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to eat them
water. Hence the name.. Max Muller asserts that in Ireland priests were formerly accustomed during Lent, under the impression that they were not birds, but fish.
Ste. Monster, lay-to your fingers : help to bear this away where my hogshead of wine is, or I'll turn you out of my kingdom: go to, carry this.
Trin. And this.
Ste. Ay, and this.
shape of dogs and hounds, and hunt them about,
hark! (Cai., Ste., and Trin, are driven out.
them Than pard or cat o' mountain. Ari.
Hark, they roar! Pros. Let them bc hunted soundly. At this hour Lie at my mercy all mine enemies : Shortly shall all my labours end, and thou Shalt have the air at freedom: for a little Follow, and do me service.
Before PROSPERO'S cell. Enter PROSPERO in his magic robes, and ARIEL.
Pros. Now does my project gather to a head: My charms crack not; my spirits obey; and time Goes upright with his carriage. How's the day?
Ari. On the sixth hour; at which time, my lord,
I did say so,
zalo;? His tears run down his beard, like winter's drops From eaves of reeds. Your charm so strongly works
Dost thou think so, spirit? Ari. Mine would, sir, were I human.
And mine siiall. Hast thou, which art but air, a touch, a feeling Of their afflictions, and shall not myself, One of their kind, that relish all as sharply, Passion as they, be kindlier moved than thou art? Though with their high wrongs I am struck to the
quick, Yet with my nobler reason 'gainst my fury Do I take part: the rarer action is In virtue than in vengeance :* they being penitent, The sole drift of my purpose doth extend Not a frown further. Go release them, Ariel : My charms I'll break, their senses I'll restore, And they shall be themselves.
*Cf. Bacon: “In taking revenge, a man is but eren with his enemy; but in passing it orer, he is superior.”
-Essay of Rerenge. Ari.
I'll fetch them, sir. (Exit. Pros. Ye elves of hills, brooks,* standing lakes
and groves, And ye that on the sands with printless foot Do chase the ebbing Neptune and do fly him When he comes back; you demi-puppets that By moonshine do the green sour ringlets make, i Whereof the ewe not bites, and you whose pastime Is to make midnight mushrooms** that rejoice To hear the solemn curfew** by whose aid, Weak masters though ye be, I have bedimm'd The noontide sun, call'd forth the mutinous winds, And 'twixt the green sea and the azured vault Set roaring war: to the dread rattling thunder Have I given fire and rifted Jove's stout oak With his own bolt; the strong-based promontory Have I made shake and by the spurs pluck'd up The pine and cedar: graves at my command Have waked their sleepers, oped, and let 'em forth By my so potent art. But this rough magic I here abjure, and, when I have required Some heavenly music, which even now I do, To work mine end upon their senses that
This airy charm is for, I'll break my staff,
(Solemn music. *Some words and phrases of this speech are taken from Golding's translation of the Metamorphoses of Ovid, published in 1567.. It is perfectly certain, 100erer, that in
other passages derived from Ovid the dramatist went directly to the original. In Macbeth, for instance, he mentions one of Actaeon's dogs, not by the English name into which it is converted by Golding, but by the one that Ovid himself used in Latin. Prof. Baynes gives another illustration to the same effect, thus
“The important point to be noted is, that Shakespeare clearly derived it (name of Titania) from his study of Ovid in the original. It must have struck him in reading the text of the “Metamorphoses," as it is not to be found in the only translation which existed in his day. Golding, instead of transferring the term of Titania, always translates it in the case of Diana, by the phrase "Titan's Daughter," and in the case of Circe by the line, “Of Circe, who by long descent of Titian's stock." Shakespeare could not therefore have been indebted to Golding for the happy selection. On the other hand, in the next translation of The "Metamorphoses” by Sandys, first published ten ycars after Shakespeare's death, Titania is freely used. It is clear, therefore, I think, that Shakespeare not only studied the “Metamorphoses" in the original, but that he read the different stories (in Latin) with a quick and open eye for any names, incident or allusion that might be available for use in his own dramatic labor8."- Shakespeare Studies, p. 212.
† Ringlets of grass, supposed to be made by fairies, dancing in circles.
** That is, mushrooms, once regarded as the special product of fairies in their night work.
Cf. Bacon : “Mushrooms have two strange properties : the one, that they yield so delicious a meat; the other, that they come up 80 hastily, as in a night, without being sown." —Natural History.
**From the French words couvir, to cover, and feu, fire.
The bell rung at night-fall, here mentioned as a signal for the fairies to begin their revels. The custom of ringing a curfew was instituted in the time of William the Conqueror. It is still in practice in many places. Re-enter ARIEL before: then ALONSO, with a
frantic gesture, attended by GONZALO; SEBASTIAN and ANTONIO in like manner, at
tended by ADRIAN and FRANCISCO: they all
ARIEL sings and helps to attire him.