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intermeddle with subjects of which « Several minor fights and trifling they have no practical knowledge. We events which occurred at Taylor's Booth, cannot help adding, that we see no rea &c. might be introduced to shew that son why the author of this celebrated pugilism was at that period rising fast work should remain anonymous any into notice, and had gained considerable more than the author of Waverley. patronage and support; but lest that, in He seems to us to be, on many ac- pursuing this farther, when more import

ant objects are at hand, it should appear counts, far better deserving than the latter personage, of the title of the « As in a theatre the eyes of men, GREAT UNKNOWN.

After a well-graced actor leaves the stage, For the present we take leave of our Are idly bent on him that enters next, readers with the following elegant pas- Thinking his prattler to be tedious :'sage, by which the Great UNKNOWN we shall, • sans ceremonie,' clear the prepares our minds for the appearance boards, to make room for the entrance of the first hero of the second era of of that celebrated and first-rate performer pugilism.

in the pugilistic art, Jack BROUGHTON."



THERE are very few works which do with' which the world has rung for more honour to the literature of the these two thousand



surveys present time than Mr Mitford's his- every thing in the bright past of antory of Greece. Its author is an Eng- tiquity with an eye cooled and calmed lish country gentleman, and the book by the reflection and experience of the is throughout written in the spirit troubled PRESENT in which himself has proper to one of that most respectable lived. The acquisition of scholarship of all classes of men--a class in which seems, in his mind, to be mingled with it is probable more true intellectual none of its prejudices; he forms the cultivation and more true moral dig- only example, of which we have any nity may be found united, than in any knowledge, of a man contemplating other which human society has as yet the motives and passions and actions produced—a class of men among whom, of the old world, at once with all the for these many centuries, there has knowledge which the relics of ancient never been wanting an abundant repre- literature can convey, and with all the sentation of all that is most honourable maturity of wisdom which the expeto the country which gives them birth rience of modern Europe can add to -a class finally, of which it is sufficient this knowledge. It is truly wondereulogy to say, that it at this moment ful from what an original point of boasts of a Surtees, a Heber, and a view he thus shews to us the old kingMitford.

doms and republics of earth-how the Mr Mitford has indeed conferred a atmosphere through which he makes very eminent service upon his country, us gaze upon them improves the disby writing a history of Greece in the tinctness of every line and every hue. true English spirit. Passionately at- Assuredly he is one of the most philotached to the feelings and recollections sophical of historians; and to those of classical antiquity, he is still more who get over a certain impression of profoundly a lover and a worshipper of perplexity about some parts of his the genius of his own land, and he has style, which is a thing very easy to be composed his book with the noble pur- accomplished, since, in the main, the pose of furnishing new food and better style is an excellent one-we have no direction to the similar predilections doubt he must always be one of the with which so large a class of his coun most delightful also. Such, at least, trymen are, from education and ex- has been our own experience. His ample, imbued. Undazzled with the book we thin one of those which no splendour of names and of actions man who reads it once will be satisfied

* The History of Greece. By William Mitford, Esq. The Fifth Volume. 4to. London. Cadell and Davies. 1818.

without reading over and over again, historian to throw together the results we think on the contrary, it is formed of his inquiries into the poetical state to be one of the most stable compan- of Macedonia, and of some of the ions of a reflective man's solitude. neighbouring countries, at the time The truth is, that in every point of when the son of Philip ascended the view, it is by far the first historical throne, whose splendour he was deswork which has been produced in Eng, tined to increase in so miraculous a land since Gibbon. "In spite of the manner. performances of Mr Hallam, and in He well observes in his outset, that great despite of the promises of Sir the whole of the preceding periods of James Macintosh, we think it likely Greek history present no opportunity that Mitford and M'Crie are the only either so important or so favourable historians among our contemporaries for taking a wide view of the state of whose works will take a firm place in Macedon. That state, always a power, British literature.

ful and often a very formidable one, This new volume has brought Mr had, by the imperfection of its constiMitford down, in his view of the his- tution, and the jealousies of the neightory of Greece, as far as the death of bouring princes, been kept in a conAlexander the Great-and contains, dition of comparative obscurity, till beyond all question, the best arranged the time when its energies came to be and most accurate and valuable ac- wielded by the masterly hand of Phicount of all the incidents of his career lip The successful life of that conthat has ever been given to the world. summate politician had tended, in It is, unless we be much mistaken, a every point of view, to the true prosmore elaborate and a better written perity of his nation. At home he had volume, than even the best of those bestowed tranquillity, and restored 0which preceded it—and the value of bedience to the laws by weakening the part of this praise will be easily appre- power of his neighbours—the petty ciated by those who are aware, among chiefs of Thrace and Thessaly—and what a strange mass of contradictory so, by taking away from the subjects and unsatisfactory materials the true of his own empire much of the power thread of the Macedonian's history re- and the hope of being safe in disobedi, quires to be gathered and pursued. - ence or successful in sedition. Abroad Mr Mitford has, as might have been his victories and negotiations had raisexpected, taken Arrian throughout for ed his kingdom to a very proud prehis safest guide, so far as he goes but eminence among the nations who even in that part of his account he spoke the language of Greece-transhas much to do, in bringing details ferring, in fact, to Macedonia, that sufrom other authors to bear upon, and premacy which had previously been be fitly intermingled with the some- obtained by the governments of Athens what brief narrative of the soldier-his- and Lacedæmon, and, at one time, over torian. Those who have not read this a preponderating part of the nation, volume may promise themselves a rich by the government of Thebes. Macerepast of instruction and amusement donia was now the seat of empire.most delightfully blended together, Her king was the elected chief and genethroughout the whole picture of the ralissimo of the whole Greek name, and campaigns and battles of Alexander ; his capital had become, as it had once and in the account of his untimely before been, in some measure, under death, they will, perhaps, recognise a Archelaus, the favourite refuge and finer and deeper command of pathetic resort of the philosophers and artists eloquence and elegance than any other of Greece. The murder of Philip departs of Mr Mitford's book have ex- ranged and darkened, however, not a hibited. But as it would be quite out little in this bright prospect;—the seeds of the question for us, in a work of of many imperfectly suppressed jealthese limits, to attempt any thing like ousies sprung into life when his throne following Mr Mitford through the was seen filled by an untried stripling minutiæ of his details—wherein, of -and Alexander himself, before he encourse, his principal merit consists— tered upon his proper career of Asiatic we must content ourselves, for the conquest, was constrained to do over present, with noticing, in preference, again not a little of what had already the introductory part of the volume, been done at home and near it by his in which it has been the aim of the father. Altogether, it will be allowed,

there could not be a more important These positions, however, which epoch than that of his succession, nor were, when first broached, so very a matter of more interesting study, than offensive to our illustrious countrythe political constitution of the empire man, have been taken up again by over which it called him to reign. Mr Mitford, and they now make their

When Mr Mitford, on a former oc appearance, defended by a mass of casion, threw out a few imperfect hints facts and arguments such as we think of what he conceived to have been the it would be no very easy matter for true state and character of that con- any of the knights of the blue and stitution, his positions were attacked yellow cover to combat. The hisvery fiercely by Mr Brougham in the torian has shewn clearly, that the peoEdinburgh Review; and no wonder;- ple of Macedonia lived under a governfor, in the first place, Mr Brougham ment by no means tyrannical—but, is no scholar, and therefore incapable on the contrary, possessing almost all of examining Mr Mitford's authorities the requisites of a well-governed state, —and secondly, Mr Brougham is a in a degree superior, perhaps, to any bigot to a set of political opinions, ex- thing that was ever exhibited out actly the reverse of those noble opi- of our own happy island—and bearnions which Mr Mitford has always ing, indeed, a resemblance to much of held and defended, and therefore what that island exhibits, and has exmuch indisposed to receive, without hibited, strong enough to excite, we examination, conclusions so different doubt not, a good deal of astonishment from those which the greater number, in the most of those who shall read the even of more accomplished men than volume in which this view of the matMr Brougham, had formerly embrac- ter is contained. It is to this part of ed. To say that in those ancient Mr Mitford's labours that we feel constates, whose memory has been ren strained to limit ourselves and in dodered so grand and so immortal by the ing so, we shall do little more than intellectual energies of their citizens, select a few passages of the most dethose citizens possessed, in truth, but cisive character-nothing doubting that a very slender portion of security and these will be more than enough to inequal government--still more to say, duce our readers to follow the whole that in not a few of those monarchical argument through the luminous exstates of antiquity, to whose names so position of the book itself. many ideas of disgust have been asso Mr Mitford laments, as all precedciated by the genius of republican his- ing authors have done, the scantiness torians, the people possessed, after all, a of the information afforded by Arismeasure of happiness and justice in totle's treatise on government concerntheir administration and legislation, ing the constitution of that empire, of well worthy of being envied by those which, shortly after the time of his whoonly abused them-these were doc- birth, his native city became a part.trines which Mr Mitford could scarce. So far as it goes, however, his inforly have hoped to promulgate without mation is undoubtedly of the highest exciting the utmost wrath in the breast authority and value and it distinctly of such a person as Mr Brougham-a establishes the fact, that the governman, whose great and remarkable ta ment of Macedonia was not a tyranny, lents have, on most occasions, formed but a limited and legal monarchy, But but a poor counterprise to the super- of the peculiar institutions which gave ficial pedantry and vulgar insolence of to this monarchy its character of limithis character-a man, whose shameful edness and lawfulness the philosopher irreverence for the old institutions of has said scarcely any thing: so that our his own country, harmonizes perfectly historian has been compelled to bring with that utter ignorance of antiquity, together his materials, as best he and the institutions and history of an- might, from the more casual notices of tiquity which he has displayed in his many less philosophical authors. Of work on Colonies,* and, indeed in the these notices, one of the most striking whole of his contributions to the E- occurs in Arrian. Classing the Madinburgh Review.

cedonians with the republican Greeks,

• Heyné has taken notice of Mr Brougham's want of scholarship, as exhibited in this book, in one of his opuscula, and applied to him what Samuel Johnson said of Voltaire : Vir sanc acuti ingenii, sed paucarum literarum.

he says, “ they were a free and high- rity was unavailing but under warrant of spirited people, whereas the Persians the law.' The similarity of the law of were humbled and debased by their our own country, derived from our Ansubjection to a despotic authority.”

glosaxon forefathers, and formerly comThe first check to the tyranny of the

mon to most of western Europe, will

here be striking. monarch was found in the armed po

“ Among the antients, very generally, pulation over which he ruled. The men of Macedon were at all times the law for the city and the camp, at

home and abroad, were the same. Acarmed ; and such a population, as

cording to the Macedonian constitution Aristotle has well remarked, “ have it then, for decision on life and death, at always in their power to choose whe- home the people, abroad the army, was ther the existing constitution shall re

the jury. Strongly distinguished as civil main or be overthrown."*

and military law commonly have been in This most powerful of all checks up- modern times, this may appear to moon the tyrannical power of a single per- dern minds, among what remains reportson, is however, above all other checks, ed, most doubtful, and yet is that to likely to be abused from its proper which the most undeniable testimony repurpose, and to become itself tyranni- mains. Among the antients a military cal. It is necessary, therefore, that power, distinct from the civil, and more there should exist a softer and more

arbitrary, seems first observable among sober power of check in popular as

the Lacedæmonians, but is first clearly semblies of representative and deli- and strongly marked in the history of berative nature. And such, there the Romans. Admitted originally among can be no question, the Macedonians nical authority of a dictator, occasionally,

that great military people, like the tyran. always possessed. It is true that there

on the plea of necessity, the crafty lead. is no evidence of their having had any ers of the Roman councils procured lastassemblies exactly corresponding to the ing acquiescence under it, by bribing their Senate of Lacedæmon, or Carthage, or soldiery with the spoil of the unfortunRome: but they did possess assemblies ate people they conquered ; and thus, capable of discharging not a few of the through a union, then peculiar to themsame duties.

selves, of severe discipline and ready zeal, “ Two writers, however, Diodorus and they promoted their conquests. In the Curtius, speak in direct terms of popular sequel of this history instances will occur assemblies ; marking decisively, so far of practice, among the Macedonians, acas their authority goes, a constitutional cording to the law mentioned by Curtius. share of the sovereinty, held, as in the A very remarkable one, of an age later kingdoms of the heroic ages, by the peo. than that to which this volume will exple at large ; and it is a matter of a kind tend, it may be advantageous, for im. for which their authority may be least mediate illustration and assurance to non questionable. According to Diodorus, tice here. on the death of Perdiccas son of Amyn. “ Polybius lived while the Macedon. tus, when his brother Philip's claim to ian kingdom yet existed ; and not in the throne was disputed by Argæus, as. diminished splendor ; for its monarch, semblies of the people were held in which conquered and plundered by the Romans Philip's eloquence greatly promoted his within the same age, was, according to

On Philip's death he mentions their great historian, Livy, one of the similar assemblies held ; and, on Alex. richest potentates of the time. Polybius, ander's death, when the question arose, in his history of what passed in his own singularly momentous then, and in a case country, Peloponnesus, while his father of singular difficulty, who, was best in. was a leading man there, relates as fol. titled to be successor to the newly ac. lows: The commander of a body dequired empire, and, afterward, what mea. tached from a Macedonian army, acting sures should follow, all was referred to a under the king in person, was arrested general assembly of the Macedonians pre on accusation of high treason. The desent, as representatives of the Macedon- tachment, alarmed for their commander, ian people.t

of whose crime they were not conscious, “ The more immediate subject of Cur. sent hastily a deputation to the king, detius bas been the criminal law. • Judge- manding that the trial of the accused ment on life and death,' he says, by should await their return to head-quarthe immemorial law of Macedonia, was ters; otherwise they should reckon them. reserved to the people : the king's autho selves unworthily treated, and should


* Οι γαρ των όπλων κυριοι και μενειν και μη μενειν την πολιτειαν κυριοι. Polit. lib. 7. c. 9. + Επί το κοινόν των Μακεδόνων πλήθος ανήνεγκε την περί τούτων βουλήν. Diod. 1. 18. c. 4.

highly resent it.' Such free communi. Minos, Solon, Lycurgus, and others, to cation with their kings, the historian pro- frame a constitution, with a system of ceeds to say, the Macedonians always law to be complete for all purposes. But held." The circumstances being highly he remarks justly the impossibility of critical, for the king's life was threatened, adapting the most voluminous system of the return of the detachment was not law to every possible case ; whence it waited for ; and indeed the probability was common, among the Grecian repubthat the main body of the army, actually lics, he says, to commit much to the with the king, was legally competent to magistrate's discrețion ; so that in fact, try the accused, so that nothing was done power was by the constitution given him against the constitution, will be found to make the law for the occasion. Possistrengthened by circumstances occurring bly Aristotle has been urged to adopt so for notice in the sequel of this history. extravagantly hazardous an expedient,

“ With the assurance that the mili. in his own system, by observation of the tary law of Macedonia gave to the Mace. evils of that opposite extravagance at donian people, on forein military service, Athens, complained of, as we have for. even upon accusation of high treason, the merly seen, by Isocrates ; where decrees privilege of being tried by their fellow of the multitude, the unbalanced sove. soldiers, the information of Curtius, that rein, at the suggestion of demagogues, the Macedonian people at home held favorites of the moment, were so multiequal privilege, appears completely sup- plied, with such haste and so little cir. ported. Abuses of authority, found un. cumspection, that, in many cases, the der all governments, and prominent in the citizens could not know to which of many conduct of all factions among the Grecian laws they were in the moment subject. republics, would hardly fail in a coun. “ In the regal governments of the ear. try agitated as we have seen Macedonia. ly ages, legislation, not less than capital But, in any monarchy, for the royal au- condemnation, evidently rested with the thority, limited by the military, to be un- people at large. But, even in the small. limited by the civil law, controlled legal. er states this was inconvenient, and in ly in the army, to be, by law or custom, the larger, for regular practice, impossiuncontrolled in the state, were an extra. ble; whence appears to have arisen the vagance, not meerly unlikely, but, it may maxim, so extensively adopted, and so be ventured to say, impossible.

decidedly approved and recommended by Through the circumstances thus au. Aristotle, that laws, once established, thentically reported then, we have assur were not to be altered ; but the magis. ance, with confirmation yet to come in trate's discretion, for decision adapted to the course of the history, not only that the exigency, rather to be trusted. That the royal authority in Macedonia was the legislative system, throughout the constitutionally limited, but how it was Grecian republics, was very imperfect, effectually limited ; judgement, in ca. Aristotle has largely shown. The Ro. pital cases, being reserved to the peo man republican constitution, probably deple; and the maintainance of this im. rived from Greece, confessedly improved portant right being assured by the most through diligent inquiry after Grecian powerful warranty, the general posses- models, and altogether better than any sion and practice of arms by the people. Grecian constitution of which any ac. Hardly have we equal proof that equal count remains, had yet, among its excel. security for individuals was provided by lencies, great imperfections. Its legis. law in any republic of Greece.

lature was extraordinary. Laws, bind. “ It were very desirable to know what ing upon the whole people, were made was the LEGISLATive power in Macedonia. by the people at large ; assembled, at the But, as we have observed that Aristotle, discretion of the magistrate, in two ways, neither in criticizing numerous govern so different that they were, in effect, dis. ments existing in his time, has noticed a ferent assemblies; insomuch that what legislature, nor in his project for a per the people, assembled in one way, would fect government, has proposed one, and inact, assembled in the other way they that, excepting the Athenian, hardly any would not inact; and laws binding on account remains of the legislature of any the whole people were also occasionally republic of Greece, it cannot be surpriz, inacted by the senate, without the parti. ing if concerning legislation in Macedonia cipation of the people. Such conflicting information fails. Aristotle is large on powers of legislation were likely to the office of a legislator ; meaning one produce multiplied, and sometimes inauthorized by the popular voice, like consistent, inactments. But Roman de

'Είχαν γάρ αεί τοιαύτην ισηγορίαν Μακεδόνες προς τους βασιλείς. Polyb. I. 5. p. 357. ed. Cassaub. Hardly will any single word in any other language so strongly mark a free constitution as the Greek term innyogía, here used by Polybius. VOL. V.


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