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There is no natural motion of any particular heavy body, which is perpetual, yet it is possible from them to contrive such an artificial revolution as shall constantly be the cause of itself.

2. Illegitimate; not legal.


This would turn the vein of that we call naturai, to that of legal propagation; which has ever been encouraged, as the other has been disfavoured by all institutions. Temple.

3. Bestowed by nature; not acquired.

If there be any difference in natural parts, it should seem that the advantage lies on the side of children born from noble and wealthy parents. Swift. 4. Not forced; not far-fetched; dictated by nature.

I will now deliver a few of the properest and naturallest considerations that belong to this piece. Wotton.

5. Following the stated course of things.

If solid piety, humility, and a sober sense of themselves, is much wanted in that sex, it is the plain and natural consequence of a vain and corrupt education. Lar.

6. Consonant to natural notions.

Such unnatural connections become, by custom, as natural to the mind as sun and light: fire and warmth go together, and so seem to carry with them as natural an evidence as selfevident truths themselves. Locke.

7. Discoverable by reason; not revealed. 1 call that natural religion, which men might know, and should be obliged unto, by the meer

will find him no more capable of reasoning_than a perfect natural. Locke.

2. Native; original inhabitant. Not in


The inhabitants and naturals of the place, should be in a state of freemen. Abbot.

Oppression, in many places, wears the robes of justice, which domineering over the naturals may not spare strangers, and strangers will not endure it. Raleigh. 3. Gift of nature; nature; quality. Not

in use.

The wretcheder are the contemners of all helps; such as presuming on their own naturals, deride diligence, and mock at terms when they understand not things. Ben Jonson.

To consider them in their pure naturals, the earl's intellectual faculties were his stronger part, and the duke's, his practical. Wetton. NATURALIST. n. s. [from natural.] A student in physicks, or natural philosophy.

Admirable artifice! wherewith Galen, though a mere naturalist, was so taken, that he could not but adjudge the honour of a hymn to the wise Creator. More.

It is not credible, that the naturalist could be deceived in his account of a place that lay in the Addison. neighbourhood of Rome. NATURALIZATION. n. s. [from natura lize.] The act of investing aliens with the privileges of native subjects.

The Spartans were nice in point of naturalization; whereby, while they kept their com- . pass, they stood firm; but when they did spread, they became a windfall. Bacon.

Encouragement may be given to any merchants that shall come over and turn a certain stock of their own, as naturalization, and freedom from customs the two first years. Temple. Enemies, by taking advantage of the general naturalization act, invited over foreigners of all religions. Swift. To NATURALIZE. v. a. [from natural.] 1. To adopt into a community; to invest with the privileges of native subjects.

The lords informed the king, that the Irish might not be naturalized without damage to themselves or the crown. Davies. 2. To make natural; to make easy like things natural.

He rises fresh to his hammer and anvil; custom has naturalized his labour to him.


principles of reason, improved by consideration NATURALLY. adv. [from natural.] 1. According to the power or impulses of unassisted nature.

and experience, without the help of revelation.

3. Tender; affectionate by nature. To leave his wife, to leave his babes, He wants the natʼral touch.



9. Unaffected; according to truth and reality.

What can be more natural than the circumstances in the behaviour of those women whọ had lost their husbands on this fatal day. Addis. 19. Opposed to violent: as, a natural death.

NATURAL. 7. s. [from nature.]

1. An idiot; one whom nature debars from understanding; a fool.

That a monster should be such a natural.

Shakspeare. Take the thoughts of one out of that narrow compass he has been all his life confined to, you

Our sovereign good is desired naturally; God, the author of that natural desire, hath appointed natural means whereby to fulfil it; but man have ing utterly disabled his nature unto these means, hath had other revealed, and hath received from heaven a law to teach him, how that which is desired naturally, must now supernaturally be attained. Hooker.

If sense be not certain in the reports it maks of things to the mind, there can be naturally no such thing as certainty of knowledge. Sob.

When you have once habituated your heart to a serious performance of holy intercession, you have done a great deal to render it incapable of spite and envy, and to make it naturally delight in the happiness of mankind.


2. According to nature; without affectation; with just representation.

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This answers fitly and naturally to the place of the abyss before the deluge, inclos'd within the earth. Burnet. The thoughts are to be measured only by their propriety; that is, as they flow more or less naturally from the persons and occasions. Dryden. 3. Spontaneously; without art; without cultivation as, there is no place where wheat naturally grows. NATURALNESS. n. s. [from natural.] 1. The state of being given or produced by nature.

The naturalness of a desire, is the cause that the satisfaction of it is pleasure, and pleasure importunes the will; and that which importunes the will, puts a difficulty on the will refusing or forbearing it. South.

2. Conformity to truth and reality; not affectation.

He must understand what is contained in the temperament of the eyes, in the naturalness of the eyebrows. Dryden.

Horace speaks of these parts in an ode that may be reckoned among the finest for the natu ralness of the thought, and the beauty of the expression. Addison. NA'TURE. n. s. [natura, Lat. nature, French.]

1. An imaginary being supposed to preside over the material and animal world.

Thou, nature, art my goddess; to thy law My services are bound.


When it was said to Anaxagoras, the Athenians have condemned you to die, he said, and nature them. Bacon.

Let the postilion nature mount, and let The coachiman art be set.

Heav'n bestows



At home all riches that wise nature needs.

Simple nature to his hope has giv'n, Beyond the cloud-topt hill an humbler heav'n. Popc.

2. The native state or properties of any thing, by which it is discriminated from others.

Why leap'd the hills, why did the mountains shake,

What ail'd them their fix'd matures to forsake? Coroley.

Between the animal and rational province, some animals have a dark resemblance of the influxes of reason: so between the corporeal and intellectual world, there is man participating much of both natures. Hale.

The nature of brutes, besides what is common to them with plants, doth consist in having such faculties, whereby they are capable of apprehending external objects, and of receiving pain or pleasure from them. Wilkins.

3. The constitution of an animated body.
Nature, as it grows again tow'rd earth,
Is fashion'd for the journey, dull and heavy.

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My practices ride easy.

5. The regular course of things. My end


Was wrought by nature, not by vile offence. The compass of natural existence. Shakspeart.

If their dam may be judge, the young apes are the most beautiful things in nature. Glaav. 7. The constitution and appearances of things.

The works, whether of poets, painters, mo ralists, or historians, which are built upon general nature, live for ever; while those which depend for their existence on particular customs and habits, a partial view of nature, or the fluc tuation of fashion, can only be coeval with that which first raised them from obscurity. Reynolds. 8. Natural affection, or reverence; native sensations.

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A dispute of this nature caused mischief in abundance betwixt a king and an archbishop. Dryden.

11. Sentiments or images adapted to nature, or conformable to truth and reality.

Only nature can please those tastes which are unprejudiced and refined.


Nature and Homer were, he found, the same. Pope. 12. Physicks; the science which teaches the qualities of things.

Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night, God said, let Newton be, and all was light. Pope. 13. Of this word which occurs so frequently, with significations so various, and so difficultly defined, Boyle has given an explication, which deserves to be epitomised.

Nature sometimes means the Author of Nature, or natura naturans; as, nature hath made man partly corporeal and partly immaterial. For nature in this sense maybe used the word creater.

Nature sometimes means that on whose account a thing is what it is, and is called, as when we define the nature of an angle. For nature this sense may be used essence or quality.

Nature sometimes means what belongs to a living creature, at its nativity, or accrues to it by its birth, as when we say, a man is noble by noture, or a child is naturally forward. This may be expressed by saying, the man was born so; or, the thing was generated such.

Nature sometimes means an internal principle of local motion, as we say, the stone falls, or the

fame rises by nature; for this we may say, that the motion up or down is spontaneous, or produced by its proper cause.

Nature sometimes means the established course of things corporeal; as, nature makes the night succeed the day. This may be termed establisked order, or stiind course.

Nature means sometimes the aggregate of the powers belonging to a body, especially a living one; as when physicians say, that nature is strong, or nature left to herself will do the cure. For this may be used, constitution, temperament, or structure of the body.

Nature is put likewise for the system of the corporeal works of God; as there is no phanix or chimera in nature. For nature thus applied, we may use the world, or the universe.

Nature is sometimes indeed commonly taken for a kind of semidcity. In this sense it is best not to use it at all. Boyle's Free Enquiry. NATURITY. n. s. [from nature.] The state of being produced by nature. Not used.

This cannot be allowed, except we impute that unto the first cause which we impose not on the second; or what we deny unto nature we impute unto naturity. NAVAL. adj. [naval, Fr. navalis, Lat.] 1. Consisting of ships.

Encamping on the main,

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Our naval army had besieged Spain; They that the whole world's monarchy design'd,

Are to their ports by our bold fleet confin'd.


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In the wheels of waggons the hollows of the naver, by their swift rotations on the ends of the axle-trees, produce a heat sometimes so intense as to set them on fire.

Pay. 2. [from navis, nave, old French.] The middle part of the church distinct from the aisles or wings.

It comprehends the nave or body of the church, together with the chancel. Ayliffe's Parergon. NA VEL. n. s. [napela, navela, Saxon.j 1. The point in the middle of the belly, by which embryos communicate with the parent.

Imbrasides addrest

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NAVELWORT. n. s. [cotyledon.] A plant. It hath the appearance of houseleek.

Miller. NAVEW. n. s. [napus, Lat. naret, naveau, French.] A plant.


It agrees in most respects with the turnep; but has a lesser root, and somewhat warmer in In the isle of Ely the species, which is wild, is very much cultivated, it being the cole seed from which they draw the oil. Miller. NAUGHT. adj. [naht, naphiht, Saxon; that is, ne aught, not any thing.] Bad; corrupt; worthless: it is now hardly used but in ludicrous language.

With them that are able to put a difference between things naught and things indifferent in the church of Rome, we are yet at controversy about the manner of removing that which is naught. Hocker.

Thy sister's naught: Oh Regan! she hath tied Sharp-tooth'd unkindness like a vulture here. Shakspeare. NAUGHT. n. s. Nothing. This is commonly, though improperly, written nought. See AUGHT and OUGHT, Be you contented

To have a son set your decrees at naught, To pluck down justice from your awful bench. Shakspeare. NAUGHTILY. adv. [from naughty.] Wickedly; corruptly. NAUGHTINESS. n. s. [from naughty.] Wickedness; badness. Slight wickedness or perverseness, as of children.

No remembrance of naughtiness delights but mine own; and methinks the accusing his traps might in some manner excuse my fault, which certainly I loth to do. Sidney, NAUGHTY. adj. The same with naught. 1. Bad; wicked; corrupt.

A prince of great courage and beauty, but fostered up in blood by his naughty father. Sidn. These naughty times

Put bars between the owners and their rights. Shakspeare.

How far that little candle throws his beams; So shines a good deed in a naughty world. Shak. 2. It is now seldom used but in ludicrous


If gentle slumbers on thy temples creep, But naughty man, thou dost not mean to sleep, Betake thee to thy bed. Dryden. NAVICULAR. adj. [navicularis, Lat. naviculaire, Fr.] In anatomy, the third bone in each foot that lies between the astragalus and ossa cuneiformia, Dict.

NAVIGABLE. adj. [navigable, Fr. navigabilis, Lat.] Capable of being passed by ships or boats.

The first-peopled cities were all founded upon these navigable rivers or their branches, by which the one might give succour to the other."

Ral. Many have motioned to the council of Spain, the cutting of a navigable channel through this small isthmus, so to shorten their common voyages to China, and the Moluccoes. Heylyn.

Almighty Jove surveys Earth, air, and shores, and navigable seas. Dryd. NA VIGABLENESS. n. s. [from navigable.] Capacity to be passed in vessels.

To NAVIGATE. v. n. [navigo, Lat. naviger, Fr.] To sail; to pass by water. The Phoenicians navigated to the extremities of the western ocean. Arbuthnot on Coins. To NAVIGATE. v. a. To pass by ships or boats.

Drusus, the father of the emperor Claudius, was the first who navigated the northern ocean." Arbuthnot. NAVIGATION. n. s. [navigation, Fr. from navigate.]


1. The act or practice of passing by water. Our shipping for number, strength, mariners, and all things that appertain to navigation, is as great as ever. The loadstone is that great help to navigation. More. Rude as their ships, was navigation then, No useful compass or meridian 'known; Coasting, they kept the land within their ken, And knew no north but when the polestar shone. Dryden. When Pliny names the Pani as inventors of navigation, it must be understood of the Phonicians, from whom the Carthaginians are descended. Arbuthnot on Coins.

2. Vessels of navigation.

Tho' you untie the winds, and let them fight Against the churches, tho' the yesty waves Confound and swallow navigation up. Shaksp. NAVIGATOR. n. s. [navigateur, Fr. from navigate.] Sailor; seaman; traveller by


By the sounding of navigators, that sea is not three hundred and sixty foot deep. Brerewood. The rules of navigators must often fail.

Brown. The contrivance may seem difficult, because the submarine navigators will want winds, tides, and the sight of the heavens. Wilkins.

This terrestrial globe, which before was only a globe in speculation, has since been surrounded by the boldness of many navigators. Temple. NAU LAGE. n. s. [naulum, Latin.] The freight of passengers in a ship. NAU MACHY. n. s. [naumachie, Fr. nau. machia, Lat.] A mock seafight. To NAU'SEATE. v. n. [from nausea, Lat.] To grow squeamish; to turn away with disgust.

Don't over-fatigue the spirits, lest the mind be seized with a lassitude, and nauseate, and grow tired of a particular subject before you have finished it. Watts on the Mind.

1. To loathe; to reject with disgust.

While we single out several dishes, and reject others, the selection seems arbitrary; for many are cry'd up in one age, which are decryed and nauseated in another, Brown,

Old age, with silent pace, comes creeping on, Nauseates the praise, which in her youth she


And hates the muse by which she was undone. Dryden. The patient nauseates and loaths wholesome foods. Blackmore. Those heads, as stomachs, are not sure the best, Which nauseate all, and nothing can digest. Pope. 2. To strike with disgust.

He let go his hold and turned from her, as if he were nauseated, then gave her a lash with his NAUSEOUS. adj. [from nausea, Lat, nau. tail. Swift. sée, Fr.] Loathsome; disgustful; regarded with abhorrence.

Those trifles wherein children take delight, Grow nauseous to the young man's appetite. And from those gaieties our youth requires To exercise their minds, our age retires. Denb.

Food of a wholesome juice is pleasant to the taste and agreeable to the stomach, 'till hunger and thirst be well appeased, and then it begins to be less pleasant, and at last even nauseous and loathsome.


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NA VY. . s. [from navis, Lat.] An assemblage of ships, commonly ships of war; a fleet.

On the western coast rideth a puissant navy. Shakspeare's Richard 1. Levy money, and return the same to the trea surer of the navy for his majesty's use. Claren. The narrow seas can scarce their navy bear, Or crowded vessels can their soldiers hold. Dry. NAY. adv. [na, Saxon, or ne aye.] 1. No; an adverb of negation.

Disputes in wrangling spend the day, Whilst one says only yea, and t'other nay. Denham.

2. Not only so, but more. A word of amplification.

A good man always profits by his endeavour, yea, when he is absent; way, when dead, by his

example and memory; so good authors in their stile. Ben Jonson's Discovery. He catechised the children in his chamber, giving liberty nay invitation to as many as would, to come and hear. Fell.

This is then the allay of Ovid's writings, which is sufficiently recompensed by his other excellencies; nay, this very fault is not without its beauties; for the most severe censor cannot but be pleased. Dryden.

If a son should strike his father, not only the criminal but his whole family would be rooted out, nay, the inhabitants of the place where he lived, would be put to the sword, nay, the place itself would be razed. Spectator.

3. Word of refusal.

They have beaten us openly uncondemned, being Romans, and have cast us into prison; and now do they thrust us out privily; nay verily; but let them come themselves and fetch us out. Acts.

The fox made several excuses, but the stork would not be said nay; so that at last he promised him to come.

He that will not when he may, When he would he shall have nay.


NA'YWORD. n. s. [nay and word.]


1. The side of denial; the saying nay. Not in use.

You would believe my saying, Howe'er you lean to the nayword. Shakspeare. 2. A proverbial reproach: a by-word.

If I do not gull him into a nayword, and make him a common recreation, do not think I have wit enough to lie straight in my bed. 3. A watchword. Not in use.


I have spoke with her; and we have a nayword how to know one another. I come to her in white, and cry mum; she cries budget; and by that we know one another. Shakspeare.

NE. adv. [Saxon. This particle was formerly of very frequent use, both singly and by contraction in compound words: as, nill from ne will or will not; nas for ne has or has not; nis for ne is or is not.] Neither; and not.

His warlike shield all cover'd closely was, Ne might of mortal eye be ever seen, Nor made of steel, nor of enduring brass. Spens. NEAF. n. s. [nefi, Islandick.] A fist. It is retained in Scotland; and in the plural neaves.

Give me thy neaf, monsieur Mustardseed.


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How doth the sea constantly observe its ebbs and flows, its springs and neap-tides, and still retain its saltness, so convenient for the maintenance of its inhabitants. Ray. NEAR. prep. [ner, Saxon; naer, Dutch and Scottish.] At no great distance. from; close to; nigh; not far from. It is used both of place and time. I have heard thee say.

No grief did ever come so near thy heart,
As when thy lady and thy true love died. Shaksp.
Thou thought 'st to help me, and such thanks
I give,

As one near death to those that wish him live.

With blood the dear alliance shall be bought, And both the people near destruction brought. Dryden.

To the warlike steed thy studies bend, Near Pisa's flood the rapid wheels to guide.


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Whose fame by every tongue is for her mine rals hurl'd,

Near from the mid-day's point thro'out the western world. Drayton. 2. At hand; not far off. Unless it be rather in this sense an adjective.

Thou art near in their mouth, and far from their reins. Jeremiah. He serv'd great Hector, and was ever near, Not with his trumpet only, but his spear. Dryd. 3. Within a little.

Self-pleasing and humorous minds are so sensible of every restraint, as they will go near to think their girdles and garters to be bonds and shackles. Bacon. This eagle shall go near, one time or other, to take you for a hare. L'Estrange.

He that paid a bushel of wheat per acre, would pay now about twenty-five pounds per annum; which would be near about the yearly value of the land. Locke.

The Castilian would rather have died in slavery than paid such a sum as he found would go near to ruin him. Addison.

NEAR. adj.

1. Not distant in place, or time. [Sometimes it is doubtful whether near be an adjective or adverb.]


This city is near to flee unto. Accidents, which however dreadful at a distance, at a nearer view lost much of their terrour.


The will free from the determination of such desires, is left to the pursuit of nearer satisfactions. Locke.

After he has continued his doubling in his thoughts, and enlarged his idea as much as he pleases, he is not one jot nearer the end of such addition than at first setting out. Locke.

Whether they nearer liv'd to the blest times, When man's Redeemer bled for human crimes Whether the hermits of the desart fraught With living practice, by example taught. Harte. 2. Advanced toward the end of an enterprise or disquisition.

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