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and fear) to the throne of heavenly mercy; and immediately cast down again to the earth. Then floods of tears are seen to flow. The knees are bended; or the body prostrated on the ground. The arms are spread in a suppliant posture, and the voice of deprecation is uttered with sighs, groans, timidity, hesitation and trembling.
Courage, steady and cool, opens the countenance, gives the whole form an erect and graceful air. cents are strong, fullmouthed and articulate, the voice firm and even.
Boasting, or affected courage, is loud, blustering; threatening, the eyes stare; the eyebrows drawn down; the face red and bloated; the mouth pouts out; the voice hollow and thundering; the arms are set akimbo; the head often nodding in a menacing manner; and the right fist, clenched, is brandished, from time to time, at the person threatened. The right foot, is often stamped upon the ground, and the legs take such large strides, and the steps are so heavy, that the earth seems to tremble under them.
Pride, assumes a lofty look, bordering upon the aspect and attitude of anger. The eyes open, but with the eyebrows considerably drawn down; the mouth pouting out, mostly shut, and the lips pinched close. The words walk out astrut with a slow, stiff, bombastic affectation of importance. The arms generally akimbo, and the legs at a distance, from one another, taking large tragedy strides.
Obstinacy, adds to the aspect of pride, a dogged sourness, like that of malice. See Malice.
Authority, opens the countenance; but draws down the eyebrows a little, so far as to give the look of gravity. See Gravity.
Commanding, requires an air a little more peremptory, with a look a little severe or stern. The hand is held out, and moved toward the person, to whom the order is given, with the palm upwards, and the head nods toward him.
Forbidding, on the contrary, draws the head backwards and pushes the hand from one with the palm downward, as if going to lay it upon the person, to hold him down immoveable, that he may not do what is forbidden him.
Affirming, especially with a judicial oath, is expressed
by lifting the open right hand, and eyes, toward heaven; or, if conscience is appealed to, by laying the right hand upon the breast.
Denying, is expressed by pushing the open right hand from one; and turning the face the contrary way. See Aversion.
Differing, in sentiment, may be expressed as refusing. See Refusing.
Agreeing in opinion, or conviction, as granting. See Granting.
Exhorting, as by a general at the head of his army, requires a kind, complacent look; unless matter of offence has passed, as neglect of duty, or the like.
Judging, demands a grave, steady look, with deep attention, the countenance altogether clear from any appearance of either disgust or favor. The accents slow, distinct, emphatical, accompanied with little action, and that very grave.
Reproving, puts on a stern aspect, roughens the voice, and is accompanied with gestures not much different from those of threatening, but not so lively.
Acquitting, is performed with a benevolent, tranquil countenance, and tone of voice; the right hand, if not both, open, waved gently toward the person acquitted, expressing dismission. See Dismissing.
Condemning, assumes a severe look, but mixed with pity. The sentence is to be expressed as with reluctance.
Teaching, explaining, inculcating, or giving orders to an inferior, requires an air of superiority to be assumed. The features are to be composed to an authoritative gravity. The eye steady, and open, the eyebrow a little drawn down over it; but not so much as to look surly or dogmatical. The tone of voice varying according as the emphasis requires, of which a good deal is necessary in expressing matter of this sort. The pitch of the voice to be strong and clear; the articulation distinct; the utterance slow, and the manner peremptory. This is the proper manner of pronouncing the commandments in the communion office. But (I am sorry to say it) they are too commonly spoken in the same manner as the prayers, than which nothing can be more unnatural.
Pardoning, differs from acquitting, in that the latter means clearing a person after trial of guilt: whereas the former supposes guilt,and singnifies merely delivering the guilty person from punishment. Pardoning requires some degree of severity of aspect and tone of voice, because the pardoned person is not an object of entire unmixed approbation, otherwise its expression is much the same as granting. See Granting.
Arguing, requires a cool, sedate, attentive aspect, and a clear, slow, emphatical accent, with much demonstration by the hand. It differs from teaching (see Teaching) in that the look of authority is wanting in arguing.
Dismissing, with approbation, is done with a kind aspect and tone of voice; the right hand open, gently waved toward the person; with displeasure, besides the look and tone of voice which suit displeasure, the hand is hastily thrown out toward the person dismissed, the back part toward him, the countenance at the same time turned away from him.
Refusing, when accompanied with displeasure, is expressed nearly in the same way. Without displeasure, it is done with a visible reluctance, which occasions the bringing out the words slowly, with such a shake of the head, and shrug of the shoulders, as is natural upon hearing of somewhat, which gives us concern.
Granting, when done with unreserved good will is accompanied with a benevolent aspect, and tone of voice; the right hand pressed to the left breast, to signify how heartily the favor is granted, and the benefactor's joy in conferring it.
Dependance. See Modesty.
Veneration, or worshipping, comprehends several articles, as ascription, confession, remorse, intercession, thanksgiving, deprecation, petition, &c. Ascription of honor and praise to the peerless supreme Majesty of heaven, and confession and deprecation, are to be uttered with all that humility of looks and gesture, which can exhibit the most profound selfabasement and annihilation, before One, whose superiority is infinite. The head is a little raised, but with the most apparent timidity, and dread; the eye is lifted; but immediately cast down
again or closed for a moment; the eye-brows are drawn down in the most respectful manner; the features, and the whole body and limbs, are all composed to the most profound gravity; one posture continuing, without considerable change, during the whole performance of the duty. The knees bended, or the whole body prostrate, or if the posture be standing, which scpture does not disallow, bending forward, as ready to prostrate itself. The arms spread out but modestly, as high as the breast; the hands open. The tone of the voice will be submissive, timid, equal, trembling, weak, suppliant. The words will be brought out with a visible anxiety and diffidence approaching to hesitation; few and slow; nothing of vain repetition, haranguing, flowers of rhetoric, or affected figures of speech; all sie plicity, humility and lowliness, such as becomes a reptile of the dust, when presuming to address Him, whose greatness is tremendous beyond all created conception. In intercession for our fellow creatures which is prescribed in the scriptures, and in thanksgiving, the countenance will naturally assume a small degree of cheerfulness, beyond what it was clothed with in confession of sin, and deprecation of punishment. But all affected ornament of speech or gesture in devotion, deserves the severest censure, as being somewhat, much worse than absurd.
Respect, for a superior, puts on the looks and gesture of modesty. See Modesty.
Hope, brightens the countenance; arches the eyebrows; gives the eyes an eager, wishful look; opens the mouth to half a smile; bends the body a little forward, the feet equal; spreads the arms, with the hands open, as to receive the object of its longings. The tone of the voice is eager, and unevenly inclining to that of joy; but curbed by a degree of doubt and anxiety. Desire differs from hope as to expression, in this particular, that there is more appearance of doubt and anxiety in the former, than in the latter. For it is one thing to desire what is agreeable, and another to have a prospect of actually obtaining it.
Desire, expresses itself by bending the body forward and stretching the arms toward the object as to grasp it.
The countenance smiling, but eager and wishful; the
Love, (succesful) lights up the countenance into smiles.
Giving, inviting, soliciting, and such like actions, which suppose some degree of affection, real or pretended, are accompanied with much the same looks and gestures as express love; but more moderate.
Wonder, or amazement, (without any other interesting passion, as love, esteem, &c.) opens the eyes, and makes them appear very prominent; sometimes raises them to the skies; but oftener, and more expressively, fixes them on the object; if the cause of the passion be a present and visible object, with the look, all except the wildness, of fear. (See Fear.) If the hands hold any thing, at the time when the object of wonder appears, they immediately let it drop, unconscious; and the whole body fixes in the contracted, stooping posture of amazement; the mouth open; the hands held up open, nearly in the attitude of fear. (See Fear.) The first excess of this passion stops all utterance. But it makes amends afterwards by a copious flow of words and exclamations.
Admiration, a mixed passion, consisting of wonder, with love or esteem, takes away the familiar gesture, and expression of simple love. (See Love.)Keeps the respectful look and attitude. (Sce Modesty and Veneration.)