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In what manner constitutea . 112 To what contracts it extends 279
Appointment of judges
ib. Obligation of contracts

ib.
Tenure of their offices
113 | Judicial construction of

280
Advantages of such tenure ib. See PowERS OF GOVERNMENT.
Provision for their support

115
Necessity of their independence ib.

LEGISLATIVE POWER.
Responsible for misconduct 116 General functions

44
Objects of jurisdiction . 117 How organized in colonies 47
Necessity and advantages of it 119

in the states 48
As to cases arising under Con How vested by Const. of U. S. 59
stitution
ib. Constituent parts

62
As to cases arising under the Objects of its division

ib.
Jaws of the U.S. .

ib. Evils of a single legislative body 63
As to treaties
ib. Examples of

ib.
As to interpreting Constitution 121 Farther reason for division in
Objects of separating judicial Government of the U. S. 65

from other departments 124 | Upon what principle effected 66
Power over Constitutions and Objects to which the legislative
laws of the states

ib.

power of the U. S. extends ib.
Power of final interpretation ib. See CONGRESS, House of Rep-
Distribution of jurisdiction 125

RESENTATIVES, SENATE, &c.
Supreme Court
Appellate jurisdiction

ib.

LETTERS OF MARQUE.
In what cases extended to de See MARQUE AND REPRISAL.
cisions of state courts

133
Power of U. S. Courts to issue

Loans.
process, &c.

134 See BORROWING MONEY.
Of judges to relieve by Habeas
Corpus

140

LOCAL JURISDICTION.
Circuit Courts

ib. Power of exclusive legislation 256
Judicial Districts

ib. To what places it extends
District Courts
· 143 Necessity of such power .

ib.
Territorial Courts
144 In what mode executed

258
State Courts and magistrates 147 See DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, &c.
See Courts, POWERS OF Gov-
ERNMENT, &c.

MANUFACTURES.
JURISDICTION.

See DOMESTIC INDUSTRY.
See COURTS, LOCAL JURISDIC-

MARQUE AND REPRISAL.
TION, JUDICIAL Power, &c.

Signification of

152
Law.
By what authority granted

ib.
Effect of the grant

ib.
See COMMON LAW, SUPREME

ib.
Law, &c.

In what cases granted

Nature and necessity of power ib.
LAW OF NATIONS.

Prohibited to states
Power to punish offences Upon what grounds.

272
against

191
Ilow far exclusive

MILITIA.

194
Part of common law of states. ib. Power of regulating and calling
Offences against, what
195 forth

158
How punishable
ib. Objects of the power

159
Policy of the law

ib. Extent, and cases for its exer-
See JUDICIAL POWER.

cise

ib.

Effect of its exercise on militia 163
LAWS IMPAIRING CONTRACTS.

Mode of their organization, &c. ib.
Prohibited to the states 278 By whom “called forth"

ib.
Policy of the restriction ib. l Who to judge of exigencies

ib.

• 257

• 271

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Obligation of the states

164

PATENTS.
Duty of state officers

ib.

See SCIENCE.
When concurrent power of

165

PIRACY.
states over militia ceases
When militia become National ib. Power to define and punish

190
Exclusive in its nature

191
MINISTERS (PUBLIC). Definition of piracy.

ib.
See AMBASSADORS.

Mode of defining it

ib.
MONEY.

Who are deemed pirates by
law of nations

192
Power of coining

226

Jurisdiction exercised over
Regulating value of coins ib.

them

ib.
How rendered exclusive

227
How punished

ib.
Its necessity and advantage ib.

Where they may be tried

ib.
Objects of rendering power ex Acts declared piracy by Con-
clusive

ib.
gress

ib.
Why prohibited to the states 272 Jurisdiction in such cases

ib.
See BORROWING MONEY, COINS Particular acts declared piracy 193
AND COINING, &c.

How punished

ib.
NATURALIZATION.

PostOFFICES AND POSTROADS.
Power to establish uniforın sys Power to establish them. 220
tem

229

How far exclusive
Necessarily exciusive

ib.

What power claimed as inci-
Who may be naturalized 233

dent

ib.
Mode of proceeding :
234 How far admitted

226
Effect of naturalization

ib.

See INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.
See ALIENS, CITIZENS, &c.

POWERS OF GOVERNMENT.
NATURAL RIGHTS.
How distinguished

44
In what they consist
50 How to be organized

45
Privileges subordinate thereto 51

Consequences of uniting them ib.
How secured in colonies

ib. How distributed in the colonies 47
in the states

ib.

How organized in the states 48
Additional securities

52

How vested by Constitution of
How recognised and secured by U. S.

50
Constitution of U. S.
53 Extent of their separation

ib
NAVIGATION.

Object of their partial unjon ib.

End thus effected in Govern-
See COMMERCE.

ment of U. S.

53
NAVY.
Legislative power

. 59
See ARMY AND Navy.

Executive power

81
NOBILITY,
Judicial power

110

Nature of powers vested in Gov.
See TITLES OF NOBILITY.

ernment of U.S.
OATH TO SUPPORT CONSTITUTION.

Reduced to different classes

ib.
By whom to be taken

Powers relative to security from

315
Inten‘ion and effect

foreign danger
316

ib.

Relative to war
States cannot discharge from 317

151

taxation
See POWERS OF GOVERNMENT,

166
borrowing money

179
STATES, &c.

foreign intercourse ib.
OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS.

treaties

ib.
Sec LAWS IMPAIRING CONTRACTS.

ambassadors, &c.
Passports.

piracy

felonies at sea 193
See Law of NATIONS, POWERS

offences against law
OF GOVERNMENT, &c.

of nations

195

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Relative to foreign commerce · 196 Auxiliary oath to support Con-
slave-trade
208 stitution of l S.

315
intercourse between

declaration of su-
the states

210
commerce among

right of final interpre-
the states
211 tation

326
with the Indians 215

its ratification by the
postoffices and post people

327
roads

220
coining money, &c. 226

PRESIDENT OF UNITED STATES.
weights and meas Qualifications for election 90
ures
227 Mode of election

ib.
punishment of coun For what term elected

91
terfeiting

ib. Provision for his support . ib.
state records

When to be declared elected by
naturalization.
electors.

92
bankruptcy 235 How appointed when no choice
miscellaneous ob-
by electors

93
jects
241 Commander-in-chief

101
science and useful
Reprieves and pardons

ib.
arts
ib. Power as to treaties.

102
local jurisdiction 256 Nominates to what offices . 104
punishment of trea Power of filling vacancies 105

259

as to removal from office ib.
admission of new

as to convening and ad-
states
262 journing Congress

ib.
territory and prop Duty with respect to ambassa-
erty

263
dors, &c.

ib.
guarantees to the General duties

ib.
states
264 Powers and duties

106
amendment of Con Negative upon laws, &c. ib.
stitution

267 Evidence of his refusal to ac-
Implied and reserved powers

270

cept, or of his resignation 108
Restrictions on the states

271 How vacancies in office sup-
absolute against. ib. plied

ib.

109
treaties, &c. ib. Liability to impeachment
letters of marque

See EXECUTIVE POWER.
and reprisal

ib.

RATIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION.
coining money

272
bills of credit . 273 Provision for ratifying Consti-
tender laws
274 tution

327
bills of attainder 277 Its nature and effects

329

ib.
Ex post facto laws ib. Mode of ratification adopted
laws impairing con-
How ratified by people

330
tracts

ib. Assent of states, how implied ib.
Qualified restrictions

300 Consequences of such ratifica-
tion

ib.
upon duties on im-

ib.

See SECESSION.
ports, &c.
relative to troops and

REPRESENTATION.
ships of war .

303
compact and agree On what principle founded in

ib.
ments

44
government
engaging in war 304 How to be applied

45
Auxiliary powers

305 In reference to powers

of
goy-

ib.
ernment
necessary and
proper" for executing pow As to parties delegating them ib.
ib. Practical exception

46

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How far principle prevailed in Extent and limitation of state
colonial governments
47 power in regard to them

254
How extended in state consti See Powers or GOVERNMENT.
tutions

48

SECESSION.
How applied in Constitution of
U.S.

53 Whether states may secede
from the Union

329
REPRESENTATIVES.

Consequences of secession 330
See HOUSE OF REPRESENTA See POWERS OF GOVERNMENT,
TIVES.

STATES, &c.
RESTRICTIONS ON STATES.

SLAVE-TRADE.
See POWERS OF GOVERNMENT,

Power of prohibiting

208
STATES, &c.

How executed by Congress 209

See PowerS OF GOVERNMENT.
REVENUE.
See TAXATION, &c.

STATE COURTS AND MAGISTRATES.

See JUDICIAL POWER.
Rights.

STATE GOVERNMENTS.
See NATURAL RIGHTS.

Power over militia

165
SAFE CONDUCTS.

Jurisdiction of offences against
laws of nations

193
See Law of NATIONS, POWERS

Powers reserved to them. 204
OF GOVERNMENT, &c.

Subordinate to Union

205
SENATE.

Restricted as to imposts, &c.
How constituted

72

commerce 207
On what principle of represent-

Concurrent power of legislation
ation

ib.

in certain es with Con-
Number of senators :

ib.
gress

ib.
In what manner they vote

Restrictions as to preventing

ib.
By whom chosen

ib. sale of imported articles ib.
Manner of their election

73

Restrictions as to protecting
For what term elected

ib.
duties

ib.
Qualifications of senators 74 Regulation of internal como
Powers exclusive of House of

merce

211
Representatives

76 Effect of their collision with
Why consent of Senate required powers of Union

213
to treaties
78 Power in cases of bankruptcy

235
Why associated with President

and insolvency
in appointing power

79

to promote science, &c. 241
When to choose Vice-president

of punishing treason 259
of U. S..

93 Guarantee of Republican Gov-
See CONGRESS, LEGISLATIVE ernment

264
Power, &c.

Power as to amendment of Con-
stitution of U. S.

267
SCIENCE.

Restrictions on their powers 271
Power to promote its progress . 241 Restricted as to war
Foundation, origin, and policy. ib. Cannot discharge individuals
Mode in which executed . 244 from their allegiance to the
Objects of the power
ib. U.S.

317
By what construction effected 245 Assent of State Governments to
Former state laws
ib. Constitution of U. S.

323
Nature and extent of power States cannot annul or abrogate
vested in Congress
249 the Federal powers

326
Distinction between property of See CONSTITUTIONS (STATE),

authors and that of inventors 253 POWERS OF GOVERNMENT,
Privileges secured to both ib. STATES, &c.

.

. 300

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STATE RECORDS.

Whether original jurisdiction is
in all cases exclusive

133
Power of Congress in relation

Jurisdiction as to Indians
220

ib.
to them.

229
Their effect in other states

Mode of exercising appellate
jurisdiction

ib.
Effect of judgments of State

Writs of error and appeals ib.
Courts as evidence in other

In what cases allowed

ib.
states

ib.

From judgments of what courts 136
STATES.
Restrictions on the right

ib.

Proceedings in case of reversal ib.
Powers reserved to them

204 Regulations respecting writs of
Their jurisdiction, how far su-

errors and appeals
perseded in maritime cases 210

Judicial construction in regard
Preservation of harmony among 211 to them.
Commerce among them regu Exceptions froin appellate juris-
lated

213
diction

ib.
Internal concerns, how far af-

Appeals from state courts ib.
fected by Constitution of U. S. 215 Superintending power over in-
Internal commerce of

ib.
ferior courts

139
Proof and effect of their records 228

See JUDICIAL POWER.
Their powers, how affected by
collision with those of Con-

SUPREME LAW.
gress

230 Declared by Constitution 320
Citizens of the several states 231 Effect of conflict between Fed-
Treason against a state

259
eral and state powers

322
Admission of new states . 262 Duty of courts in such cases 324
Guarantees to the states 264 States bound by interpretation
Reserved rights

270

of Constitution by Supreme
Restrictions on their power 271 Court of the U.S..

325
Bound by whose construction

TAXATION AND TAXES.
of the Constitution of U.S. 325
No discretion as to organizing

Power of levying taxes

166
Government of the U.S. 326

Its objects and purposes

167
Cannot secede from Union 329

Its necessity and extent

ib.
See CONSTITUTIONS (STATE),

Where vested, and in what
POWERS

terms
OF GOVERNMENT,

ib.
STATE GOVERNMENTS.

How qualified in its exercise

168
Subjects of taxation.

ib.
SUPREME COURT.

In what sense term “Taxes";
used

169
Judges recognised in Constitu-

Different kinds of taxes

ib.
tion, &c.

112
Tenure of their offices

Iinportance of distinguishing
113
them

ib.
Court created by Constitution 127

Judicial construction of power 171
organized by law

ib.

Restrictions on states respect-
Number of judges

ib.
ing it

300
Number to form quorum

ib.

Judicial construction thereof 301
Terms of the court

128

See LEGISLATIVE POWER, Pow-
Jurisdiction, original

ib.

ERS OF GOVERNMENT, &c.
appellate

ib.
exclusive

ib.

TENDER LAWS.
In cases against ambassadors, How far prohibited to states
&c.

129

What allowed as legal tender
where a state is a party ib. in payment of debts

272
In suits by a state

ib. See PowERS OF GOVERNMENT,
Concurrent jurisdiction

ib.
In suits by ambassadors

ib.

TERRITORIAL COURTS.
Where a state is a party. ib. Where established

144

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