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and other Eminent Persons in their seve to be provided ; which being performed and ral Stations ; 'tis not to be doubted, but brought to Table, with great Impudence, that our worthy Superiors will, when ap- they will not only place themselves at the prized of the Hardships under which the Upper part thereof, but also unmannerly oppressed Subject groans, by the Usage of cut, carve, rake and tear, and serve every these Miscreants, take proper Cognizance one before they will admit you even to be thereof, and justly punish such of them, as able to sit down, and oblige you at last, to may appear to deserve the same, for their be glad of receiving what they dislike, nay, exorbitant Impositions and Exactions. very often leave little more than the bare

“ A Bailiff was formerly look'd upon Bones. with such an evil Eye, and the Office reck “ Their ravenous Appetites being thus on'd so scandalous by our Ancestors, that plentifully satiated, and some or other beno Englishman could be procured to arresting troubled with the Cholick, a Pint of any one ; and it was an Employ taken up Brandy is call’d for, out of which, if any be and follow'd by Flemings and other Fo left, when they are all serv'd round, perreigners, who were held to be the Scum of haps, one Glass may come to your turn, or their own Country, as well as the Pest of otherwise you must call for more, or go ours; And in such great Detestation and without. Abhorrence were they held among the “ The Table being clear'd, Orders are Common Sort, that they were forced to exe- given for Pipes and Tobacco, and a Bowl of cute their Office by stealth, for fear of bro- Punch to be made immediately, notwithken Bones, or being

stoned by the incensed standing you give no Commission for the Populace. At this Day, it is an Office in. same, or that it may chance to be a Liquor famous and scandalous, and the Baseness of diagreeable to you. the Persons in it, and their vile Usage of « These Bowls of Punch are generally the Poor and Friendless, are likely to con- of such a Size as are commonly sold for tinue it so to future Times.

Three Shillings and Sixpence, for which you “ As soon as the Unfortunate Person are charged Ten Shillings each. who falls into the Hands of these vile “ The Bowl being out, they very freWretches, is arrested, he is conveyed to quently, with the greatest impudence, orsome Tavern, where those Swine, plenti- der another, though against your Will, fully Swig and Carouze at the Expence of and without your Order; and in the Drink the Prisoner, under pretence of waiting till ing of the same (with the greatest Tran

quillity imaginable) demand the Substance “This ended, the Reckoning is callid of your Misfortunes, &c., and if they think for, the Total of which is generally as a your Case hard, you have the Benefit of the greeable to you as the Conversation of your Pity of these Miscreants for all your ExCompanions ; for you are not only feeding pences. at that Time those rapacious Wolves them. “ When the Bowl is out, you are imselves, but also other private Villains that mediately conveyed to your Prison Room, are their Attendance and Followers (vulgar- in which you are inclosed with such Securily call'd Bull Dogs) who are always planted ty, as not to be easily got to when rein some place near you.

quired. " Having paid the Reckoning, you are “ About Two Hours afterwards, the forthwith carried (by way of Civility as they chief Swine of the Herd, under a pretencé term it) to their Sponging-House as it is of a Visit, &c. comes to you, and after some properly called, instead of to Newgate the few Judas Compliments, he, without askCounty Gaol, as their Warrant directs them ing Leave or Consent, calls for Pipes, Toto do. And at the same Time they set bacco, and a Bottle of Wine, places himforth to you, that Newgate is a horrid, ter self in a Chair, lights his Pipe, fills his rible and disinal Place, and that you are Glass, drinks it off, without the Good Mangreatly Befriended by them, in not being ners of taking any Notice of you; for you immediately carried 'thither; and having must understand, that Good' Manners ainspir'd you with the Dread of the Place, mongst Bailiffs, are as scarce to be found, as they make use of your Fears accordingly, Honesty. and by threatning to carry you there, when “ By such time as the Bottle is half out, you refuse to comply with their Extor- perhaps 'twill be your turn to have the Options, they oblige you to be conformable to portunity of drinking & Glass or two with such villainous Demands as they impudent- him; and then he takes Care to intimate ly and frequently impose upon you. the Necessity of your being immediately

“ Being thus arrived at their Hellish carried to Newgate, if yon don't forth with Habitation, you are at your Entrance (by pay him his Demands for his Civility (by those Crocodiles) received with a great deal him call’d Civilily Coal; viz. Civility of seeming Good Manners and Civility; Money.) and soon after, their Accomplices are as “ 'Tis true, altho' he has the Modesty sembled, and your Keeper forthwith calls and Cunning as not to mention the Sum he for a Bottle of Wine, orders a Couple or demands, yet he has the Impudence to Half a Dozen of Fowls to be immediately smile in your Face, and deny receiving of roasted, and other things suitable thereunto what you are disposed to give, provided tis Vol. V.

4 E

you procure Bail.

less than a Guinea ; and very often, as the Quadruple Price for the same ; if Bread, Case is circumstanc'd, he is so base as to Cheese, Butter, &c. One Shilling ; and extort Two or Three, and sometimes Five Fourpence, per Quart for what Beer you Guineas.

drink therewith. If you do not at that time pay him his “ The Price of your Dinner, if you Civil Coal, you are certainly used with Dine by yourself, is generally Two Shil. great Brutality, and lock'd up a close Pris- lings, and sometimes Three; for if there be oner for several Days; during which time, no other Prisoner than yourself, you are you shall not only be deprived of all man. surely charged with the Dinner as provided ner of Conversation, but of seeing of any for the Family in general. Persons who come to you; and he will al. “ If you are admitted to sit in Company so prevent you from sending to any of your during the Intervals between Meals, noFriends upon your necessary Occasions, till thing will do but a flowing Bowl of Punch such time you have satisfy'd his unreason (such as before mentioned) or a Bottle or able Expectations. And though you are two of Wine, which, with the greatest As. close lock'd up, and cannot have free Ac surance imaginable, they will call for (as acess to the necessary Conveniency, you may foresaid) without your "Consent, and very ring, knock, or call (very often) for the space often without your Knowledge. of an Hour, before they will come near you, “ If any of the Female Sex (as the Wife and at the same Time, they'll Scoff and or Daughters of your Gaoler) be in ComSnap at you, and use you with a great deal pany, they will provide Tea, Sugar, &c., of 11 Manners.

and place all to your Account, which if you “ Upon the whole, I cannot but observe, seem the least displeased at, then they tell That by the Words Civility-Money, with you of Newgate, of calling a Coach to which you are forced to compound for hard

carry you thither, and many such like ly tolerable Usage at the best, it is natural. Threats, which, to Persons who know not ly imply'd, That the general Disposition what Newgate is, sounds so terrible, that of this Set of Mortals, is such, as renders they are glad to put up with such Imposithem the very Reverse to every thing Hu. tions; and thereupon, you are commanded man, and ranks them more properly in the to repair to your Prison Room, a loathsome Lists of those Beasts of Prey, that prowl Garret, where you are securely lock'd up, about to destroy Mankind; and in this re and no Persons admitted to come near you semble the Devil himself, who walks to and for many Hours after, be your occasions fro in the Earth seeking whom he may de never so importunate. vour.

“ The Brandy, as they call it, which they “ Indeed were I particularly to describe sell in their Houses, is a Composition of dithe base Methods used by these Canibals, verse Spirituous Liquids, which they dispose 'twould swell this Volume to an enormous of at Eightpence a Quartern, as by them Bulk; I shall therefore proceed as briefly termed, tho' but little more than a Halfas I can, that I may not tire the Patience of Quartern Wine Measure. my Reader.

“ The Geneva they sell at Fourpence per “ Your Civil Coal being paid, for some Quartern, and in the same short Measure few Days after, you will be treated with a as that of their Brandy. Their Beer is sold little more Good Manners than before, pro at Fourpence per Quart, each Quart convided you keep Piping as long as they taining about Three half Pints. Dance, or otherwise you'll find but little “ Their Wine is horrid base, not only in Difference from your former Usage. respect to Goodness, but Measure: their

“ For the first Night's Lodging you are Bottles which they call Quarts, are actually charged Two Shillings, and One Shilling per not Wine Pints, and the Price is Two Shil. Night afterwards, and for your Firing One lings each. Shilling per Diem. Every Night before * When you have Occasion to send a Eight o'Clock (notwithstanding you have Letter by a Porter, you must not only beg before paid Eight times the Value of your and pray for that Liberty, but also pay a Firing) they will either come to you them. double Price for the Message. And if you selves (or send one of their Followers) and give a Letter with a Penny, to put into the will not only put out your Fire, but also Penny Post Office, it very rarely goes any take away your Candle, and oblige you to further than the first Fire they come to. And get into your Bed in the Dark, if you of every time you send any Letter, either by fer to sit up till Eight or Nine in the Even the Post or a Messenger, it is always opened ing.

and read, and very often not delivered at “ And altho' your Lodging and Firing all, especially if they dislike the Contents. is so extortionate dear, yet very often you Nor do they scruple to open Letters when shall be obliged to lie with one, and some they are sent, if the Person who brings times with two, in the same Bed; and as them, doth not deliver the same into the to the Fires they are seldom made till Hands of the Prisoner. Noon each Day, be the Mornings never so " Their Followers are still more wretch. cold.

ed Miscreants than the Bailiffs, and for the “ If you are inclined to Breakfast with Sake of a Shilling (which is the general Al. Tea, Coffee, Chocolate, &c, you pay a lowance they have out of every Arrest) will

betray the best of Friends, nay, even their as aforesaid, a sufficient Joint of Mutton, own Father, without any manner of Regard Beef, &c., and thereby you have a very to what may follow. And you are not only good Dinner of Roast or Boil'd every Day charged Two Shillings and Sixpence per for about 4d. each Prisoner, or 6d. at most, diem for one of those Followers (who are at which time you may drink such Liquors generally and justly termed Bailiff's Dogs) as you are inclinable to, and be free from to be your Keeper ; but also One Shilling all manner of Impositions and Il Manners per Diem, for the Victuals he eats.

practised by Bailiffs, where you not only pay “That nothing may escape these Wretches, an extravagant Price, but are obliged to eat they always, at the Departure of a Prisoner, what they please to leave, and be subject to ask for some small Matter for the Maid their Humours. Servant of their House ; which is seldom The Liberty you have of Conversing deny'd, but is rarely given to her; for if with whom you please, is at no time denied, she happens to be absent on any Occasion, free Access being given at all times between and it be left with her Master or Mistress Eight in the Morning and Nine at Night, for her, they generally keep it themselves, at which times you are at liberty to be in all being Fish with them that comes to Net. private with your Friends to Consult and

“ It were endless to enumerate the Tenth Advise, &c., as your Business or Affairs Part of their Villainies, and therefore I may require, without any Person to intershall end this Part of the Parallel, with fere with you ; which in a Sponging-House congratulating my Countrymen on the is the Reverse ; for there you cannot speak Hopes, that a Happy End will now be soon one Word to your Friend in relation to put to the vile Impositions and Barbarities your affairs, but you have one or two of of these inhuman Canibals, by the Excel. their Emissaries listening at the Door, to lent Law depending at this Time in the over-hear your Consultations, which may Parliament, to prevent_Vexatious Arrests oftentimes prove of a bad Consequence, by and Law-suits. Their Enormities have ar. having your Secrets discovered to your Adriv'd at such a flagrant Height, that the versaries. Cries of the Oppressed have reach'd the “ When your Occasions require a Per. Ears of our Noble Legislators, who seem son to carry a Letter to any Place in London, determind to deliver the poor Subject from 'tis faithfully performed by the Servants of the Extortions of these Wretches, which, Mr Rovese and Mr Perry, with great Care no doubt will procure the Grateful Ac. and Speed, which is never done at any knowledgment of all Honest Men, and Sponging-Houses, as I have before observdraw down upon them a Blessing from the ed. Then for the Benefit of Air and CleanAlmighty, who has been graciously pleased liness, there is no Comparison : for here to recommend to Mortals, To Visit the every thing is kept clean by the Care of the Sick, and Relicve the Prisoners, as two great Steward, &c., whereas in a Sponging. House, Duties of Human Life. In this Happy what with your being close lock'd up, and Prospect, I shall therefore for the present want of fresh Air, the Stink of a Close leave the Subject, and proceed to speak a Stool (which is very often full at your comWord or two in relation to the Humanity ing in) the ill-smell of the Bed (for they observed in the Master Debtors Side of seldom change the Sheets under two Months) Newgate, in Comparison to the Usage and and the Smoaking of the Chimney ; the Air Impositions of a Sponging-House.

is actually so Infectious, that if the Persons “ After being Arrested and carry'd to the confined are not of a strong Constitution, Lodge at Newgate, you pay to the Turkey they are liable to great Inconveniencies. (as before mentioned) 68 and 6d. and then “ By this Time, I believe, my Reader you are directed to the Ward appointed for will agree with me, That the Master Debyou, where, at your Entrance, you pay 10$ tors Side of Newgate, is a Paradise to the and 6d (as aforesaid) to the Steward of that best of Sponging-Houses, not only in reWard for your Garnish-Money ; out of spect to the least Expence, but also for which 2s. is spent amongst the Prisoners of Health, good Entertainment, Liberty, Pleayour Ward, and the remaining 8s. and 6d. sure and Conversation; And therefore, I is kept by the Steward, for which he pro- do solemnly declare to all unfortunate Per. vides very good Fires, Candles, Salt and sons, That when they cannot produce Bail Brooms, during the whole Time of your or discharge the Action in a short time, Imprisonment, if it prove never so long. 'tis greatly to their Advantage immediately

• Which being compared with a Spong- to go to the Master Debtors Side of Newing-House, where you pay per Diem, for gate, rather than suffer themselves to be your Fires, which are not light till Noon, imposed on, in the Manner I have related. and put out every night at 8 or 9 and left The better to exemplify the in the Dark afterwards, is no doubt infi- ference there is between the Usage of a nitely preferable.


Sponging-House, and the Master Debtors “ Your Garnish being paid, you imme. Side of Newgate, I shall here subjoin a diately enter into a Mess with the other Bill of Expence for one Day in each. Place ; Prisoners of the Ward, with whom you eat, by which the Reader, at a View, will be drink, &c. at a very cheap and reasonable able to judge of and confirm the Truth of Rate, every Person providing for his Day what I have asserted.

great Dif.

The FORM of an Honest Bailiff's BILL, “ The Expence of One Night's Lodging and for One Night's Lodging and Day's Ex

Day's Charges, in the Master Debtors pence.

Side aforementioned. Mr A. B. his BILL for One Day's Expence. 1. s. d.

Ls.de For your Night's Lodging- 0 02 0 Your Night's Lodging

0 00 41 For your Breakfast001 0 Your Dinner

0 00 6 For one Quart of Drink at your

Drink for the whole Day, if Breakfast (whether you drink 0 00 4 Three Quarts (but less if you 0 00 9 it or no 'tis the same)

please) For half a Pint of Brandy, ditto-001 For your Dinner

0 02 0 Drink at Dinner0 02 0

Total 0 01 7 Brandy after Dinner, Half a Pint ( 01 4 Tobacco and Pipes, fic.

001 0 Your Keeper's Dinner

O 01 0

And very often less, especially when you For his Day's Attendance on you-- 0 02 6 Your Supper

drink Small-Beer at your Dinner.

001 0 Drink at Supper

0 00 8 From hence it appears, That the Differ Brandy at ditto

001 4 ence of Expence only of One Day, is ac

tually Fifteen Shillings and Ten pence HalfTotal 0 17 6 penny ; which I leave to the Consideration

of those unfortunate Persons, whose unhapAnd this Bill is very often inhanced to a py Situation of Affairs may subject them to much greater Expence.

make Choice of one Place or the other.”


Most of our readers are probably a very early and a very close religious aware, that in the year 1818, the connexion. Now the Brahmins are long-closed pyramid of Cephrenes was unanimous in declaring, that every opened by the skill and perseverance Pyramid is an artificial mountain, deof Mr Belzoni. Like the large pyra- signedly constructed as a copy of the mid, it was found to contain a dark Holy Mount Meru. This holy mounchamber and a stone sarcophagus, in tain they describe as the special abode which were a few bones, some of of Iswara, who, during an universal which, on being brought to England by deluge, floated in the ship Argha, upon Major Fitzclarence, were submitted to the surface of the ocean. "Into the the inspection of Sir Edward Home, particulars of this tradition it is unneand found to be the bones of a cow or cessary to enter. bull. This discovery has complete Exactly the same account, relative ly established the theory of the pyra- to the design and origin of the great mid, previously advanced by Mr Fa- pyramid of Cholula, prevailed among ber in his learned work on the Origin the Mexicans, and even at the preof Pagan Idolatry. We shall, in as sent day prevails among their posfew words as possible, lay before our terity. reader the substance of that theory. From these concurring accounts it

The striking uniformity of Paga- is evident, that the holy mountain of nism, as established in every part of which every pyramid was an avowed the world, leads to the rationale of the transcript, was no other than Mount pyramids. As its rudiments are the Ararat, upon which the ark rested afsame, so is there a surprising unifor- ter the deluge. Each pyramid then mity in the religious structures of the was a copy of Mount Ararat, whence it old idolaters. Pyramids, so far from appears that the religious notions atbeing peculiar to Egypt, are to be tached to the pyramid, bore a certain found of different sizes, properties, relation to the history of the flood. and materials, in every quarter of the

The Hindoo theologians, though globe.

occasionally differing as to the form In no region are they more common which they ascribe to the holy mount than in Hindostan, between which Meru, very generally represent it as country and Egypt, through the me- being square, as standing with an acdium of the shepherd kings, there was curate relation to the four cardinal

points of the compass, and as compo- nated the belief, that the pyramids of sed of eight successively diminishing Egypt were the tombs of the ancient towers placed one upon the other. kings of the country? The Greek Such, according to Herodotus and writers could never have imagined the Strabo, was the exact form and ar- pyramids to be tombs, unless they had rangement of the Tower of Babylon. been actually so informed by the EgypBut this very pyramid, raised on the tians. They seem to have been told banks of the Euphrates, was, accord- by the priesthood, that each pyramid ing to the Hindoo theologians, the was the tomb of a very ancient king of earliest montiform edifice, which the Egypt. Having received this general sons of men reared as a studious copy account of them, and finding that the of Mount Meru.

three principal ones were ascribed to The Mexican legend, attached to the three kings, Cheops, Cephrenes, the pyramid of Cholula, is a corrupted and Mycerinus, they naturally enough narrative of the building of the Baby- concluded them to be the sepulchres lonic Tower, brought away, in the first of these three princes. Their opinion, instance, from the plain of Shinar, which seemed to rest upon a very soby them of the dispersion. The form lid foundation, was forth with comof the Mexican pyramid corresponds mitted to writing; and hence originatboth in shape and position with the ed the general persuasion, that these Tower of Babylon, as described by the vain-glorious and tyrannical kings Greek historians. It differs only in had harassed their subjects, and exhaving a smaller number of steps, hausted the wealth of their country, for whereas the Egyptian pyramids of no better purpose than that they might Ghiza differ from it, in having a larger. repose after death in tombs of extraIn all other respects they perfectly re- ordinary magnitude. semble the Tower of Belus; and the The truth of the matter, however, two which have been opened, contain was this, that instead of being the lieach a dark central chamber, which teral sepulchres of the literal Kings of answers to the similar chamber men- the country, the pyramids were each tioned by Herodotus as constructed in alike the mystical sepulchre of Osiris, the heart of the Babylonic pyramid. the supposed primeval king and HeroOn the same principle are built the God of Egypt. Indian pyramids of Tanjore, with this The worship of Osiris, or Thammuz, difference, that they are higher in re was of a funereal nature. In the celeference to their base, than the pyra- bration of his mysteries the god was mids of Ghiza.

first bewailed as dead, and afterwards As the first Postdiluvian sacrifice his restoration to life was celebrated was offered on the summit of Mount with riotous mirth and frantic exclaArarat, by the great patriarch who was mations. To these rites there are frepreserved in the ark, so, on every imi- quent allusions in Scripture, for they tative mountain, whether natural or prevailed in Palestine as much as in artificial, sacrifices were devoted to Egypt. By the ancient author of the that principal Hero-God, who was Orphic Argonautics, they are denosaid to be the father of three sons, and minated the Lamentations of the Ewho, with seven companions, was re- gyptians, and the Sacred Obsequies of ported to have sailed over a shoreless Osiris. They were celebrated in the ocean in a wonderful ship, by the following manner :Hindoos called Argha, and by the In memory of Osiris being compelled Egyptians and the Greeks styled Argo to enter into an ark by 'Typhon, or the or Baris. For this purpose the pyra- evil genius of the ocean, an image of midal altar was built with a flat top, the god was annually placed in a boat which sometimes contained a chapel. shaped like the Lunar Crescent, and The summit of the chief pyramid of set afloat upon the Nile. It was called Ghiza, though, from the enormous bulk the Argo, evidently the same as the of the fabric, it seems a mere point to ship Argha of the kindred theology the eye of the spectator, is yet a square of Hindostan. It was, however, also platform of not less than thirty-two feet. deemed the mystic coffin of the god;

But, admitting that each pyramid and as his entrance into it was esteema were a copy of Mount Ararat, the ed the same as his death, so an evaquestion arises, in what manner origi- sion from it was esteemed the same as

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