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Under so excellent a princess as the present queen, we suppose a family strictly regulated.

Swift. 2. A sovereign lady of rank, next to that of a queen.

3. The daughter of a king.

Here the bracelet of the truest princess That ever swore her faith.


4. The wife of a prince: as, the princess of Wales.

PRINCIPAL. adj. [principal, Fr. principalis, Latin.]

1. Princely. A sense found only in Spenser. A latinism.

Suspicion of friend, nor fear of foe, That hazarded his health, had he at all;

But walk'd at will, and wandred to and fro, In the pride of his freedom principal. Spenser. 2. Chief; of the first rate; capital; essential; important; considerable.

This latter is ordered, partly and as touching principal matters by none but precepts divine only; partly and as concerning things of inferior regard by ordinances, as well human as divine.


Can you remember any of the principal evils that he laid to the charge of women? Shaks. PRINCIPAL. n. s. [from the adjective.] 1. A head; a chief; not a second.

Seconds in factions do many times, when the faction subdivideth, prove principals. Bacon. 2. One primarily or originally engaged; not an accessary or auxiliary.

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Divine lady, who have wrought such miracles in me, as to make a prince none of the basest, to think all principalities base, in respect of the sheephook. Sidney Nothing was given to Henry, but the name of king; all other absolute power of principality he Spenser. A prince; one invested with sovereignty.


Then speak the truth by her; if not divine, Yet let her be a principality, Sov'reign to all the creatures on the earth.

Shakspeare. Nisroch of principalities the prime. Milion The country which gives title to a prince: as, the principality of Wales. To the boy Cæsar send this grizled head, And he will fill thy wishes to the brim With principalities.

Shakspeare The little principality of Epire was invincible by the whole power of the Turks. Temple. 4. Superiority; predominance.

In the chief work of elements, water hath the principality and excess over earth. Digby. If any mystery be effective of spiritual bless ings, then this is much more, as having the prerogative and principality above every thing else. Tayler. PRINCIPALLY. adv. [from principal.) Chiefly; above all; above the rest.

If the minister of divine offices shall take upon him that holy calling for covetous or ambitious ends, or shall not design the glory of God Tayler principally, he polluteth his heart.

They wholly mistake the nature of criticism, who think its business is principally to find fault. Dryden.

The resistance of water arises principally from the vis inertia of its matter, and, by conse quence, if the heavens were as dense as water, they would not have much less resistance than Newton.


What I principally insist on, is due execution. Swift, PRINCIPALNESS. n. s. [from principal.] The state of being principal or chief. PRINCIPIA'TION, n. s. [from principium, Latin.] Analysis into constituent or ele mental parts. A word not received. The separating of any metal into its original or clement, we will call principiation. PRINCIPLE. n. s. [principium, Lat. prixcipe, French.]


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Element; constituent part; primordial


Modern philosophers suppose matter to be one simple principle, or solid extension diversitied by its various shapes.

2. Original cause.


Some few, whose lamp shone brighter, have

been led

From cause to cause to nature's secret bead,

And found that one first principle must be. Dry.


For the performance of this, a vital or directive principle seemeth to be assistant to the corporeal. Gree. 3. Being productive of other being; operative cause.


The soul of man is an active principle, and will be employed one way or other. 4. Fundamental truth; original postulate; first position from which others are deduced.

Touching the law of reason, there are in it some things which stand as principles universally agreed upon; and out of those principles, which are in themselves evident, the greatest moral duties we owe towards God or man, may, without any great difficulty, be concluded. Hooker.

Such kind of notions as are general to mankind, and not confined to any particular sect, or nation, or time, are usually styled common notions, seminal principles; and lex nata, by the

Roman orator.


All of them may be called principles, when compared with a thousand other judgments, which we form under the regulation of these priWatts. mary propositions.

5. Ground of action; motive.

Farewel, young lords; these warlike principles Do not throw from you. Shakspeare. As no principle of vanity led me first to write it, so much less does any such motive induce me now to publish it. Wake.

There would be but small improvements in the world, were there not some common principle of action, working equally with all men.

6. Tenet on which morality is founded.
I'll try
If yet I can subdue those stubborn principles
Of faith, of honour.

A feather shooting from another's head,
Extracts his brain, and principle is fled.


All kinds of dishonesty destroy our pretences to an honest principle of mind, so all kinds of pride destroy our pretences to an humble spirit.


To PRINCIPLE. v. a. [from the noun.] 1. To establish or fix in any tenet; to impress with any tenet good or ill. Wisest and best men full oft beguil'd, With goodness principl'd not to reject The penitent, but ever to forgive, Are drawn to wear out miserable days. Milton. It is the concern of his majesty, and the peace of his government, that the youth be principled with a thorough persuasion of the justness of the old king's cause. South.

There are so many young persons, upon the well and ill principling of whom, next under God, depends the happiness or misery of this church South.

and state.

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PRI'NCOCK. n. s. [from prink or prim PRINCOX. 3 cock; perhaps præcox or præcoquum ingerium, Lat.] A coxcomb; a conceited person; a pert young rogue. A ludicrous word. Obsolete. You are a saucy boy;

This trick may chance to scathe you I know what;

You must contrary me! you are a princox, go. Shakspeare. To PRINK. v. n. [pronken, Dutch.] To

prank; to deck for show. It is the diminutive of prank.

Hold a good wager she was every day longer prinking in the glass than you was. Art of Tormenting. To PRINT. v. a. [imprimer, empreint, French.]

1. To mark by pressing any thing upon another.

On his fiery steed betimes he rode, That scarcely prints the turf on which he trod. Dryden. 2. To impress any thing, so as to leave its form.

Perhaps some footsteps, printed in the clay, Will to my love direct your wand'ring way. Koscommon.

3. To form by impression.


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His royal bounty brought its own reward; And in their minds so deep did print the sense, That if their ruins sadly they regard, "T is but with fear.

Dryden. To impress words or make books, not by the pen, but the press.

This nonsense got in by a mistake of the stage editors, who printed from the piecemeal written parts. Pope.

Is it probable, that a promiscuous jumble of printing letter should often fall into a method, which should stamp on paper a coherent discourse? Locke. As soon as he begins to spell, pictures of animals should be got him, with the printed names Locke.

to them.

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From the moment he prints, he must expect to hear no more truth.

PRINT. n. s. [empreinte, Fr.]
1. Mark or form made by impression.
Some more time


Must wear the print of his remembrance out. Shakspeare.

Abhorred slave, Which any print of goodness wilt not take, Being capable of all ill! Shakspeare.

Attend the foot, That leaves the print of blood where'er it walks. Shakspeare.

Up they tost the sand,

No wheel seen, nor wheels print was in the mould imprest Behind them.

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Which passeth by, and leaves no print behind.

O'er the smooth enamell'd green, Where no print of step hath been.



While the heav'n, by the sun's team untrod, Hath took no print of the approaching light, And all the spangled host keep watch. Milton. Before the lion's den appeared the footsteps of many that had gone in, but no prints of any that ever came out. South.

Winds, bear me to some barren island, Where print of human feet was never seen. Dryden. From hence Astrea took her flight, and here The prints of her departing steps appear. Dryd. If they be not sometimes renewed by repeated exercise of the senses, or reflection, the print Locke.

wears out.

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printer, in that which I ought to have done to comply with my design, I am fallen very short. Digly.

To buy books only because they were pub lished by an eminent printer, is much as if a man should buy cloaths that did not fit him, only because made by some famous taylor. Pope. See, the printer's boy below; Ye hawkers all, your voices lift. Swift. 2. One that stains linen with figures. PRINTLESS. adj. [from print.] That leaves no impression.

Ye elves,


ye, that on the sands with printless foot
Do chase the ebbing Neptune.
Whilst from off the waters fleet,
Thus I set my printless feet,
O'er the cowslip's velvet head,
That bends not as I tread.


PRIOR. adj. [prior, Lat.] Former; being before something else; antecedent; anterior.

Whenever tempted to do or approve any thing contrary to the duties we are enjoined, let us reflect that we have a prior and superior obligation to the commands of Christ. Rogers

PRIOR. 2. s. [prieur, French.]

1. The head of a convent of monks, infe riour in dignity to an abbot.

Neither she, nor any other, besides the prior of the convent, knew any thing of his name.

Spectator 2. Prior is such a person as, in some churches, presides over others in the same churches. Ayliffe. PRIORESS. . s. [from prior.] A lady superiour of a convent of nuns.

When you have vow'd, you must not speak

with men,

But in the presence of the prioress. Shakspeare. The reeve, miller, and cook, are distinguished from each other, as much as the mincing lady prioress and the broad speaking wife of Bath. Dryden. PRIORITY. 2. J. [from prior, adjective.] 1. The state of being first; precedence in


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Though he oft renew'd the fight, And almost got priority of sight, He ne'er could overcome her quite. 2. Precedence in place.

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Follow, Cominius, we must follow you, Right worthy your priority. Shakspeare PRIORSHIP. n. s. [from prior.] The state or office of prior. PRIORY. n. s. [from prior.]

1. A convent, in dignity below an abbey. Our abbies and our priories shall pay This expedition's charge. Shakspeare 2. Priories are the churches which are given to priors in titulum, or by way of Ayliffe. PRI'SAGE. S. [from prise.] A custom, now called butlerage, whereby the prince challenges out of every bark



den with wine, two tuns of wine at price. Corvell.

M. n. s. [prisme, Fr. gioμa.] A prism glass is a glass bounded with two equal parallel triangular ends, and three in and well polished sides, which et in three parallel lines, running m the three angles of one end, to the ee angles of the other end. Newton. Here, awful Newton, the dissolving clouds m, fronting on the sun, thy showery prism. Thomson.

MAʼTICK. adj. [prismatique, Fr. from sm.] Formed as a prism.

the mass of the earth was cubick, prismaor any other angular figure, it would follow, one, too vast a part, would be drowned, and -ther be dry. Derbam.

False eloquence, like the prismatick glass, gaudy colours speads on ev'ry place;

e face of nature we no more survey, glares alike, without distinction gay. Pope. SMATICALLY. adv. [from prismak. In the form of a prism.

Take notice of the pleasing variety of colours ibited by the triangular glass, and demand at addition or decrement of either salt, sulr, or mercury, befalls the glass, by being matically figured; and yet it is known, that thout that shape it would not afford those co rs as it does. Boyle.

SMOʻID. n. s. [aflope and dog.] A ody approaching to the form of a

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Unkind! can you, whom only I adore, et open to your slave the prison door? Dryden. The tyrant olus,

With pow'r in perial, curbs the struggling winds, nd sounding tempests in dark prisons binds.

Dryden. He, that has his chains knocked off, and the risen doors set open to him, is presently at lierty. Locke.

At his first coming to his little village, it was s disagreeable to him as a prison, and every day emed too tedious to be endured in so retired a Law.


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PRISON. v. a. [from the noun.] To imprison; to shut up in hold; to estrain from liberty.

To captivate; to enchain.

Culling their potent herbs and baleful drugs, They, as they sung, would take the prison'd soul, And lap it in Elysium.

To confine.

Universal plodding prisons up


The nimble spirits in the arteries. Shakspeare. Then did the king enlarge

at giocho di canni, which is no other than pri sonbase upon horseback, hitting one another with darts, as the others do with their hands. Sandys. PRISONER. n. s. [prisonnier, Fr.] 1. One who is confined in hold.

Cæsar's ill-erected tower,

To whose flint bosom my condemned lord Is doom'd a prisoner. Shakspeare. The most pernicious infection, next the plague, is the smell of the jail, when prisoners have been long and close, and nastily kept.


He that is tied with one slender string, such as one resolute struggle would break, he is prisoner only to his own sloth, and who will pity his thraldom? Decay of Piety.

A prisoner is troubled, that he cannot go whi ther he would; and he that is at large is troubled, that he does not know whither to go.

L'Estrange. 2. A captive; one taken by the enemy. So oft as homeward I from her depart,

I go like one that, having lost the field,

Is prisoner led away with heavy heart. Spens. There succeeded an absolute victory for the English, the taking of the Spanish general d'Ocampo prisoner, with the loss of few of the English. Bacon. He yielded on my word, And as my pris'ner, I restore his sword. Dryden. 3. One under an arrest.

Tribune, a guard to seize the empress straight, Secure her person pris'ner to the state. Dryden. PRISONHOUSE. n. s. Gaol; hold in which one is confined.

I am forbid to tell the secrets of my prison bouse. Shakspeare. PRISONMENT. n. s. [from prison.] Confinement; imprisonment; captivity.

May be he will not touch young Arthur's life, Shaks. But hold himself safe in his prisonment. PRISTINE. adj. [pristinus, Latin.] First; ancient; original.

Now their pristine worth The Britons recollect.


This light being trajected only through the parallel superficies of the two prisms, if it suffered any change by the refraction of one superficies, it lost that impression by the contrary refraction of the other superficies, and so, being restored to its pristine constitution, became of the same nature and condition as at first.

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The spleen he prison'd. I'SONBASE. n. s. A kind of rural play, commonly called prisonbars.

The spachies of the court play every Friday

Clamours our privacies uneasy make,

Birds leave their hests disturb'd, and beasts their

haunts forsake.

Her sacred privacies all open lie


To each profane enquiring vulgar eye. Rorve privante, Fr.] Privity; joint knowledge; great familiarity. Privacy in this sense is improper.

You see, Frog is religiously true to his bar

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2. Alone; not accompanied. 3. Being upon the same terms with the rest of the community; particular: opposed to publick.

When publick consent of the whole hath established any thing, every man's judgment, being thereunto compared, were private, howsoever his calling be to some kind of publick charge; so that of peace and quietness there is not any way possible, unless the probable voice of every intire society or body politick overrule all private of like nature in the same body. Hooker. He sues

To let him breathe between the heav'ns and earth,

A private man in Athens.


What infinite heartease must kings neglect, That private men enjoy? and what have kings, That private have not too, save ceremony?

Shakspeare. Peter was but a private man, and not to be any way compared with the dukes of his house. Peacham.

The first principles of christian religion should not be farced with school points and private


Dare you,



A private man, presume to love a queen? 4. Particular; not relating to the publick. My end being private, I have not expressed my conceptions in the language of the schools.

Digby. 5. In PRIVATE. Secretly; not publickly; not openly.

In private grieve, but with a careless scorn; In publick seem to triumph, not to mourn. Granville.

PRIVATE. n. s. A secret message. His private with me of the dauphin's love, Is much more general than these lines import. Shakspeare. PRIVATE'ER. n. s. [from private.] A ship fitted out by private men to plunder the enemies of the state.

He is at no charge for a fleet, further than providing privateers, wherewith his subjects carry

on a pyratical war at their own expence. Swift

To PRIVATEʼER. v. a. [from the noun.] To fit out ships against enemies, at the charge of private persons. PRIVATELY, adv. [from private.] Secretly; not openly.

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And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the Matthew. disciples came unto him privately. PRIVATENESS. n. s. [from private.] 1. The state of a man in the same rank with the rest of the community. 2. Secrecy; privacy.

Ambassadors attending the court in great number, he did content with courtesy, reward, Bacon. and privateness.

3. Obscurity; retirement.

He drew him into the fatal circle from a resolved privateness, where he bent his mind to a retired course. Wetter.

PRIVATION. n. s. [privation, Fr. priva tio, Latin.]

1. Removal or destruction of any thing or quality.

For, what is this contagious sin of kind, Davies. But a privation of that grace within?

If the privation be good, it follows not the former condition was evil, but less good: for the flower or blossom is a positive good, although the remove of it, to give place to the fruit, bes comparative good.

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So bounded are our natural desires, That wanting all, and setting pain aside, With bare privation sense is satisfy'd. Dryden. After some account of good, evil will be known by consequence, as being only a privation or absence of good.


A privation is the absence of what does naturally belong to the thing, or which ought to be present with it; as when a man or horse is deaf or dead, or a physician or divine unlearned; these are privations.


2. The act of the mind by which, in considering a subject, we separate it from any thing appendant.

3. The act of degrading from rank or office.

If part of the people or estate be somewhat is the election, you cannot make them nulls or cy phers in the privation or translation. Bacon, PRIVATIVE. adj. [privatif, Fr. priva tivus, Latin.]

1. Causing privation of any thing. 2. Consisting in the absence of something; not positive. Privative is in things, what negative is in propositions. The impression from privative to active, as from silence to noise, is a greater degree than from less noise to more.

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The very privative blessings, the blessings of immunity, safeguard, liberty, and integrity which we enjoy, deserve the thanksgiving of a whole life. Tayler. PRIVATIVE. n. s. That of which the essence is the absence of something, as silence is only the absence of sound.

Harmonical sounds and discordant sounds are both active and positive, but blackness and darkness are indeed but privatives, and therefore have little or no activity; somewhat they do contristate, but very little. Bacon

PRIVATIVELY. adv. [from privative.] 1. By the absence of something necessary to be present.

2. Negatively.

The duty of the new covenant is set down, first privatively, not like that of Mosaical ob

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