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are very simple, though for want of a sufficient number of accurate observations, they have not yet been fully made out. My astonishment at the number, the richness, the extent, and the quality of the tin and cop per veins, is not yet over. When I saw the first heap extracted from a vein, I conceived that it must have been obtained from a bed, and only satisfied myself by actual inspection, that the ore was really extracted from a vein.
"An object, on which several geologists in England employ themselves in preference, is the study of the formations lying above the chalk. To see them, we went to the Isle of Wight. These newer formations are very remarkable. But the separation of the fresh water formations from each other depends merely on the loose stones found in the different beds, and seems to be merely a conclusion which has been borrowed, perhaps, on too slight grounds, from the French."
Blocks of snow were falling on all sides, and there was little time to do more than to measure the size of the stream; the main breadth was 27 feet, the greatest depth about 18 inches. and the shallowest part nine or ten inches. Captain Hodgson believes this to be the first appearance in day light of the celebrated Ganges! Zealous in the prosecution of his inquiries, he attempted to proceed forward, but was obliged to return, having frequently sunk in the snow, one time up to his neck, and there being evident marks of hollows beneath.
ON Monday evening, August 10, 1818, a Meeting of the Asiatic Society was held at Chouringhee, the most noble the Marquis of Hastings, president, in the chair.
On this occasion, the journal of a survey to the heads of the rivers Ganges and Jumna, by Captain Hodgson, 10th regiment, native infantry, was presented by the president. Captain Webb's Survey, in 1808, having extended from the Doon valley to Cajane, near Reital, Captain Hodgson commences his scientific and interesting labours from the latter place, which, by a series of observations, he found to be in latitude 30 48 28 N. The village of Reital consists of 35 houses, which are built of wood, and are two or three stories high. He left Reital on the 21st of May 1817. On the 31st he descended to the bed of the river, and saw the Ganges issue from under a very low arch, at the foot of the grand snow bed. The river was bounded on the right and left by high rocks and snow, but in front over the debouchee, the mass of snow was perpendicular, and from the bed of the stream to the summit, the thickness was estimated at little less than 300 feet of solid frozen snow, probably the accumulation of ages, as it was in layers of several feet thick, each seemingly the remains of a fall of a separate year. From the brow of this curious wall of snow, and immediately above the outlet of the stream, large and hoary icicles depended. The Gaghoutri Brahmin, who accompanied Captain Hodgson, and who was an illiterate mountaineer, observed, that he thought these icicles must be Mahadeo's hair, from whence, he understood, it is written in the Schaster, the Ganges flows. Captain Hodgson thinks that the appellation of the Cow's mouth is aptly given to this extraordinary debouchee. The height of the arch of snow is only sufficient to let the stream flow under it.
The height of the halting-place, near which the Ganges issues from under the great snow bed, is calculated to be 12,914 feet above the sea; and the height of a peak of the Himalaya, called St George by Captain Hodgson, is estimated to be 22,240 feet above the surface of the sea.
Captain Hodgson, in his account of the course of the river Jumna, observes, that at Jumnoutri, the snow which covers and conceals the stream is about 60 yards wide, and is bounded on the right and left by precipices of granite; it is 404 feet thick, and has fallen from the precipices above. He was able to measure the thickness of the bed of snow over the stream very accurately, by means of a plumb line let down through one of the holes in it, which are caused by the steam of a great number of boiling springs at the border of the Jumna, the thickness 40 feet 5 inches. The head of the Jumna is on the S. W. side of the grand Himalaya ridge, differing from the Ganges, inasmuch as that river has the upper part of its course within the Himalaya, flowing from the south of east to the north of west, and it is only from Sookie, when it passes through the Himalaya, that it assumes a course of about south 20 west. The mean latitude of the hot springs of Jumnoutri appears to 30,58. Captain Hodgson made his observation April 21, 1817.
M. GIESEKE, professor of mineralogy to the Dublin Society, will shortly pubfish, in German and English, an account of his eight years' residence in Greenland, ornamented with charts and views. The first visit he paid to this inhospitable country continued for four years, during which time he was sedulously employed in collecting objects of natural history, &c. Unfortunately the vessel which was conveying these articles to Denmark, being taken by an English privateer, the cargo was sold at Leith for the paltry sum of £15; an unconquerable love for science, however, stimulated M.Gieseke to renew his labours in Greenland, and after another four years' residence in this wild country, he succeeded in forming a second and enlarged collection of natural curiosities, which will soon form a part of the museum at Vienna.
M. Loder, the celebrated landscapeartist of Vienna, who accompanied the
Duchess of Parma to Italy as drawingmaster, will shortly publish a collection of magnificent views in that country.
Adriatic Surveyed.-The survey of the Adriatic Sea, begun by Austrian and Neapolitan Officers, is continued with all possible perseverance. It is understood, that an English Officer, well experienced in Nautical surveys, has a vessel under his command for the same purpose. We are certainly interested in this undertaking by our possession of Corfou.
Paper, superior to common. The haber dasher Ehrenhold, at Copenhagen, has discovered a method of making paper from the Alga Marina; which is reported to be superior in whiteness and strength to any paper prepared from linen rags.
The art of making paper from the Alga Marina is not a new invention; but, it is possible that in the improved state of manufactures, and especially of Chemistry, a considerable improvement may be made on processes before imagined. There are several other plants, also, at present of no use, from which very good paper might be made: but, we know not at what compara
Dictionary of Danish and Norwegian Authors. The second part of the dictionary of Danish and Norwegian authors, including living writers, will be published in the course of the present year. This work is printed in quarto in columns; and the day of the author's birth and death, the principal epochs in his literary life, and a complete list of his works, are all given with great accuracy. Falsehood and calumny are said to be alike excluded from this publication.
Logic and Metaphysics,
Education and Elementary Works,
Finances and Taxes,
An Almanack of the Muses in Dutch for
Number of works published in France in 1820, to include the productions of the the year 1818. most celebrated living poets, is announced. Physics,
A third edition of the learned Schneider's Greek and German Dictionary, in two large volumes, quarto, will shortly be published at Leipsic.
Weimar, consisting of political and scienA new Journal is about to appear at tific essays, nearly on the plan of the pamphleteer, published in England.
M. Baucer is about to publish an important work on botany, mineralogy, and meteorology; the result of observations and discoveries in the mountains of Franconia.
and Roman tombs and altars discovered
different disorders, particularly in chronic
Icelandic Literature. From some interesting accounts respecting the modern literature of Iceland, we learn, that a translation has been made of Milton's Paradise Lost, and of the first fourteen books of Klopstock's Messiah, into the language of that country, by John ThorlakBaegisa, and lives in a little hut, situated son, a native. This poet is a minister at neighbourhood of torrents and foaming catabetween three high mountains, and in the The room in which he studies and
Varieties, Mathematical Recreations, &c. 22
The Lancasterian System of Education 243 is about to be published in Spanish, and
71 dedicated, by permission, to king Ferdi47 nand.
sleeps is scarcely large enough to contain a bed, a table, and a chair, and the entrance is not four feet in height. His whole inalthough he serves two parishes. So little come does not exceed six guineas a year, formerly, the ministers had not more than is required to support life in Iceland, that, thirty shillings for their annual stipend.
In the Russian language, a geographical manual of the Russian Empire, in two volumes by C. M. de Broemsen, who, during 25 years active peregrination of this vast country, has been enabled to visit the greater part of it. The work includes particular observations on the soil; and on the industry, commerce, manners, and customs, of its inhabitants.
The literature of Iceland has lately be come an object of research in Sweden and 360 Norway; and the royal library at Stockholm possessing a great number of Iceland MSS. the Professor Lilliegren is now occupied in translating and preparing them for publication. The first volume has appeared, and a second is in great forwardness.
WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.
Mr J. S. Cotman of Yarmouth, has in great forwardness, in folio, a Series of Finished Etchings, with Descriptions, of the Ecclesiastical and Castellated Antiquities of Normandy, from drawings made by himself.
The Iron Mask, a poem, ascribed to the pen of J. D. Humphreys, Esq. great-grandson of the late Dr Doddridge, and author of the Recluse of the Pyrenees, will be published in May.
Remarks on the Fore-knowledge of God, suggested by passages in Dr Adam Clark's Commentary on the New Testament, by Gill Timms.
Mr Dodwell's long promised Travels will certainly appear in May, accompanied by the first portion of his Views in Greece. Sir W. Gell's Itinerary of Greece.
Mr Samuel Drew, author of an Original Essay on the Immateriality and Immortality of the Soul, and of an Essay on the Identity and Resurrection of the Body, proposes to publish by subscription, an Essay, entitled, an Attempt to Demonstrate, from Reason, and from Revelation, the necessary Existence, Essential Perfections, and Superintending Providence of an Eternal Being,
who is the Creator, Supporter, and Governor of all things.
In the press, and speedily will be published, in 8vo, illustrated with 5 plates, an Enquiry, illustrating the Nature of Tuberculated Accretions of Şerous Membranes, and the Origin of Tubercles and Tumours in different Textures of the Body; by John Baron, M.D. Physician to the General Infirmary at Gloucester.
On the first of May will be published, the first part of a new work, entitled, Excursions through Ireland; to be comprised in eight volumes, and containing four hundred engravings, with Historical and Topographical Delineations of each Province; together with Descriptions of the Residences of the Nobility and Gentry, Remains of Antiquity, &c.
Dr Spurzheim is preparing for the press, a Treatise on the Education of Youth, founded on the Discrimination of Individual Character, by the form of the head.
Shortly will be published, the Fourth and Final Part of the Architectural Perspective Views of every Parish Church in London.
Dr Thornton will shortly publish his Juvenile Botany; being an easy Introduction to that Science, through the means of familiar Conversation, illustrated with numerous plates.
An Appendix to the Synopsis Plantarum Succulentarum cum Descriptionibuts, Synonymis, &c. Auctore A. H. Haworth, F.L.S. 8vo. 5s.
ham House, and which will be sold by Mr Evans in the month of May.
To be published in a few days, Peter Bell, a tale, in verse; by William Wordsworth, Esq. in 8vo, uniformly with the Lyrical Ballads and other poems, by the same author.
MONTHLY LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
A Catalogue of a rare and curious Collection of Books, being a recent importation from Italy, in early classics and grammars; Italian poetry, romance, and Facetiæ; English, Scotch, and Irish history; voyages and travels; manuscripts, &c. &c. forming vol. II. part I. of a Catalogue for 1818-19. 2s. 6d.
A Collection of Letters, Relative to Public Events in the latter half of the 17th century, from the originals in the archives of the Rawdon family in Ireland, with an Introduction and Notes, is printing.
Miss Lucy Aikin has nearly ready, in an 8vo vol. Memoirs of the Court of King
James the First.
A Catalogue of Books in various Branches of Literature; including a large collection of Sermons, and a copious list of Moral and Religious Tracts; also of single Sermons and Pamphlets; by F. C. and J. Rivington. William Baynes' General Catalogue of VOL. V.
Conversations on Geology, in a duodecimo vol. will soon appear.
The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal; exhibiting a View of the Progress of Discovery in Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Natural History, &c. Number I. to be published on the 1st of June, and to be continued Quarterly.
The Lay of Agincourt, with other poems, will appear in the course of the month of May.
Old Books for 1819; including many scarce and valuable articles in history, antiquities, voyages, travels, biography, poetry, arts, sciences, divinity, and books of prints, &c. also a large collection of foreign theology and classics. 3s.
Catalogue of Cooks, principally Foreign, now selling by J. H. Bohte and Co., York
A Catalogue of Books, on Medicine, Surgery, Anatomy, &c. &c., imported from the Continent. by Boosey and Sons, BroadStreet: also a Catalogue of Foreign Engravings, Wood-Cuts, &c. &c.
Ogle, Duncan, and Co.'s select Catalogue of Divinity for 1819.
Biographia Hibernica; being the first volume of a Biographical Dictionary of the Worthies of Ireland, from the earliest period to the present time, edited by Richard Ryan, and embellished with a fine portrait of the late John Philpot Curran, 8vo. 15s.
Memoirs of the Rev. Henry Martin, B.D. late Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Chaplain to the Hon. East India Company; extracted from his Private Journals, written at Cambridge, on his Voyage to India, in Bengal, and in Persia, 8vo. 12s.
The Cyclopædia of Commerce; comprising a Code of Commercial Law, Practice, Customs, and Information, and exhibiting the Present State of Commerce, Home,
The Quarterly Review, No. XXXVIII. The Second Edition (making in all Fourteen Thousand Seven Hundred and Fifty Copies printed) to which is now added, a complete Copy of the Original Bill for appointing a Commission to inquire into the Abuses in Charities, &c. as it was first printed after its introduction into the House, 8vo. 6s. New Editions of the former Numbers have been again reprinted, and Subscribers are thus enabled to complete their Sets. Any Number may now be had separately, price 6s.
Tables, by which are exhibited, at one view, all the Divisions of each Circle on the Dividing Plate of the Small Wheel of the Lathe; intended as a Companion to the Drilling Frame; by C. H. Rich, Esq.; Author of Specimens of Ornamental Turning. 4to. 9s. bds
Warden Refuted; being a defence of the British navy against the misrepresentations of his work, entitled a Statistical, &c. View of the United States. 8vo. 2s. 6d.
Letters from the North of Italy, addressed to Henry Hallam, Esq.; by William Stewart Rose. 2 vols. 8vo. 18s.