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sense. "The just shall live by faith" (LXX. ó dè Sinaiós μου ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται). Here it is hard to say whether MD and Tioris represent "trustfulness" (active) or "trustworthiness" (passive): in fact, the two ideas seem to be blended together. But when we pass from the Old Testament to the New, we find wiσris definitely stamped with the active sense, and as a Christian virtue it has the meaning of trust or belief.1 Still it is employed with considerable variations of meaning, from the bare sense of "belief" or intellectual assent, as when S. James says that "the devils believe (TOTEÚοvo) and tremble" (S. James ii. 19), rising to that "faith which worketh by love" (πioris di' ȧyaπîs èvepyovμévn, Gal. v. 6), to which all the achievements of the Old Testament saints are attributed in Heb. xi. This last is the sense in which it is ordinarily used by S. Paul; and since he is the apostle who speaks of man being "justified by faith," it is evident that this is the sense in which the word is to be understood in the Article. Faith, then, is a principle of trust and reliance on God and His promises, which leads to practical action and issues in good works.2

(b) The meaning of the expression "we are justified by faith only."-This faith the Article asserts to be the instrument of our justification.

1 See Bishop Lightfoot On Galatians, p. 152 seq., "Excursus on the Words denoting Faith," from which the above is mainly taken; and cf. Sanday and Headlam On the Romans, p. 31 seq.

2 "The centre and mainspring of this higher form of faith is defined more exactly as 'faith in Jesus Christ,' Rom. iii. 22, 26. This is the crowning and characteristic sense with S. Paul; and it is really this which he has in view wherever he ascribes to faith the decisive significance which he does ascribe to it, even though the object is not expressed (as in i. 17, iii. 27 ff., v. 1, 2). We have seen that it is not merely assent or adhesion, but enthusiastic adhesion, personal adhesion: the highest and most effective motive power of which human character is capable."-Sanday and Headlam, ubi supra.

We are accounted righteous by faith (per fidem). The expression is strictly Biblical, and is drawn from Rom. iii. 28-30: "We reckon that a man is justified by faith (TíOTEL, Vulg. per fidem) apart from the works of the law. . . . He shall justify the circumcision by faith (ex Tíστews) and the uncircumcision through faith" (dià TŶs Tíoτews, Vulg. per fidem); cf. Gal. ii. 16. Thus the Article keeps close to the actual language of the Apostle, and assigns to faith no other position than that of an instrument. Luther unhappily was not always so careful, and actually used language which would imply that faith was the meritorious cause of justification; asserting-what Holy Scripture never says-that we are justified on account of (propter) faith.1 In such language, it is perhaps needless to say, the Church of England has never followed him.

But the Article is not content with assigning to faith the position of an instrument; it speaks of it as if it were the sole instrument. "We are justified by faith only" (sola fide). This expression, it must be admitted, is not contained directly in Scripture. But that faith is (in some sense) the sole instrument may be fairly inferred from the passage quoted above from Rom. iii. 28, where S. Paul speaks of men being "justified by faith apart from the works of the law." Compare also Rom. iv. 2-5, ix. 30; Gal. ii. 16, iii. 5 seq. In these passages the Apostle does not merely speak of faith as instrumental in justification, but expressly excludes "works."

On the other hand, S. James in his Epistle expressly includes "works," and denies that man is justified by "faith only" (ÈK πíσтews μóvov, Vulg. ex fide tantum), c. ii. 14-26: "What doth it profit, my brethren, if a man say he hath faith, but have not works? can 1 See his Comment. on Gal. ii. 16, iii. 6.

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that faith save him ? If a brother or a sister be naked and in lack of daily food, and one of you say unto them, Go in peace, be ye warmed and filled; and yet ye give them not the things needful to the body, what doth it profit? Even so faith, if it have not works, is dead in itself. Yea, a man will say, Thou hast faith, and I have works ; show me thy faith apart from thy works, and I by my works will show thee my faith. Thou believest that God is one; thou doest well: the devils also believe and shudder. But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith apart from works is barren ? Was not Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son upon the altar? Thou seest that faith wrought with his works, and by works was his faith made perfect; and the scripture was fulfilled which saith, And Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned unto him for righteousness : and he was called the friend of God. Ye see that by works a man is justified, and not only by faith. And in like manner, was not Rahab the harlot justified by works, in that she received the messengers, and sent them out another way! For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, even so faith apart from works is dead."

This passage, as far as words are concerned, is certainly contrary to the teaching of S. Paul in the passages referred to above, especially Rom. iv., where the case of Abraham is considered, and his justification ascribed to faith and not works; and compare Heb. xi. 17, 31, where the faith of Rahab as well as of Abraham is praised.

But though the words are different, yet the teaching of the two Apostles is identical. Their reconciliation may be established by pointing out

1. The different senses which they give to míotis.-In S. James it is merely intellectual assent, an affair of the head, not of the heart The devils“ believe ” (TTLOTEÚOvoi). In S. Paul, on the contrary, it is niotis di åryatns

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évepyovμévn, a “faith that worketh by love" (Gal. v. 6); and according to him, "with the heart man believeth (TTIσTEVETαι) unto righteousness" (Rom. x. 10).

2. The different senses which they give to epya.-In S. Paul's writings this word, standing without any qualifying adjective, is always used in a depreciatory sense. When he would speak of works which are intrinsically good, he adds the qualifying adjective caλá or ȧyalá (see Rom. ii. 7, xiii. 3; 2 Cor. ix. 8; Eph. ii. 10, etc.). It is, however, of such good works that S. James is speaking,-works which are really included in that faith which is defined as one which "worketh by love."

3. The different errors before the Apostles.-S. Paul, in contending against a self-righteous Pharisaism, which boasted of its "works," vehemently denies that such "works" can aid in man's justification. S. James, on the contrary, has before him the case of those who thought that a barren orthodoxy was sufficient, and looked for justification from the correctness of their creed. To them he therefore says that such a faith, apart from works, is dead.

There is, then, no real contradiction between the teaching of the two Apostles; and it is providential that both sides of the truth are thus stated in Scripture. The Epistle of S. James forms a valuable safeguard against the errors of the "Solifidians," who, resting on faith only (sola fides), denied altogether the need of good works; while the teaching of S. Paul breaks down, once for all, all human claim to a reward.1

Returning now to the subject of faith as the instrument of justification, the question has to be asked: In

1 See, further, Lightfoot On the Galatians, p. 162; Sanday and Headlam On the Romans, p. 102 seq.; and Mayor On S. James, p. lxxxvii seq., and 204.

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what sense is it the sole instrument of justification ? se does it exclude good works, or the sacraments of the gospel ?

With regard to the latter, if the description of justification given above is correct, and it includes (1) pardon of sin, and (2) a right and title to eternal life grounded on promise, then beyond all question it is granted in baptism: accordingly divines have frequently spoken of “ first justification” as granted in it. It would perhaps be better to say that the exclusive term “alone,” when we say that we are justified by faith alone, is only meant to exclude any other instrument on man's part for receiving, and is not intended to exclude God's instruments for bestowing justification. Thus faith is as it were the hand, and the only hand, which man can stretch forth to receive the blessing; while the sacraments of the gospel may be regarded as the channels through which God conveys the blessing to the faithful soul that is able to receive it.

With regard to good works the statement of the Article, that we are justified by faith only, is not meant in any way to exclude the necessity of good works, but only to shut them out from the office of justifying. That this is all that is intended is made perfectly clear by the statements of the Homily, to which the Article expressly refers us, as may be seen from the extracts quoted below in the next section. Repentance and obedience are necessary conditions or qualifications, but they are not the instruments for obtaining justification. Similarly, for a beneficial reception of the Holy Eucharist, charity is a necessary qualification; but “the mean whereby the Body of Christ is received is faith.”

(c) The reason why faith is the instrument of justification. It may be said without irreverence that the reason why, in God's method of salvation, faith is selected

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