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in but now and then one, as opportunity of business makes them able. The coaches, which had wont to rumble up and down as they would challenge heaven to thunder for a wager, and did use to lie in the palace yard, and before the inns of court gates, like so many basses, or fleets of fisher-boats in harbour, pearing over the haven-keys, now seem like western barges on the Thames at a high tide, here and there one.

And you are no sooner out of the hall-yard, but, entering into Kingstreet, you find the cooks leaning against door-posts, ruminating upon those Halcyon terms, when whole herds of clerks, sollicitors, and their clients, had wont to come with their sharp-set noses and stomachs from the hall, and devour the puddings and minced pyes by dozens, as swiftly as a kennel of hounds would worry up a dead horse, and now the courts are risen before they are hungry; the taverns, where an iron maill would hardly have drowned the noise of the yawling boys, the bar-bell, the fiddling and roaring above stairs, are now so silent you may rock a child asleep : The spruce mistress, that had wont to sit in the bar, domineering over the drawers, and not to be spoken withal, if you would kiss her arse to speak with her, now so familiar, bids you so heartily welcome, and will come and join her half pint with you, and let you salute her, and thank you, and think it very well, if all that courtesy will invite you to mount the reckoning to a pottle; the alehouses and tobacco-shops are grown swett for want of takings, you may walk by them without danger of being choaked.

· All along the Strand (lodgings being empty) you shall find the house, kcepers gencrally projecting where to borrow, and what to pawn towards payment of their quarter's rents, thereby to preserve their leases from forfeiture, and themselves from the tyranny, of their stern landlords, who are very infidels in trusting, and will not forbear a minute; nay, the mischief' on it is, there are no courtiers nor bad paymasters to curse and rail at for want of money, and that is the heaviest torment of all..

If you step aside into Covent Garden, Long-Acre, and Drury-Lane, where those doves of Venus, those birds of youth and beauty (the wanton ladies) do build their nests, you shall find them in such a dump of amazeinent, to see the hopes of their trading frustrate, their beautics decayed for want of means to procure Pomatum and Fucus : Their eyes, which like glistering comets had wont to dazzle their idolaters, now shadowed with clouds of grief; their golden tresses, which had wont to fag about their shoulders, like so many ensigns in Cupid's regiment, and every hair thereof had a servant or visitant, which did snperstitiously dote on it, now for want of curling and ordering, grown to the fashion of an Irish rug; and what a misery it is to see the velvets, sattins, and taffaties, nay the curious smocks sent to the brokers, and the whole wardrobe, that was purchased with so large a proportion of free favours and communities, now reduced to one poor tufted Holland suit? Is it not pity to see them, poor souls, who had wont to shine like so many constellations in the firmament of the suburbs, and be hurried in coaches to the taverns, and asparagus-gardens, where ten or twenty pounds suppers were but trifles with them, should now go to the chandlers and herb-wives in slip-shoes, for cheese and onions to dinner? Well, content yourselves (you attractive loadstones,

ef delicious, and smooth damnation) and doubtless the arch-angel, my successor, will bring your angels to redeem all ; and your champions and cavaliers will return with pockets doubly furnished, for you are as sure of them, as they are of your diseases; they are now but only purchasing, and laging up for you against their coming home; this dearth of traffick is but a preparation to a large mart to follow, and this devouring winter of penury doth but presage a lively spring in the hot blood of the young gallantry, which when it comes, you shall again enjoy those blessings of wine, inusk, good cloaths, money and dainty fare ; be enabled to pay your railing landladies, and defy the bradle with as much impudence, as ever you did.

Well, from you, I must follow the steps of many an old leacherous citizen, and walk into London, where, at the exchange, the only question that is asked is, what news ? Not from Aleppo, Constantinople, the Streights, or Indies, but from York, Ireland, and the parliament; the answer is, why the King is still obstinate, we shall have all our throats cut, those Epicurean throats of ours are doomed to be cut, for swallowing so many luxurious cates ; we had need to prick up our cars, and elevate our broad overgrown horns for the safety of ourselves, estates, and children; marry; as for our wives, they know well enough already the dangers of courtiers and cavaliers, and therefore dare meet the roughest gamester of them all in any posture whatsoever.

From hence I travel to Guildhall, where I find the lawyers complaining of infinite numbers of bankrupts, men so far decayed in estate, that they will compound to pay more than half, confess judgments, render their bodies to prison, prostitute their wives, or any thing rather than stand out the prosecution of a suit at law.

Then at the balls of every several company, where, in former ages, all the elements would scarce afford variety, to please the ingenious gluttony of one single feast, now you shall hear the meaner sort of tradesmen cursing those devouring foxes, the masters and wardens, for the infinite charge their insatiate stomachs do put then to; from hence go to their particular shops, where there is nothing amongst the trades. men, but condoling the want of the courtiers money, and their wives and daughters almost distracted for want of their cumpany ; there are no upstart gallants to draw into their books, no young beirs to exchange shop-ware for lordships withal, nor any trading one with another, in which they are so familiarly acquainted with each others knaveries, that, alas! their gaines are as good as nothing : And amongst theni all that quintessence of unquestionable simplicity, the very spirit of villany, extracted out of all compounded villanies ; that master-piece or idea of dissimulation, which nature made her example to protraicture a rogue by, the Roundhead, who had wont to eat and pray, for the propagation of the brethren and sisters of the seditious faction, now is invoking of curses upon the malignant party (the Ahitophels, as he calls them, of the King's council) he sneaks into the corners of the city, and, after a licking of his lips, a spitting, and a casting up his ugly eyes towards the place he is not worthy to look at, he whispers a tale through his rotten nose, of a great danger that is fallen upon the kingdom; and strange discoveries of imminent mischiess, which had

bappened, if by some providence towards the brethren of the selected sedition, and for their sakes only, it had not been prevented ; and then at length he tells you, that, if the prince were but at St. James's, there would be something done that St. Hilary dares not repeat after him: This thin jawed, ill-looking, hungry rascal; this beetle browed, holloweyed, long-nosed, wide-mouthed cur: This carrion that stinks worse than the corrupted river of Egypt; this cockatrice that hath hatched more serpentine distempers, than all the grave wisdom of a pregnant kingdom can pacify, hath been the sole cause of poor St. Hilary's tears; who would think this ideot, this fathomless-bellied, thin-gutted snake should begin to hiss, and shew his sting, before the glorious splendor of those excellent worthies of our hopeful parliament could have leisure to disperse itself upon this starved kingdom; that this owl, this buzzard, should be the instrument to bring clouds upon all their proceedings, and yet, without doubt, will be the first that will oppose, and curse them, when they shall please to declare that, in the title of Puritan, they never intended blue apron preachers, Brownist or Anabaptist : And yet this secure, confident, impudent, malignant, twenty times damned Heretick dares attribute all their favour to himself: well may St. Hilary's curse pursue him: Nay the unquenchable zeal of his next prayer prolong the nonsense and foolery thereof to so large a measure of time, that all the roast-meat be burnt off the spit, before he has done; the white broth boiled dry, and the stewed and baked meat Scorched to cinders, which in his opinion is one of the greatest earthly curses that can befall him. May his wife be catched in the spiritual act of her next carnal copulation, that all the world may discover what yet they carry so closely; may the fervency of his hot zeal to the younger sisters burn his reins and kidnies to ashes; and, instead of an hospital, let him be cast into the saw-pit he so often defiled under pretence of edification; let him be buried amongst the dunghills, as not worthy to come near the church he so abused, where none may find his grave but dous to piss against it; may the ashes of his loathed carcase be collected from the pestiferous urn, by murderers and mountebanks, to mix with their killing potions; and may no poison ever hereafter be operative, but what is compounded with that infernal dust, that, as he lived to the confusion of all goodness and virtue, so he may after death be known or mentioned by no other notion, than some fate boading character, that brings with it the dreadful summons of a woeful horrour to'ensue, till which end be fallen upon him we shall never sce day of good trading again; but, when it is accomplished, St. Hilary will make holidays and, instead of his tears, will send you hymns and madrigals for joy of the Roundheads confusion, and your more full employment.





1. A discourse touching regal and politick government. 2. A prince

must be just in his sentence. 3. What man is fit to be a governor, and to bear rule. 4. That a prince ought to be true to his word. 5. That a prince ought to be religious. 6. That a prince ought not to shed innocent blood. 7. That a prince ought to be circumspect in giving credit to evil reports. 8. That a prince ought to beware of parasites. 9. What kind of men ought to be of the king's council. 10. That it is dangerous for a prince to take aid of a stranger. 11. How a prince may get and keep the love of his subjects. 12. That a prince ought to be well advised how he begin a war.

London, printed for Henry Hutton, 7642. Quarto, containing one sheet.


S in natural things, the head being cut off, the rest cannot be call

ed a body; no more can in politick things a multitude, or commonalty, without a head, be incorporate : Therefore a people desiring to live in society, and willing to erect either a polítick body or a kingdom, must, of necessity, chuse one to govern that body, who, in a kingdom, of Regendo, is called Rex; and so by the people is established a kingdom, which government is absolutely the best. And as the head of the physical body cannot change the reins and sinews thereof, nor deny the members their proper strength and necessary nutriture; no more can a king, who is head of the politick body, alter or change the laws of that body, or take from the people their goods or substance against their wills; for a king is chosen (and bound) to maintain the laws of his subjects, and to defend their bodies and goods. So Brute, arriving in this island with his Trojans, erected here a regal and politick governé ment which hath for the most part continued ever since: For, though we bave had many changes, as first the Romans, then the Saxons, then the Danes, and lastly the Normans, yet, in the time of all these nations, and during their reigns, the kingdom was for the most part governed in the same manner as it is now. Plutarch saith, that all at first that governed were called Tyrants, but afterwards the good governors called Kings. For, though a man by force do subdue cities and countries, yet he ought to rule according to reason, and, if he knew God, according to the law of God: But when he is admitted king by the people, and hath his power from them, he may not 'subject the people to any other power; yet he hath a great and large prerogative, which he may use at his pleasure.

And here I think it not amiss to set down some few laws and customs of other common-wealths, whereby their good government may appear, they not being christians. Ptolemæus, King of Egypt, feasted one day seven ambassadors, which, at his request, shewed unto him three of their principal laws and customs. And first the ambassador of Rome said, We have the temples in great reverence, we are very obedient to our governors, and we do punish wicked men severely. The Carthaginian ambassador said, Our noblemen never left fighting, the artificers never left labouring, nor the philosophers never left teaching. The Sicilian said, In our common-wealth justice is exactly kept, merchandise is exercised with truth, and all men account themselves equal. The Rhodians said, That, at Rhodes, old men are honest, young men shamefaced, and womeu use very few words. The Athenians said, In our common-wealth rich men are not suffered to be divided into factions, nor poor men to be idle, nor the governors to be ignorant. The Lacedemonians said, In Sparta envy reigneth not, for all men are equal; nor covetousness, for all goods are common; nor sloth, for all men labour. In our common-wealth, said the ambassador of the Sicyonians, voyages are not permitted, because they should not bring home new factions ; physicians are not suffered, lest they should kill the sound; nor lawyers to take upon them the defence of causes and suits. And to these may be added Anacharsis's letter to the Athenians, wherein he counselleth them to chuse a king that is just in his sentence, true to his word, constant in his act, secret and liberal, for these be the principal moral virtues most necessary in a prince.

A prince ought to be just in his sentence, according to the words of Sulomon Wisd. 1. saying, “ Love justice, you that judge the earth ;' for a just king doth advance his country; and the king, that judgeth the poor rightly, his throne shall be established for ever.

Now, to show what manner of man is fittest to govern, I read in Livy, that men born in arms, great in deeds, and rude in eloquence, ought to be chosen counsellors; and that men of quick spirits, sharp wits, and learned in the law, and eloquence, should be for the city; for the prince ought to be a martial man, stout and courageous, to defend his subjects, and offend his enemies; not to be curious to speak eloquently, but to deliver his mind plainly and wisely, it being more necessary for a prince to do well, than speak well. Paucinus saith, those are to be hated, who in their acts are fools, and in their words philoso. phers; for wise words are not commendable, if the deeds be not answerable : They therefore, saith Plato, that will have glory in this life, and attain to glory after death, and be beloved of many, and feared of all, let them be virtuous in good works, and deceive no man with vain words. All good and worthy princes have laboured to attain to this wisdom, and to exact justice most exactly, insomuch that some have

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