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- according to his style of writ

as "to be justified, pardoned, as righteous." Thus he argues n believed God, “and it was him for righteousness,"-" that koned to Abraham for rightethat he received the sign of a seal," a visible confirmatory, and witnessing mark "of the 3 which he had by faith.” In -e have a similarity so striking.

scarcely fail to explain each oth, sinful men are placed in the righteous men; the instrument, s, is faith ; and the transaction ases also, publicly and sensibly s to Abraham, by the sign of ; as to Abel, by a visible acceptcrifice, and the rejection of that faith, and he expressed that faith of sacrifice he offered. It was that his faith "pleased God;” m as a principle, and by the act led, which act was the offering e to God different from that of

had not this faith, whatever object; and Cain, accordingly, ng an offering to which God had That which vitiated the offering

the want of this faith ; for his s not significant of faith: that ased God," in the case of Abel, ; and he had “respect” to his cause it was the expression of that napon his faith so expressing itself, sed to him “that he was righteorcibly do the words of St. Paul, nenting upon this transaction,

Abel's sacrifice was accepted, its immediate connexion with his y faith he is said to have offered matever it might be, which made ring differ from that of Cain, wheance, or kind, or both, this was of his faith. So evident also is it postle, that Abel was witnessed teous," not with reference to any habit of a religious life,” as some th reference to his faith ; and to s expressing itself by his offering Excellent sacrifice.” en, the faith of Abel had an immeexion with his sacrifice, and both eing accepted as “righteous,”tified, in St. Paul's use of the term, had his faith respect? The parect of the faith of the elders, celeHebrews xi., is to be deduced from mstances mentioned by St. Paul as e of the existence and operation of

principle, and by which it manielf in them. Let us explain this, ascertain the object of Abel's faith the manner of its manifestation,-. acts in which it embodied and renelf conspicuous. n this chapter, is taken in the sense ABI

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E
ved lisribe, the er. Baal-peor, for which God pumshed them breg
spräsed: confession the destruction of twenty-four thousand per.
1992-xicowledg. sons in one day.
min mi of sin is ABIAH, the second son of the prophet
na spinted mode Samuel

, and brother of Joel Samuel having
. de ofered rici. entrusted to his sons the administration of
Lorent type of a better public justice, and admitted them to a share
as the reman," ap- in the government, they behaved so ill, that
niks te stare period

, the people demanded a king, 1 Sam. vai 2.
si tipointed method A. M. 2999.
in the frames, and to ABIATHAR, the son of Abimelech, and
en de brine favour. the tenth High Priest among the Jews, and
le petit ars, " in form fourth in descent from Eli, 2 Sam. viii. 17;
u praza d God
, and in obe. 1 Chron. xviii

. 16. When Saul sent to Nob
stand, oled that sacri. to murder all the priests, Abiathar escaped
ise ajamal a the religi. the massacre, and Aled to David in the wilder-
e do list; abiks Cain, ness. There he continued in the quality of
22 on searances that High Priest ; but Sanl, out of aversion to

kat disdaining Ahimelech, whom he imagined to have be-
rele mode dl manifesting trayed his interests

, transferred the dagnity of
na upearing to his the High Priesthood from Itbomar's family
sorázy a natural fit into that of Eleazar, by conferring this office
o hosty equited upon Zadok. Thus there were, at the same
for baterieiging the time, two High Priests in Israel, Abiarbar
relief God and express with Darid, and Zadok with Seul. In this
ezte ferae Benefactor, state things continued, until the reign of
kad tune good things Solomon, when Abiathar

, being attached to

im

n

ar

sa need to bare been de. the party of Adonijah, was, by Solomon, di.
13 out. In dert, Cain

, the rested of his priesthood, A. M. 2989; and
18 h elite the first fruits the race of Zadok alone performed the func-
a lubrience in the arrogance tions of that office during the reign of Solo-

on.

en man rejecting the mon, to the exclusion of the family of ltha.

was they fell not mar, according to the word of the Lord to

lytecedent revelation to which his faith, as

thus expressed, had respect, and on which

that peculiarity of his offering, which distinis guished it from the offering of Cain, was

founded; a revelation which indicated that he the way in which God would be approached n, acceptably, in solemn worship, was by anich mal sacrifices. Without this, the faith to

which his offering, which was an offering of

the firstlings of his flock, had a special fith, ness and adaptation, could have had no ward; rant in divine authority. But this revelation

in must have included, in order to its being ad the ground of faith, as “the substance of -d, things hoped for,” a promise of a benefit to

be conferred, in which promise Abel might e- confide. But if so, then this promise must

have been connected, not with the worship he of God in general, or performed in any way 8, whatever indifferently, but with his works ship by animal oblations; for it was in this

way that the faith of Abel specially and disto tinctively indicated itself. The antecedent of revelation was, therefore, a promise of a

benefit to be conferred, by means of animal nt sacrifice ; and we are taught what this bened, fit was, by that which was actually received re- by the offerer,—"He obtained witness that ar- he was righteous ;which must be interit, preted in the sense of a declaration of his nd personal justification, and acceptance as righ

teous, by the forgiveness of his sins. The nat reason of Abel's acceptance and of Cain's IC- rejection is hereby made manifest ; the one, of in seeking the divine favour, conformed to ly, his established and appointed method of he being approached by guilty men, and the

other not only neglected this, but profanely ise and presumptuously substituted his own it- inventions. ith

5. It is impossible, then, to allow the ti- sacrifice of Abel, in this instance, to have ed been an act of Faith, without supposing d. that it had respect to a previous revelation, he which agreed with all the parts of that ed sacrificial action by which he expressed his la faith in it. Had Abel's sacrifice been eucha

ristic merely, it would have expressed grati, Ne tude, but not faith; or if faith in the general l's sense of confidence in God that he would nd receive an act of grateful worship, and reward ad

the worshippers, it did not more express faith he than the offering of Cain, who surely believed ed these two points, or he would 'not have le- brought an offering of any kind. The offering

of Abel expressed a faith which Cain had not ; 1," and the doctrinal principles which Abel's nn faith respected were such as his sacrifice be visibly embodied. If it was not an euchala- ristic sacrifice, it was an expiatory one; and, ch in fact, it is only in a sacrifice of this kind, nis that it is possible to see that faith exhibited ud

which Abel had, and Cain had not. If then

we refer to the subsequent sacrifices of expialis tion appointed by Divine authority, and their int explanation in the New Testament, it will be as obvious to what doctrines and principles of

an antecedent revelation the faith of Abel

tenend night.

' He takes Eli, 1 Sam. ï. 30, &c.
*I de camels of Deism, and ABIB, the name of the first Hebrew sacred
sa pot negation of the ordi- month, Erod. xii. 4. This month was after.
ste spirit which, in wards called Nisan; it contained thirty days,

at

It is aligtaand fol- and answered to part of our March and
byggeriet of Christ." April. Abib significa green ears of corn, of

Bladet hart be year of the fresh fruits, according to Jeron's translation,

Exod. xiii. 4, and to the LXX. It was so

or

then thered him to give to "This shall be to you the beginning of

All, the best of Atad, be named because corn, particularly barley, was
nella staze Joseph, bis in ear at that time. It was an early custom
tintas mounted for the to give names to months, from the appear.
Call On this occasion ances of nature; and the custom is still
MAT, & tae command in force among many nations. The year
tely 2 the elders of among the Jews commenced in September,
Kata of Pharaoh, and and consequently their jubilees and other

se of his brethren, civil matters were regulated in this way,
1 Try great com- Lev. xxv. 8-10; but their sacred year began

i, a it has been in Abib. This change took place at the re-
Nepieczkrity and single- demption of Israel from Egypt, Exod. xii. 2,

ily, a whom he bore months." Ravanelli observes, that as this
a vertunty of observing deliverance from Egypt was a figure of the
stedt hamble origin, by redemption of the church of Jesus Christ,
Pitala vyen his father's who died and rose again in this month, it
Land C12, the modest was made the beginning of months," to
vel to the simple burial lead the church to expect the acceptable year

1 ste situate in the month the paschal lamb was taken; and on
2.1,60; mi.49; Joshua the seven succeeding days they celebrated
and Jordan, opposite to the fourteenth they ate the passover. On

mit sed in the neigh- the feast of unleavened bread, on the last of Wales. Mosca encamped which days they held a solemn convocation,

2 ta betore the He. Exod. xii. xi. On the fifteenth they gade Sorian. Here the thered the sheaf of the barley first-fruits, and ta bilakty, and worshipped on the following day presented an offering of

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or which God punished them by
on of twenty-four thousand per.
day.
the second son of the prophet
brother of Joel. Samuel having

his sons the administration of wce, and admitted them to a share niment, they behaved so ill, that lemanded a king, 1 Sam. viii. 2.

AR, the son of Ahimelech, and igh Priest among the Jews, and escent from Eli, 2 Sam. viii. 17; m. 16. When Saul sent to Nob ll the priests, Abiathar escaped e, and fled to David in the wildere he continued in the quality of ; but Saul, out of aversion to whom he imagined to have beterests, transferred the dignity of riesthood from Ithamar's family

Eleazar, by conferring this office K. Thus there were, at the same High Priests in Israel, Abiathar , and Zadok with Saul. In this 3 continued, until the reign of rhen Abiathar, being attached to f Adonijah, was, by Solomon, dinis priesthood, A. M. 2989; and Zadok alone performed the funct office during the reign of Solo

exclusion of the family of Ithaling to the word of the Lord to

ii. 30, &c. ne name of the first Hebrew sacred od. xiii. 4. This month was afterd Nisan; it contained thirty days, red to part of our March and -ib signifies green ears of corn, or , according to Jerom's translation, 4, and to the LXX. It was so ause corn, particularly barley, was mat time. It was an early custom mes to months, from the appearnature; and the custom is still mong many nations. - Jews commenced in September, quently their jubilees and other ers were regulated in this way, 8-10; but their sacred year began This change took place at the reof Israel from Egypt, Exod. xii. 2, all be to you the beginning of

Ravanelli observes, that as this e from Egypt was a figure of the n of the church of Jesus Christ, and rose again in this month, it

the "beginning of months,” to urch to expect the acceptable year ord. On the tenth day of this - paschal lamb was taken; and on eenth they ate the passover. On

succeeding days they celebrated of unleavened bread, on the last of 's they held a solemn convocation, ., xiii. On the fifteenth they gasheaf of the barley first-fruits, and lowing day presented an offering of

The year

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1
or Listrations might always of an infamous and licentious nature.
al sendar, by water

, For this reason, Chrysostom affirns, tha:
AT TId by ren- every idol, and every image of a man, was
o be purified

. called an abomination among the Jews. The Els trepted, might "abomination of desolation," foretold by the aitetu When a prophet Daniel, I. 27, xi. 31, is supposed by le ta to be swept in some interpreters to denote the statue of 2. maried persons Jupiter Olympics, which Antiochus Epiphato press vih rater. Des caused to be erected in the temple of at reg of purification, Jerusalem. The second of the passages abore asen tragh the strets

. cited may probably refer to this circumserta

performed, at stance, as the statue of Jupiter did, in fact, saad tied some cere“ make desolate," by banishing the true worse da party themselves ship of God, and those who performed it,

from the temple. But the former passage, 1422 de Eng Saul, and considered in its whole connexion, bears more -2. After Sun's death, immediate reference to that which the evanand line and for seren gelists have denominated the abomination na shu e del, in oppo- of desolation,” Matt

. xxiv. 15, 16; Mark xii. 229 lis skirmishes 14. This, without doubt, signifies the easigns * The libbesbeth's and of the Roman armies under the command usz och elker

, hard by of Titus, during the last siege of Jerusalem. salasi Jab to select The images of their gods and emperors were

Tea 10 hght with an delineated on these ensigns; and the easigns

om

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20 1. lab consented: the themselves, especially the eagles, which were ou fan together on carried at the heads of the legions, were obskets moned, in which jects of worship; and, according to the usual orang tepe rented. Abner style of scriptare

, they were therefore an son parted by Aabel

, whom abomination. Those ensigns were placed upon sa sikatikispear. Still the ruins of the temple after it was taken and sykdal Abiškai, til he, demolished; and, as Josephus informa uus, se pred with morder, was the Romans sacrificed to them there. The and enter that Joab would horror with which the Jews regarded them

-ht in his youngest son shall he set up the gates

of it,” Joshua vi. 26. Hiel of Bethel, about gh five hundred and thirty-seven years after

this imprecation, having undertaken to rebuild Jericho, whilst he was laying the foun

dation of it, lost his eldest son, Abiram, 2. i Kings xvi. 34 ; and Segub, the youngest, mint when they

set up the gates of it : A remarkable instance of a prophetic denunciation ve fulfilled, perhaps on a person who would not of credit the tradition, or the truth of the pre

diction. So true is the word of the Lord; rs, 60 minutely are the most distant contingenrs, cies foreseen by him; and so exact is the re accomplishment of divine prophecy! ke 2. ABIRAM, the son of Eliab, of the tribe

of Reuben, was one of those who conspired od with Korah and Dathan against Moses in the he wilderness, and was swallowed up alive,

with his companions, by the earth, which in opened to receive them, Num. xvi.

ABISHAG, a young woman, a native of

Shunam, in the tribe of Issachar. David, lly at the age of seventy, finding no warmth in nd his bed, was advised by his physicians to nad procure some young person, who might comin- municate the heat required. To this end

of Abishag was presented to him, who was one all of the most beautiful women in Israel, in- 1 Kings i. 3; and the king made her his ng wife. After his death, Adonijah requested are her in marriage, for which he lost his life;

Solomon perceiving in this a design upon rst the crown also.

Adonijah was his elder ng, brother, an intriguing man, and had aspired son to be king before the death of David, and aa- had had his life spared only upon the conSed dition of his peaceable conduct. By this Ciii. request he convinced Solomon, that he was och still actuated by political views, and this tar brought upon him the punishment of treason, und ABISHAI, the son of Zeruiah, David's the sister, who was one of the most valiant men

of his time, and one of the principal generals.

wonderson of blood, sufficiently appears from the account which 12. , waking it highly into the city, when he sent his army from skan bag him with lewd Cæsarea into winter quarters at Jerusalem,

Josephus gives of Pilate's introducing there

skal al concubine, and of Vitellius's proposing to march through dered pidly transfer the Judea, after he had received orders from

se na ta hands of David. Tiberius to attack Aretas, king of Petra.

a correspondence The people supplicated and remonstrated, error with him at and induced Pilate to remove the army, and

ver

sul si let the feast at Vitellius to march his troops another way, infamous and licentious nature.
ason, Chrysostom affirms, that
and every image of a man, was
mination among the Jews. The
n of desolation,” foretold by the
iel, x. 27, xi. 31, is supposed by
Feters to denote the statue of
npius, which Antiochus Epipha-
o be erected in the temple of
The second of the passages above
-robably refer to this circum-
ne statue of Jupiter did, in fact,
Hate," by banishing the true wor-
, and those who performed it,
nple. But the former passage,

in David's armies. lo- ABLUTION, purification by washing the us. body, either in whole or part.

Ablutions the appear to be almost as ancient as external ela, worship itself. Moses enjoined them; the us, heathens adopted them; and Mahomet and

his followers have continued them : thus zen they have been introduced among most esar

nations, and make a considerable part of of all superstitious religions.—The Egyptian me priests had their diurnal and nocturnal abluame tions; the Grecians, their sprinklings; the ew- Romans, their lustrations and lavations; the ord, Jews, their washings of hands and feet, becle, side their baptisms; the ancient Christians the used ablution before communion, which

the Romish church still retains before the

mass, sometimes after ; the Syrians, Copts, the &c., have their solemn washings on Good city Friday; the Turks, their greater and less -sed ablutions, &c.

up Lustration, among the Romans, was a lay solemn ceremony by which they purified and their cities, fields, armies, or people, after

sted him, when Joab, The Jews applied the above passage of Daniel Da, vrals remonstrated, to the Romans, as we are informed by Jerome. Wir bi sink a a spy. The learned Mr. Mede concurs in the same

bersenger to opinion. Sir Isaac Newton, Obs.on Daniel la further com- ix, xi., observes, that in the sixteenth year a las presence, the latter, accomplished the prediction of Daniel by

bag; od when Abner of the emperor Adrian, B.C.132, the Romans When les Abuer might be building a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus,

pay to revenge his where the temple of God in Jerusalein had Neuern. Dand, to show the conduct of Barchochab, rose up in arms

eraly stabbed him stood. Upon this occasion the Jews, under te the ut, honoured against the Romans, and in the war had flity wel heel and composed cities demolished, nine hundred and eighty.

Tea term was used hundred and eighty thousand men slain by anche, being shep- the sword; and in the end of the war, B.C. la ma abomination 136, they were banished from Judea upon

they sacrificed the pain of death; and thenceforth the land reVallabaksople, as oxen, mained desolate of its old inhabitants. Others klachte gyptians es. again have applied the prediction of Daniel

Ta vard's also applied to the invasion and desolation of Christenhas widelstry and idols, dom by the Mohammedans, and to their lewatir o idols is in conversion of the churches into mosques. kan et likewise be- From this interpretation they infer, that the alinaus were almost religion of Mohammed will prevail in the east

five of their best towns destroyed, and fire

am.

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its whole connexion, bears more
eference to that which the evan-

denominated the “ abomination
2," Matt. xxiv. 15, 16 ; Mark xiii.
thout doubt, signifies the ensigns
an armies under the command
ring the last siege of Jerusalem.
of their gods and emperors were
n these ensigns; and the ensigns
especially the eagles, which were
ne heads of the legions, were ob-
ship; and, according to the usual
ripture, they were therefore an
1. Those ensigns were placed upon
the temple after it was taken and
; and, as Josephus informs us,

sacrificed to them there. The
which the Jews regarded them
zappears from the account which
ves of Pilate's introducing them
y, when he sent his army from
to winter quarters at Jerusalem,
lius's proposing to march through
r he had received orders from

attack Aretas, king of Petra.
= supplicated and remonstrated,

Pilate to remove the army, and
march his troops another way.
pplied the above passage of Daniel
ans, as we are informed by Jerome.
d Mr. Mede concurs in the same
Sir Isaac Newton, Obs. on Daniel
erves, that in the sixteenth year
eror Adrian, B.C. 132, the Romans
ed the prediction of Daniel by

temple to Jupiter Capitolinus,
temple of God in Jerusalem had
pon this occasion the Jews, under
Et of Barchochab, rose up in arms

Romans, and in the war had fifty
blished, nine hundred and eighty-

r best towns destroyed, and five
nd eighty thousand men slain by
; and in the end of the war, B. C.
were banished from Judea upon
ath; and thenceforth the land re-
solate of its old inhabitants. Others
- applied the prediction of Daniel
asion and desolation of Christen-
The Mohammedans, and to their

of the churches into mosques.
interpretation they infer, that the
Mohammed will prevail in the east

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