VOL. XXIII.

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that

tyat an humble address be pre. known in England; and he was fented to his majesty, to defire he happy to find that his conduct had will be graciouily pleased to ac-, been such upon all occafions, as quaint this house, whether he has to meet the full approbation of his been advised, and by whom, to county. dismiss the said iwo noble lords, That nobleman, who had served or either of them, from their faid early, long, and with credit in the employments, for their conduct in last war, joined in reprobating, in parliament.

terms of exceeding severity, the · The Marqu's of Carmarthen ob. late promotions, as well as the inferved, that the motion was of such novations in general which were a nature, that he could not in deli. introduced in the government of cacy support it with his vote; but the army. He said, that he dethat he nevertheless heartily ap- tested from his heart the means proved of it, as he hoped it would made use of to obtain rank, conafford the means of enabling him trary to the established rules of ser. to satisfy his enquiring county, as vice; and he affirmed, that the ar. to the cause of his being displaced my in which such things were per. from acting as their lord lieute- mitted, muft either moulder away nant; for he trusted he should now so as to be worth nothing, or else hear from the mouth of some of become a dangerous engine in the the king's confidencial servants, hands of government. the reason of his being dismissed The discretion of the crown in from that office. He flattered him- the appointment and removal of its self, that his removal was not oc- officers, was the principal ground casioned by any abuse of the power of argument taken on the other annexed to his office ; and he was fide in opposition to the motion. happy in finding that he had not That the crown was fully endued given any offence to the people of with this power would not be de. the county of York, either as lieu- nied; and any attempt to circumtenant, or by the vote he had scribe it, must be considered as a given; for he had received several direct and violent entrenchment on letters from many of the most res the royal prerogative. The proSpectable gentlemen in that coun- pored address would, therefore, not ty, containing a full approbation militate less with the priociples of of his conduct in parliament,

right, than with all the rules of The Earl of Pembroke explain propriety, and of respect to his ed the nature of his dismislion, majelty ; nor indeed could the meawhich he attributed entirely to ad- sure be supported upon any better vice; as at that audience, at which ground of precedent, than what he resigned the office of lord of the was drawn from the conduct of the bed-chamber, he had experienced long parliament. A conduct which the same gracious reception from no lord on any side of the house his sovereign which he had ever could with to pursue. been wont to do. He observed, That the power of the crown that his family had been lord lieu- might in some inttances be impru. tenants of the county of Wilts, dently exercised, was allowed. ever since the office had been first Every power, however modified,

or

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