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is become like One of Us,' used with reference to the Fall, or 'Go to; let Us go down and there confound their language P,' uttered on the eve of the dispersion of Babel, it is clear that an equality of rank is distinctly assumed between the Speaker and Those Whom He is addressing. The only adequate alternative to that interpretation of these texts which is furnished by the Trinitarian doctrine, and which sees in them a preparation for the disclosures of a later age, is the violent supposition of some kind of pre-Mosaic Olympus, the many deities of which are upon a level of strict equality with each other 9. But if this supposition be admitted, how are we to account for the presence of such language in the Pentateuch at all? How can a people, confessedly religious and intelligent, such as were the Hebrews, have thus stultified their whole religious history and literature, by welcoming or retaining, in a document of the highest possible authority, a nomenclature which contained so explicit a denial of the first Article of the Hebrew Faith?

The true sense of the comparatively indeterminate language which occurs at the beginning of Genesis, is more fully explained by the Priestly Blessing which we find to be prescribed for ritual usage in the Book of Numbers". This blessing is spoken of as a putting the Name of God, that is to say, a symbol unveiling His Nature t, upon the children of Israel. Here then we discover a distinct limit to the number of the Persons Who are hinted at in Genesis, as being internal to the Unity of God. The Priest is to repeat the Most Holy Name Three times. The Hebrew accentuation, whatever be its date, shews that the Jews themselves saw in this repetition the declaration of a mystery in the Divine Nature. Unless such a repetition had been designed to secure the assertion of some important truth, a single mention of the Sacred Name would have been more natural in a system, the object of which was to impress belief in the Divine Unity upon an entire people. This significant repetition, suggesting

LXX. ὡς εἷς ἐξ ἡμῶν.

P Gen. xi. 7.

Klose, De polytheismi vestigiis apud Hebræos ante Mosen, Gotting. 1830, referred to by Kuhn, Dogmatik, Bd. ii. p. 10. Ibid. ver. 27.

Num. vi. 23-26.

'Nach der biblischen Anschauung und inbesondere des A. T. ist überhaupt der Zusammenhang zwischen Name und Sache ein sehr enger, und ein ganz anderer als im modernen Bewusstein, wo sich der Name meist zu einem bloss conventionellen Zeichen abgeschwächt hat; der Name ist die Sache selbst, sofern diese in die Erscheinung tritt und erkannt wird, der ins Wort gefasste Ausdruck des Wesens.' König, Theologie der Psalmen, p. 266.

.כאחד ממנו .22 .Gen. iii •

without distinctly asserting a Trinity in the Being of God, did its work in the mind of Israel. It is impossible not to be struck with the recurrence of the Threefold rhythm of prayer or praise, again and again, in the Psalter". Again and again the poetical parallelism is sacrificed to the practical and theological object of making the sacred songs of Israel contain an exact acknowledgment of that inner law of God's Nature, which had been shadowed out in the Pentateuch. And to omit traces of this influence of the priestly blessing which are discoverable in Jeremiah and Ezekiel, let us observe the crowning significance of the vision of Isaiah y. In that adoration of the Most Holy Three, Who yet are One, by the veiled and mysterious Seraphim; in that deep self-abasement and misery of the Prophet, who, though a man of unclean lips, had yet seen with his eyes the King, the Lord of Hosts; in that last enquiry on the part of the Divine Speaker, the very terms of which reveal Him as One and yet more than One b,-what a flood of almost Gospel light is poured upon the intelligence of the elder Church! If we cannot altogether assert with the opponents of the Lutheran Calixtus, that the doctrine of the Trinity is so clearly contained in the Old Testament as to admit of being deduced from it without the aid of the Apostles and Evangelists; enough at least has been said to shew that the Old Testament presents us with a doctrine of the Divine Unity which is very far removed from the hard and sterile Monotheism of the Koran. Within the Uncreated and Unapproachable Essence, Israel could plainly distinguish the shadows of a Truth which we Christians fully express at this hour, when we acknowledge the glory of the Eternal Trinity, and in the power of the Divine Majesty worship the Unity.'

(B) From these adumbrations of Personal Distinctions within the Being of God, we pass naturally to consider that series of remarkable apparitions which are commonly known as the Theophanies, and which form so prominent a feature in the early history of the Old Testament Scriptures. When we are told that God spoke to our fallen parents in Paradise d, and appeared

■ Cf. Ps. xxix. 4, 5, and 7, 8; xcvi. 1, 2, and 7, 8; cxv. 9, 10, 11; cxviii. 2-4, and 10-12, and 15, 16.

On this subject, see Dr. Pusey's Letter to the Bishop of London, p. 131.
Isaiah vi. 2-8.
z Ibid. ver. 3.
Ibid. ver. 5.


c Heb. i. I.

b Ibid. ver. 8.

d Gen. iii. 8: 'They heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day.'

to Abram in his ninety-ninth year e, there is no distinct intimation of the mode of the Divine manifestation. But when Jehovah appeared' to the great Patriarch by the oak of Mamre f, Abraham 'lift up his eyes and looked, and lo, Three Men stood by him.' Abraham bows himself to the ground; he offers hospitality; he waits by his Visitors under the tree, and they eath. One of the Three is the spokesman; he appears to bear the Sacred Name Jehovahi; he is seemingly distinguished from the 'two angels' who went first to Sodom; he promises that the aged Sarah shall have a son, and that 'all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in Abraham k.' With him Abraham intercedes for Sodom1; by him judgment is afterwards executed upon the guilty city. When it is said that Jehovah rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from Jehovah out of heaven m,' a sharp distinction is established between a visible and an Invisible Person, each bearing the Most Holy Name. This distinction introduces us to the Mosaic and later representations of that very exalted and mysterious being, the 78 or Angel of the Lord. The Angel of the Lord is certainly distinguished from Jehovah; yet the names by which he is called, the powers which he assumes to wield, the honour which is paid to him, shew that in him there was at least a special Presence of God. He seems to speak sometimes in his own name, and sometimes as if he were not a created personality, but only a veil or organ of the Higher Nature That spoke and acted through him. Thus he assures Hagar, as if speaking in the character of an ambassador from God, that 'the Lord had heard her affliction. Yet he promises her, 'I will multiply thy seed exceedingly,' and she in return 'called the Name of the Lord that spake unto her, Thou God seest me P.' He arrests Abraham's arm, when the Patriarch is on the point of carrying out God's bidding by offering Isaac as a sacrifice 9; yet he associates himself with Him from Whom Abraham had not withheld his son, his only son.' He accepts for himself Abraham's obedience as rendered to God, and he subsequently at a second appearance adds the promise, 'In thy seed shall all the nations of

• Gen. xvii. 1-3: "The Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God. . . . And Abram fell on his face and God talked with him.' Ibid. xviii. 1.

1 Ibid. ver. 17.

Ibid. ver. 2. h Ibid. ver. 8. Compare Gen. xviii. 22 and xix. 1. LXX. ἦλθον δὲ οἱ δύο ἄγγελοι, Gen. xviii. 10, 18. 1 Ibid. vers. 23-33. m Ibid. xix. 24; cf. St. Justin, Dial. Tryp. c. 56. n Gen. xvi. II.

• Ibid. ver. 10.

P Ibid. ver. 13.

q Ibid. xxii. 11, 12.

the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed My voice r.' He appears to Jacob in a dream, he announces himself as 'the God of Bethel, where thou anointedst the pillar, and where thou Vowedst a vow unto Me s.' Thus he was 'the Lord' who in Jacob's vision at Bethel had stood above the ladder and said, ‘I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac t.' He was, as it seems, the Chief of that angel-host whom Jacob met at Mahanaim"; with him Jacob wrestled for a blessing at Peniel; of him Jacob says, 'I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.' When blessing the sons of Joseph, the dying Patriarch invokes not only 'the God Which fed me all my life long unto this day,' but also 'the Angel which redeemed me from all evil x' In the desert of Midian, the Angel of the Lord appears to Moses 'in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush.' The bush remains miraculously unconsumed y. 'Jehovah' sees that Moses turns aside to see, and 'Elohim' calls to Moses out of the midst of the bush. The very ground on which Moses stands is holy; and the Lawgiver hides his face, 'for he was afraid to look upon God a The Speaker from the midst of the bush announces Himself as the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob a. His are the Mercy, the Wisdom, the Providence, the Power, the Authority of the Most High b; nay, all the Divine attributes c. When the children of Israel are making their escape from Egypt, the Angel of the Lord leads them; in the hour of danger he places himself between the camp of Israel and the host of Pharaoh d. How deeply Israel felt the value of his protecting care, we may learn from the terms of the message to the King of Edome. God promises that the Angel shall keep Israel in the way, and bring the people to Canaan f; his presence is a guarantee that the Amorites and other idolatrous races shall be cut off 8. Israel is to obey this Angel, and to provoke him not; for the Holy Name is in him h.' Even after the sin of the Golden Calf, the promised guardianship of the Angel is not forfeited; while a distinction is clearly drawn between the Angel and Jehovah Himselfi. Yet the Angel is

r Gen. xxii. 18; cf. Heb. vi.

+ Ibid. xxviii. 13.

Exod. iii. I, 2.

b Ibid. vers. 7-14.

c Num. xx. 16.

Ibid. xxiii. 23; cf. Joshua v. 13-15.

h Exod. xxiii. 21, p.

Gen. xxxi. II, 13. • Ibid. xlviii. 15, 16. a Ibid. ver. 6.

d Ibid. xiv. 19.

13, 14.

u Ibid. xxxii. 1.
Ibid. ver. 4.

• Ibid. vers. 14-16.

Exod. xxiii. 20; compare xxxii. 34.

¡ Ibid. xxxiii. 2, 3: 'I will send an angel before thee . . . for I will not

go up in the midst of thee; for thou art a stiff-necked people.'

expressly called the Angel of God's Presencek; he fully represents God. God must in some way have been present in him. No merely created being, speaking and acting in his own right, could have spoken to men, or have allowed men to act towards himself, as did the Angel of the Lord. Thus he withstands Balaam, on his faithless errand, and bids him go with the messengers of Balak; but adds, 'Only the word that I shall speak unto thee, that thou shalt speak.' As 'Captain of the host of the Lord,' he appears to Joshua in the plain of Jericho. Joshua worships God in him1; and the Angel asks of the conqueror of Canaan the same tokens of reverence as had been exacted from Moses m. Besides the reference in the Song of Deborah to the curse pronounced against Meroz by the Angel of the Lord, the Book of Judges contains accounts of three appearances, in each of which we are scarcely sensible of the action of a created personality, so completely is the language and bearing that of the Higher Nature present in the Angel. At Bochim he expostulates with the assembled people for their breach of the covenant in failing to exterminate the Canaanites. God speaks by him as in His own Name; He refers to the covenant which He had made with Israel, and to His bringing the people out of Egypt; He declares that, on account of their disobedience He will not drive the heathen nations out of the land. In the account of his appearance to Gideon, the Angel is called sometimes the Angel of the Lord, sometimes the Lord, or Jehovah. He bids Gideon attack the Midianite oppressors of Israel, and adds the promise, 'I will be with thee.' Gideon places an offering before the Angel, that he may, if he wills, manifest his character by some sign. The Angel touches the offering with the end of his staff, whereupon fire rises up out of the rock and consumes the offering. The Angel disappears, and Gideon fears that he will die because he has seen 'the Angel of the Lord face to face P.' When the wife of Manoah is reporting the Angel's first appearance to herself, she says that A man of God came' to her, and his countenance was like the countenance of the Angel of God, very terrible.' She thus speaks of the Angel as of a Being already

Exod. xxxiii. 14; compare Isaiah lxiii. 9.

1 In Josh. vi. 2 the captain of the Lord's Host (cf. ch. v. 14) appears to be called Jehovah. But cf. Mill, Myth. Int. p. 354.

m Josh. v. 13-15; Exod. iii. 5; compare Exod. xxiii. 23.


Judges v. 23.

Judg. vi. 11-22.

• Ibid. ii. 1-5. See Keil, Comm. in loc.

Keil, Comm. in loc. See Hengstenberg, Christol. O. Test. vol. iv. append. iii. p. 292.

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