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SCOTS MAGAZINE.

MDCCLXXXII.

VOLUME

XLIV.

Ne quid falfi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat,

E DIN BURGH:

Printed by MURRAY and COCHRAN,

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SCOTS MAGAZINE,

SCOTS

J A NU A RY,

17 8 2.

cluded 7.

C ο Ν Τ Ε Ν T S. desvAL REGISTER 1780. Retrospective | Memoirs of the late Lord HAWKE 7. view of affairs in 1979. Scare of the bel- AMERICA. Letter to Lord Stirling, giving ligerent powers in Germany 1. Pacific an account of an expedition in Canada 27. views of the Empress. Queen, feconded by Troops sent to the southern colonies 28. Ruffia and France 3. Treaty of peace Maj. Craig leaves Wilmington ib. Proconcinded Differences betweca Russia clamation by Gen. Lellie ib. Counter and the Porte ib. New con veation con- proclamations are issued by the American

generals ib. Accounts of the taking of St PARLIAMENT. Mr For's motion for an Eustatius 19. Convoy arrives at Barbadoes inquiry into the conduct of the First Lord 31. State of French fleet at Martinico 32. of the Admiralty o. Speeches of Capt. J. Adm. Hood arrives in the West Indies Lottrell and Lord Mulgrave it. Papers from America ib. moved for 12. Jaquiry postponed ih. en- Fabricius on the AMERICAN WAR. Lete tered upon ib. , Speeches, of Mr Fox 12. ter V. 32. Lord Mulgrave 16. Lord Howe 19. Mr|| Fictitious penitencial LETTER to M. ArWebb 20. Divifion ib.

naud 34: Aoswer 35. Sublance of ADMIRALTY-PAPERS laid || POETRY. Prologue and Epilogue to the before the House of Commons 20.

Miniature Picture 44. Ode to the Sun ANECDOTE, from a Philadelphia newspaper 45.

HISTORICAL AFFAIRS. Foreiga 46.-50. New Books. Falconer on the influence

Domestic 50.-$4. Religion 40. Hisory, Lists. Marriages, Births, &c. 54. 56. Law, Politics ib. Medicine 42. Miscel. | TABLES. Linca, Aberdeen Informary, &c. lancous 44. Plays and Poetry ib.

$6.

26.

of climate 36.

ambition, are so eminently calculated to ANNUAL REGISTER for 1780.

excite. [Published in thĆ end of January 1782 ] We have heretofore shewn, that this HISTORY.

was not so much a war of choice, as of Retrospective view of affairs in 1779.

prudence, foresight, and political necel

sity, on the side of the King of Pruffia. HE little effect produced by He made no claims; he had no immes

the contention of the greateft diate object of enlarging his dominions in leaders, and of the greatest view ; nor if he had, was the present state

armies in the world, during of public affairs in any degree favourable the campaign of 1978, in Bohemia, if to such a design. Neither his time af bot entirely fufficient to produce an actual life, his great experience in war, nor the desire of peace on both sides, could not, full knowledge he had of the power and however, fail to induce a kind of languor ability of his adversary, were at all calend wearifomeness, and in some confi- culated to excite a spirit of enterprise. On derable degree to wear away that quick the contrary, the defire of settling, imfelih, and keen appetite for war, which proving, and consolidating with his angreat and untried force and talents, acting cient people and dominions, the new under the fanguine hopes of yet unfoiled subjects and acquisitions he had gained

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on the side of Poland, together with that ly baffled all the efforts made by the King ftill ftronger with, of transmitting a peace, of Prusia for gaining his favourite point able possession, and undiminished force, of a general action, and defcated his to his successor, were objects which views of obtaining any sure hold in the tended powerfully to dispose him to the country, tended more remotely to that preservation, so far as it could be pro• effect. Such a view of the circumstances perly and wisely done, of the public of the campaign, could afford no great tranquillity.

encouragement to an obftinate perseveBut no masives, however cogent, rance in the contest. A defensive war, could justify to him, in a political view,' however ably conducted, or however the admitting of any considerable addition abounding with negative success, could of strength and dominion to the power by no means, whether in point of honour of the house of Austria ; '

more especially, or effect, aniwer the purposes for which when this addition was to establith a pre. it was undertaken ; and the prospects of cedent of innovatiou and dismemberment, changing its nature were confined indeed. which might in time be equally extended However numerous or cogent the to all the other states that compose the causes and motives we have afligned, or Germanic body. Upon the whole, it' others of a fimilar nature, might have would almoft leem, as if fortune, who been on either side, for the discontinuance had so often wonderfully befriended that of an unprofitable war, they would have hero, and whose apparent defertions of been found unable to subdue the strong him in cases of great danger, (which were paffions by which they were opposed, il nu less conspicuous than,ber favours.), al- another, of greater power than the whole ways tended ultimately to the increase taken together, had not, happily foi of his fame, was now anxious to affix a Germany, and perhaps for no small par new stamp to the renown of her old fà- of the reit of Europe, supervened in re vourite; and of closing his great military storing the public tranquillity. The late actions by a war, in which he was to ap- illustrious Maria Theresa, along with he pear, rather as the generous protector of other eminent virtues and great qualities the rights and liberties of the Germanic pofleffed at all times, however counter body at large, than as acting at all under acted by the operation of a high an the influence of any partial policy. powerful ambition, a mind strongly im

On the other side, the past compaign, pressed with an awful sense of religion had afforded a full conviction to the Em. This disposition, which naturally increa peror (a prince prepared for war beyond red with years, was farther strengthene almost any other, by the fine state of his by the melancholy arising from the earl armies, and the resources of his own in- loss of a husband whom he tender defatigable and resolute spirit) of the im- loved ; and was latterly finally confirm menfe difficulty: of making any fuccell- ed, by the happy settlement of ber mu ful impreslion upon such an adversary as merous offspring, which freeing the min the King of Prullia. With so vast a force, from care and solicitude, tended equall and affitted by such consummate com- to wean it from the affairs of the work manders, he could only act upon the de. The event of the late struggle with th fenfive ; and could not prevent his own King of Pruslia, notwithstanding the in dominions from being rendered the thea, menfe affiftance the then received, an tre, and being consequently subjected to which Me could not hope now to receiv all the calamities of war. It was true must have added great lorce to thefe m indeed, and no small matter of boalt in tives, She could not wish to end her li such a contest, that he had suffered nei. in the midft of such a war. It was a ther defeat nor disgrace; that the enemy cordingly much against the inclinatio had been obliged to abandon Bohemia, of that great Princess, that the prefe notwithstanding their utmost endeavours war was undertaken; and she is said to establish a secure footing there during have submitted with the greatest relu ibe winter; and likewise, that the losses tance, to the opinion of her council, ai on both sides were pretty cqually balan: the defire of the Emperor, on that poir ced. But then it was obvious, that the Foralthough that Prince could only deri feason was the immediate, caufe which his means of action through the power compelled the enemy to retreat from his mother; yet it would have been · Bohemia; however, the good disposi, matter of exceeding difficulty to her, tions made by the Emperor, which equal rectly to thwart the opinion and inclin

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ticas of a son, who was in the highest grand and capital objects, the neceflity degree deservedly dear to her, who was of keeping her force whole, her attention to be ber fole and immediate succeffor, undivided, and of restoring peace upon and who scarcely stood higher in her af. the continent, were all equally obvious, fation than in her esteem. It was pro- and were all mutually dependent. No bably abis reluctance to the war, on the wisdom could foresee, or venture to prea site of the Empress-Queen, which pro: scribe, what unexpected connections and diced those various appearances of luc- alliances might spring up, and what new tuation in the councils, or of irresolution collisions of interests might take place, and indecifion in the condu&t, of the court under a further progress of the war. of Vienna, of which we have formerly. ta.. France could not recollect the ruin ken notice. [vol. 42.]

brought upon her in the late war, withThe ineffectiveness of the campaign, out shuddering at the thoughts of Ger. the equal fortune of the war, and the many. It is not then to be wondered, cellation of action occasioned by the win- that she was equally fincere and zealous ter, ferved, all together, to produce a in her endeavours to restore tranquillity fate of temper and difpofition, which on the continent. was far more favourable to the pacific The court of Petersburg had from the views and wishes of the Empress, than beginning shewn and expressed the strongthat which had hitherto prevailed. She eft disapprobation of the conduct, and perceived, and seized the opportunity; paid no favourable attention to the and immediately applying her powerful claims, of that of Vienna ; and had earinfluence to remove the obstacles which ly avowed a full intention of effectually food in the way of an accommodation on supporting the rights of the Germanic the one fide, had foon the fatisfaction of body; at the same time that preparations discovering ibat her views were well fe- were actuaily made for the march of a canded, by the temperate dispolision large body of Rusian troups. Her rbich prevailed on the other.

powerful interpofition, through the meIt is, bowever, to be observed, that the dium of her minister Prince Repnin, had mediation of the court of Versailles, and no small effect in facilitating the negotia. the powerful interposition of the court of tions for peace. Petersburg, contributed essentially to fur- Under such circumftances, and the ofther the work of peace. France was fices of such mediators, little doubt was bound, by the treaty of 1756, to assist to be entertained of the event. Whe, the court of Vienna with a confiderable ther it proceeded from a view of giving body of forces, in case of a war in Ger- weight to their claims in the expected mang; and she had been called upon treaty, or from any jealousy in point of early in the present contest to fulfil that arms or honour, which might have lain engagement. The court of Versailles behind from the preceding compaign, was likewise disposed to wish well to the however it was, the Auitrians attacked house of Austria from private motives; with extraordinary vigour, and with no as well as to cultivate and cement the small degree of success, several of the Dew friendship and alliance from public. Prussian Posts on the side of Silefia and But France being likewise a guarantee of the couniy of Glatz, soon after the comthe treaty of Westphalia, her old engage. mencement of the year. The liveliness ments militated totally with her new in of these insults did not induce the King the present instance; the being thereby to any eagerness of retaliation. Points bound to resist all such infračions and of honour of that nature weighed but invasions of the rights of the Germanic little with him. Fle foresaw that an aca body, as those which she was now called commodation would take place; and he upon by the court of Vienna to support. knew that no advantages which could She must therefore, in any situation in now be gained would teil in the account which she was not disposed io become an upon that settlement; whilft a number absolute party in the contest, wish to be of brave men would be idly loft without relieved from this dilemma. But ber ubject or equivaleni. An armistice on. war with England, and her views with all lives was, however, publithed on the respect to America, operated more forci- ioth of March 1779, before the season bly upon her conduci on this occasion, could have admitted the doing of any than any German treaties or connections. thing effential, if firch bad even been the la the contemplation and pursuit of these intention,

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