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him that hath not shall be taken arvay even what he seemeth to have. That which he seemeth to have! Nay, if he only seems to have it, it is impossible it should be taken away. None can take away from another what he only seems to have. What a man only seems to have, he cannot possibly lose. This difficulty may at first appear imposible to be surmounted. It is really so; it cannot be surmounted, if the common translation be allowed. But if we observe the proper meaning of the original word, the difficulty vanishes away. It may be allowed that the word Toxi does (sometimes, at least in some Authors) mean no more than to feem.

But I much doubt whether it ever bears that meaning, in any part of the inspired Writings. By a careful consideration of every text in the New Tesament, wherein this word occurs, I am fully convinced, that it no where lessens, but every where ftrengthens the sense of the word to which it is annext. Accordingly • doxen oxeur, does not mean, what he seemeth to have; but on the contrary, what he offuredly hath. And so ó doxão égávær, nøt he that seemeth to stand, or he that thinketh he standeth. But he that assuredly standeth; he who ftandeth so fast, that he does not appear to be in any danger of falling : he that faith, like David, I shall never be moved: thou, Lord has made my hill so strong. Yet at that very time, thus faith the Lord, Be not high-minded, but fear. Elfe shalt thou be cut off: else shalt thou also be moved from thy stedfastness. The strength which thou assuredly hast, shall be taken away. As firmly as thou didft really stand, thou wilt fall into fin, if not into hell.

3. But left any should be discouraged by the confideration of those who once ran well, and were afterwards overcome by temptation; left the fearful of heart should be utterly cast down, fupposing it impossible for them to stand, the Apostle fubjoins to that serious exhortation, these comfortable words, There hath no temptation taken you, but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not fuffer you to be Vol. X.



tempied above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make away to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.

1. 1. Let us begin with the observation which ushers in this comfortable promise, There hath no temptation taken you, but such as is common to man, Our translators seem to have been sensible that this expression, common to man, does by no means rcach the force of the original word. Hence they substitute another word in the margin, moderate. But this seems to be less significant than the other, and farther from the meaning of it. Indeed it is not easy to find any single word in the English tongue, which answers the word áriguminios. I believe the sense of it can only be expressed by some such circumlocution as this: “ Such as is suited to the nature and circumstances of man: such as every man may reasonably expect, if he considers the nature of his body and his soul, and his situation in the present world.” If we duly consider these, we shall not be surprised at any temptation that hath befallen us: seeing it is no other than such a creature, in such a situation, has all reason to expect.

2. Consider first, the nature of that body with which your foul is connected. How many are the evils, which it is every day, every hour liable to? Weakness, fickness and disorders of a thousand kinds, are its natural attendants. Consider the inconceivably minute fibres, threads abundantly finer than hair, (called from thence capillary vessels) whereof every part of it is composed; consider the innumerable multitude of fqually fine pipes and strainers, all filled with circulating juices! And will not the breach of a few of these fibres, or the obstruction of a few of these tubes, particularly in the brain, or heart, or lungs, de troy our case, health, strength, if not life itself ? Now if we observe that all pain implies temp, tation, how numberless must the temptations be, which will beset every man, more or less, fooner or later, while he dwells in thus corruptible body?

3. Consider, 3. Consider, Secondly, the present state of the soul, as long as it inhabits the house of clay. I do not mean in its unre. generate state, while it lies in darkness and the shadow of death; under the dominion of the prince of darkness, without hope, and without God in the world. No: look upon men who are raised above that deplorable state. See those who have tafted that the Lord is gracious. Yet still how weak is their understanding? How limited its extent? How confused, how inaccurate are our apprehensions, of even the things that are round about us? How liable are the wiseft of men to mistake? To form false judgments ? To take falsehood for truth, and truth for falsehood? Evil for good, and good for evil? What starts, what wanderings of imaginations are we continually subject to ? In how many instances does the corruptible body press down the soul? And how many are the temptations which we have to expect, even from these innocent infirmities?

4. Consider, Thirdly, what is the present situation of even those that fear God. They dwell on the ruins of a disordered world, among men, that know not God, that care not for him, and whose heart is fully set in them to do evil. How many are constrained to cry out, Wo is me, that I am constrained to dwell with Mesech: to have my habitation among the tents of Kedar, among the enemies of God and man! How immensely out-numbered are those that would do well, by then that neither fear God nor regard man. And how striking is Cowley's obfervation! If a man that was armed cap-a-pie, was closed in by a thousand naked Indians, their number would give thein such advantage over him, that it would be scarce possible for him to escape. What hope would there be for a naked, unarmed man to escape, who was surrounded by a thousand armed men! Now this is the case of every good man.

He is not armed either with force or fraud, and is turned out naked as he is, among thousands that are armed with tl.2 whole armour of Satan, and provided with all the weapons which the prince of this world can supply out of the armoury of hell. B 2


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If then he is not destroyed, yet how must a good man be tempted in the midst of this evil world?

5. But is it only from wicked men that temptations arise to them that fear God ? It is very natural to imagine this : and almost every one thinks fo. Hence how many of us have said in our hearts, “O! if my lot were but caft among good men, among those that loved or even feared God, I should be free from all these temptations.” Perhaps you would : probably you would not find the same sort of temptations, which you have now to encounter. But you would surely meet with temptations of some other kind, which you would find equally hard to bear. For even good men in general, though fin has not dominion over them, yet are not freed from the remains of it. They have still the remains of an evil heart, ever prone to depart from the living God. They have the seeds of pride, of anger, of foolish desire; indeed of every unholy temper. And any of these, if they do not continually watch and pray, may, and naturally will spring up, and trouble not themselves only, but all that are round about them. We must not therefore depend upon finding no temptation, from those that fear, yea, in a measure, love God. Much less must we be surprised, if some of those who once loved God in fincerity, should lay greater temptations in our way, than many of those that never knew him.

6. “ But can we expect to find any temptation from those that are perfected in love ? This is an important question, and deserves a particular consideration. I answer, firlt, You may find every kind of temptation, from those who suppose they are perfected, when indeed they are not: aul so you may, Secondly, from those who once really were so, but are now moved from their itedfastness. And if you are not aware of this, if you think they are still what they were once, the temptation will be harder so bear. Nay, thirdly, even those wlio fand fast in the liberty wherewith Chnjt has made them le, who are now really perfect in love, may till be an occasion of temptation to you. For they are still encompast with infirmities. They may be dull of apprehension: they may have a natural heedlessness, or a treacherous memory: they may have too lively an imagination: and any of these may caufe little improprieties, either in speech or behaviour, which though not finful in themselves, may try all the grace you have. Especially if you impute to perverseness of will-(as it is very natural to do) what is really owing to defect of memory, or weakness of understanding: if these appear to you to be voluntary mistakes, which are really involuntary. So proper was the answer which a Saint of God (now in Abraham's bofoin) gave me some years ago, when I said, Jenny, furely now your Mistress and you, can neither of you be a trial to the other, as God has saved you both from fin: “O Sir, faid she, if we are saved from fin, we still have infirmities enough to try all the grace that God has given us.”


7. But besides evil men, do not evil spirits also continually surround us on every side? Do not Satan and his angels continually go about, seeking whom they may devour ? Who is out of the reach of their malice and subtlety ? Not the wifest or belt of the children of men. The servant is not above his Master. If then they tempted Him, will they not tempt us also? Yea, it may be, should Goul see good to permit, more or less to the end of our lives. No temptation therefore huth taken us, which we had not reason to expect, either from our body or foul, either from evil spirits or evil men, yea, or even from good men, till our Spirits return to God that give


[To be continued.]

A Short

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