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tavo volume, written entirely by himself ("in his own rough English," as he calls it) and certainly written in a style out of all comparison superior in expressiveness and vigour, and even we think in purity, to any thing that is to be found among the great majority of our native travellers and journalists. We are happy to observe, by various hints scattered throughout the volume, that its author by no means considers it as the ultimatum of his literary labours, and look forward with pleasure to the prospect of much information and much amusement, from the future productions of his ready and interesting pen.
things, as our Alexandrian has now given us of the comparatively small matters of Algiers.
We regret that Mr Salamé should have published his account in the form he has chosen. He should have been satisfied with a very small and a very cheap 12mo, and then his book would have sold; but since he has thought fit to beat the gold he really has, over so absurd an expanse of surface, and to charge 15s. for what, with all his beating, covers no more than a very puny 8vo. of 390 pages, we suspect few people will think of giving him a place on their shelves. But, however, that is none of our business-or rather, we should thank Mr Salamé for having adopted a course of conduct which cannot fail to add very much to the interest of the copious extracts we mean to borrow from him. Of these (for, to reviewers as well as to poets, there is nothing like rushing in medias res), the first shall be Salame's account of the destruction of the batteries and ships of the Algerines. Our readers recollect that Lord Exmouth sent in a boat with a letter to the Dey, in which he demanded,
1st, The abolition of christian slavery.
2d, The delivery of all christian slaves in the kingdom of Algiers.Besides, the restoration of all the money which had been paid for the redemption of slaves by the Kings of Naples and Sardinia since the commencement of the year.
Mr Salamé had been employed for several months in the English Foreign Office, before the period of Lord Exmouth's expedition, and was selected to accompany our excellent admiral in quality of interpreter. The important duties of this office seem to have been discharged by him in a manner highly creditable to himself, and entirely satisfactory to all his superiors; nor is this any slight praise for those who are acquainted with the circumstances under which the expedition sailed, and with the obstacles thrown in the way of negotiation by the barbarous and obstinate jealousies of the Dey and his officers, will be sensible that a very rare degree of delicacy and management must have been demanded from the person who carried on the business of communication between Lord Exmouth and the Divan of Algiers. Salamé, like a true oriental, has thrown the whole of the negotiations into a dramatic form, and as he has besides given a drawing of the persons engaged in the conferences as they appeared at the time, nothing is wanting to complete our idea of the whole transaction. It is not often now-a-days that ordinary people are permitted to see so much into the minutiae of public affairs; for despatches, military and naval, are in general as monotonous as a drum, and as dry as a sea-biscuit; and among all officers of the modern school, it is looked upon as the most unknow- "Mr Burgess, the flag-lieutenant, having thing in the world to talk over the ing agreed with me, we hoisted the sigincidents of their campaigns. We nal, that no answer had been given ;' wish heartily that Mr Salamé had and began to row away towards the Queen Charlotte. At this time I was very anxious attended the Duke of Wellington to get out of danger; for, knowing their throughout the peninsular war, or perfidious character, and observing that that some person who did so would Lord Exmouth, on his seeing our signal, have the goodness to write as full and immediately gave order to the fleet to bear amusing an account of those mighty up, and every ship to take her position for
Salamé was in the boat which earried the letter, and waited in it for two hours immediately below the batteries, in expectation of the Dey's answer. The signal being given at the expiration of that time, that no answer had been returned, Lord Exmouth immediately brought his whole fleet close under the walls, his own ship, the Queen Charlotte, casting anchor within a hundred yards of the great batteries on the Mole. But we must take up Salamé a little earlier.
the attack, I had great fear that they (the Algerines) would fire on us;-in short, till I reached the Queen Charlotte, I was almost more dead than alive. After I had given my reports to the Admiral, of our meeting with the Captain of the port, and our waiting there, &c. I was quite surprised to see how his Lordship was altered from what I left him in the morning; for I knew that his manner was in general very mild, and now he seemed to me all-fightful, as a fierce lion, which had been chained in its cage, and was set at liberty. With all that, his Lordship's answer to me was, "Never mind, we shall see now;" and at the same time, he turned towards the officers saying, "Be ready:" whereupon I saw every one standing with the match or the string of the lock in his hand, most anxiously waiting for the word "Fire!"
"I remained on the poop with his Lordship, till the Queen Charlotte passed through all the enemy's batteries, without firing a gun. There were many thousand Turks and Moors looking on astonished, to see so large a ship coming all at once inside the mole, without caring for any thing. When we opened over the mole head, I saw, as I thought, a boat coming out, which I supposed was that of the Captain of the Port, and told his Lordship of it; but on looking with a glass, we found the mistake.
During this time, the Queen Charlotte in a most gallant and astonishing manner, took up a position opposite the head of the mole, and we let go the anchor at three quarters past two o'clock, within eighty yards from the mole head batteries: but afterwards, having found that we had not more than two feet water under the bottom of the Queen Charlotte, his Lordship let go the cable for twenty yards more; and so we were within about one hundred yards of the mouths of their guns; when Lord Exmouth took a position in such a masterly style, that not more than four or five guns could bear on us from the mole; though we were exposed to the fire of all their other batteries, and musketry, we gave them three cheers; and the batteries, as well as the walls, being crowded with troops, they jumped on the top of the parapets to look at us, for our broadside was higher than their batteries; and they were quite surprised to see a three-decker, with the rest of the fleet, so close on them. From what I observed of the Captain of the Port's manner, and of their confusion inside of the mole, (though they were making great preparations,) I am quite sure, that even themselves were not aware of what they were about, or what we meant to do; because, according to their judgment, they thought that we should be terrified by their fortifications, and not advance so rapidly and closely to the attack. In proof of this, I must observe, that at this point their guns were not even loaded; and they began to load them after the Queen Charlotte and
almost all the fleet had passed their batteries. At a few minutes before three, the Algerines, from the Eastern battery, fired the first shot at the Impregnable, which, with the Superb and the Albion, was astern of the other ships, to prevent them from coming in; then Lord Exmouth, having seen only the smoke of the gun before the sound reached him, said, with great alacrity, That will do; fire my fine fellows!' and I am sure, that before his Lordship had finished these words, our broadside was given with great cheering, which was fired three times within five or six minutes; and at the same instant the other ships did the same. This first fire was so terrible, that they say more than five hundred persons were killed and wounded by it. And I believe this, because there was a great crowd of people in every part, many of whom, after the first discharge, I saw running away, under the walls, like dogs, walking upon their feet and hands.
"After the attack took place on both sides in this horrible manner, immediately the sky was darkened by the smoke, the sun completely eclipsed, and the horizon became dreary. Being exhausted by the heat of that powerful sun, to which I was exposed the whole day; and my ears being deafened by the roar of the guns, and finding myself in the dreadful danger of such a terrible engagement, in which I had never been before, I was quite at a loss, and like an astonished or stupid man, and did not know myself where I was. At last, his Lordship, having perceived my situation, said You have done your duty, now go below.' Upon which I began to descend from the quarter deck, quite confounded and terrified, and not sure that I should reach the cockpit alive; for it was most tremendous to hear the crashing of the shot, to see the wounded men brought from one part, and the killed from the other; and especially at such a time to be found among the English seamen! and to witness their manners, their activity, their courage, and their cheerfulness during the battle!-it is really most overpowering and beyond imagination.
"On this subject I wish to give only one remark :-While 1 was going below, I was stopped near the hatchway by a crowd of seamen who were carrying two wounded men to the cockpit; and I had leisure to
The Superb and the Albion had almost reached their proper positions, but the Impregnable being rather slow, and the Algerines having opened a tremendous fire upon her, and the smoke being so thick that she could not distinguish her exact position, Admiral Milne was obliged to lie in that situation and begin the attack; and thus, unfortunately, was exposed to the Eastern and the Lighthouse batteries, which were very strong.
observe the management of those heavy guns of the lower deck; I saw the companies of the two guns nearest the hatchway, they wanted some wadding, and began to call " wadding, wadding!" but not having it immediately, two of them swearing, took out their knives and cut off the breasts of their jackets where the buttons are, and rammed them into the guns instead of wadding. I was really astonished to see such extraordinary magnanimity.
"At last I reached the cockpit; when Mr Dewar, the surgeon, Mr Frowd, the chaplain, and Mr Somerville, the purser, with some other friends, met me, and began to congratulate me on my safe return, for they never expected that I should escape; and they gave me something to eat and to drink, but I could eat nothing, I only drank a litttle wine and water. Now I wished to assure myself if I was out of danger or not, I asked them how much we were above water? They told me that we were pretty safe, because the cockpit was about two or three feet below the watermark, and that I had nothing to fear, as I was now out of the greatest danger.
"Upon this, I was rather relieved, but having heard that several shots had passed through the Queen Charlotte between wind and water, and that the carpenter had been to stop the leaks, I then lost the idea of being quite safe, and I walked in the cockpit always fearful.-Afterwards, observing that the action was going on without an appearance of soon ceasing, I began to encourage myself by thinking, that every living being is uncertain of his existence, and that, throughout our life, we are continually exposed to the mercy of circumstances. And thus, I commenced assisting those poor wounded people after they were dressed; for, humanity and natural sensibility, at such a dreadful time, call upon every body to have pity, and to help the unfortunate. Some of them could not walk; some could not see; and some were to be carried from one place to another. It was indeed a most pitiable sight; but I think the most shocking sight in the world, is that of taking off arms and legs; in preference to beholding which, if I was a military man, I should certainly prefer to be on deck than being with the Doctor in the cockpit.
"From curiosity, I wished to observe the Doctor's operations. But while I was attending to the first one, which was that of taking off an arm, I could not bear it, and felt myself fainting away, especially when the Doctor began to saw the bone! I then went out of sight. At this time, I saw Lieutenant John Frederick Johnstone come down to the cockpit, wounded in his cheek. -After he had been dressed, and remained for a short time, laughing at me, he asked me to help him to put on his coat, and went to the hatchway, wishing to go on deck again; I then held him from behind by the shoulders to make him stop, and
said, "Where are you going? you are wounded." In reply he said, "I am very well now, I must go." And so he went directly.
"After two hours time, I saw him, poor fellow, brought down to the cockpit again, by four seamen, with his left arm taken off quite from the shoulder, and it only hung by a little bit of flesh.
"When I met him in that horrible state, he could not bear to be carried on, but wished to be laid down where he was; and began to call, The Doctor, the Doctor;" when we all took care of him, and the doc tor immediately came, and took off his arm quite from the joint of his shoulder. I saw that all the side of his breast was horribly torn. After he was dressed, we laid him on a sofa, with great care, and were all very sorry, because we never expected that he would live.
"About this time, I was sorry to see my friend Mr Grimes (his Lordship's secretary) conducted below; he had received several wounds from splinters, and was obliged to quit the deck from loss of blood.
"Having seen that the battle was going on favourably, and that the Algerines, after fighting extremely well for about five hours, began to slacken their firing, and that our seamen, every time that an Algerine frigate took fire, or any of the batteries were destroyed, gave a loud cheer, I began to have more courage, and jump up now and then to the lower deck to see what was going on; and so, for the rest of the action, I employed myself in passing the empty powder boxes to the magazine; because I found it more agreeable than attending the doctor.
"I observed with great astonishment that, during all the time of the battle, not one seaman appeared tired, not one lamented the dreadful continuation of the fight; but, on the contrary, the longer it lasted, the more cheerfulness and pleasure were amongst them; notwithstanding, during the greater part of the battle, the firing was most tremendous on our side, particularly from this ship (the Queen Charlotte), the fire of which was kept up with equal fury, and never ceased, though his Lordship in several instances wished to cease firing for a short time, to make his observations, and it was with great difficulty that he could make the seamen stop for a few minutes.
"Several of the guns were so hot, that they could not use them again; some of them, being heated to such a degree, that when they fired them, they recoiled with their carriages, and fixed the wheels by making holes in the planks of the deck; and some of them were thrown out of their carriages, and so rendered quite useless.
I was told that some of the seamen's wives on board the Severn had employed themselves during the battle, in helping their husbands by passing them powder and shot.
"At eleven o'clock, P. M. his Lordship having observed the destruction of the whole Algerine navy, and the strongest parts of their batteries, with the city, made signal to the fleet to move out of the line of the batteries; and thus, with a favourable breeze, we cut our cables, as well as the whole of the squadron, and made sail, when our firing ceased at about half past eleven.
When the action was over, Mr Stair (the gunner) came out from the magazine, and said, that he was about seventy years old, and that in his life he had been in more than twenty actions, but that he never knew or heard of any action that had consumed so great a quantity of powder as this.
"After the ships had hauled out, without any danger, (although the Algerines began to throw some shells from the higher castles) I went on the poop to see his Lordship, and to observe the effect of our shot on the enemy's batteries, and to behold the destruction of their navy, which, at this time, with the storehouses within the mole, was burning very rapidly. ̈ ́
"The blaze illuminated all the bay and the town, with the environs, almost as clear as in the day time; the view of which was really most awful and beautiful; nine frigates, and a great number of gun-boats, with other vessels, being all in flames, and carried by the wind to different directions in the bay.
"I observed, with great surprise, how, in these nine hours' time, our shot had effected so horrible a destruction of their batteries; instead of walls, I saw nothing but heaps of rubbish, and a number of people dragging the dead bodies out.
"When I met his Lordship on the poop,
his voice was quite hoarse, and he had two slight wounds, one in the cheek, and the other in his leg.-Before I paid him my respects, he said to me, with his usual gracious and mild manner, Well, my fine fellow Salamé, what think you now?' In reply I shook hands with his Lordship, and said, My Lord, I am extremely happy to see your Lordship safe, and I am so much rejoiced with this glorious victory, that I am not able to express, in any terms, the degree of my happiness."
"It was indeed astonishing to see the coat of his Lordship, how it was all cut up by musket ball, and by grape; it was behind, as if a person had taken a pair of scissars and cut it all to pieces. We were all surprised at the narrow escape of his Lordship.
Queen Charlotte Impregnable
"At one o'clock in the morning, we anchored, with all the fleet in the middle of the bay; immediately after, Admiral Van Cappellan came on board; and after having paid his congratulations to his Lordship, he said,
My Lord, I am quite happy if I die now, after having got full satisfaction from these pirates; and we owe a great deal to your Lordship for your gallant position with the Queen Charlotte, which was the safety and the protection of more than five hundred persons of our squadron.'
"After we had anchored, his Lordship, having ordered his steward in the morning to keep several dishes ready, gave a grand supper to the officers of the ship, and drank to the health of every brave man in the fleet.
"We also drank to his Lordship's health, and then every body went to sleep, almost like dead men."
Next morning, as our readers will remember,* Lord Exmouth again put
Salamé gives a table of the shot expended in this action, which we transcribe, in the belief that it will open quite a new view to the great majority of our readers.
A List of the general Consumption of Powder and Shot, on board the British and Dutch Squadrons, in the attack upon Algiers, under Admiral Lord Exmouth's command, on the 27th August 1816.
On board of the British Squadron.
Names of Ships.
Prometheus, Britomart, Heron, and Cordelia under weigh
Fury, a Bomb
Infernal, Hecla, and Beelzebub; three Bombs
Total in the British Squadron
Pounds of Round Powder. Shot.
30,424 4462 28,800 6730 24,536 4710
22,520 4110 21,700 3680
13& 16 in.
every thing in order for renewing his bombardment, but before commencing firing, he sent a second letter to the Dey, proposing the same conditions which had been rejected on the preceding morning. With this letter also Salamé went near to the shore, and while waiting for the answer, he had abundant leisure to observe the devastation caused by the fire of yesterday.
"During this time, I was indeed quite surprised to see the horrible state of the batteries and the mole, since the preceding day. I could not now distinguish how it
was erected, nor where the batteries had stood, as well as many fine houses which I had seen in the city the day previous. And I observed too, that they had not more than four or five guns mounted on their carriages, and that of all the rest, some were dismounted, and some buried in the rub
bish. Besides this, all the bay was full of the hulks of their navy, smoking in every direction, and the water out and inside of the mole was all black, covered with charcoal and half-burnt pieces of wood. But the most shocking and dreadful sight was, the number of the dead bodies which were floating on the water.-Among these bodies, we saw a white one, which afterwards, on finding it was one of our seamen, we took with us on board."
The conversations between the Dey on the one hand, and Sir James Brisbane and Admiral Penrose on the other, are afterwards described with much effect; but we have room only for what relates to the treatment of the British consul. He, it will be recollected, was thrown into chains at the first alarm of the fleet, and his wife and child with difficulty escaped in naval uniforms. His house also had been plundered, and for all this, redress was now demanded. Salamé has really contriv
On board of the Dutch Squadron.
Names of Ships.
The other 5 ships
Total in the Dutch Squadron
ed to represent, in a very picturesque manner, the sulky submission of the Barbarian.
Consumption in the British Squadron Ditto in the Dutch Squadron
"Captain Brisbane.-Lord Exmouth desires, that your Highness will punish all those people who insulted our Consul, for he (Lord Exmouth) persuades himself that it was done without your orders. And he also desires, that reparation may be made to the Consul, for the losses he has sustained, to the amount of 3,000 dollars: Should this sun be too much, he (the Consul) will redone are uncertain, the Consul not having turn the overplus, [at present the damages had time to examine his property; and should it be insufficient, your Highness shall make up the deficiency.
"The Dey.-The persons who insulted the Consul are impertinent and low people unknown to me, and did it without my order. And, with respect to the things that the Consul says he has lost, I have already inquired, and been told that he had lost nothing.
"The Consul.-I can show the Dey all the people who insulted and robbed me, for I know them individually.
"The Dey.-Suppose I take them and cut their heads off, will it do the Consul any good?
Captain Brisbane.We do not wish to have any body's head cut off; we wish that you should punish them by bastinados, and put them in irons, as our Consul was: The Consul will show you what things have been stolen and damaged by your people, because we do not desire to make you pay without a cause. And in case you do not wish to punish those people who insulted the Consul, as you say they are unknown to you, your Highness may, instead, make a public apology to Mr M'Donell, for, the indignities offered to him, and the detention
of our two boats, are insults shewn to the English nation; therefore, we cannot pass over this point.
"The Dey-(in confusion)-I know it was
Grand Total of the consumption of powder and shot on board the two Squadrons
"These incredible quantities of powder and shot, which are nearly 118 tons of the for mer, and more than 500 tons of the latter, were spent in the course of about nine hours. And, I think, the Algerines very justly observed, "That Hell had opened its mouth upon them through the English ships.'