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Provided, That when any person shall be of the denomination called Quakers, and shall decline taking said oath, he shall make his affirmation in the foregoing form, omitting the word "swear" and inserting, instead thereof, the word "affirm," and omitting the words "So help me, God," and subjoining, instead thereof, the words, "This I do under the pains and penalties of perjury."

ART. VII. No oath, declaration, or subscription, excepting the oath prescribed in the preceding article, and the oath of office, shall be required of the governor, lieutenant-governor, councillors, senators, or representatives, to qualify them to perform the duties of their respective offices. ART. VIII. No judge of any court of this commonwealth, (except the court of sessions,) and no person 123 Mass. 535. holding any office under the authority of the United

Incompatibility
of offices.
122 Mass. 445,
600.

States, (postmasters excepted,) shall, at the same time,
hold the office of governor, lieutenant-governor, or coun-
cillor, or have a seat in the senate or house of representa-
tives of this commonwealth; and no judge of any court in
this commonwealth, (except the court of sessions,) nor the
attorney-general, solicitor-general, county attorney, clerk
of any court, sheriff, treasurer and receiver-general, reg-
ister of probate, nor register of deeds, shall continue to
hold his said office after being elected a member of the
Congress of the United States, and accepting that trust;
but the acceptance of such trust, by any of the officers
aforesaid, shall be deemed and taken to be a resignation
of his said office; and judges of the courts of common
pleas shall hold no other office under the government of
this commonwealth, the office of justice of the peace and
militia offices excepted.

ART. IX. If, at any time hereafter, any specific and particular amendment or amendments to the constitution be proposed in the general court, and agreed to by a majority of the senators and two-thirds of the members of the house of representatives present and voting thereon, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on the journals of the two houses, with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the general court then next to be chosen, and shall be published; and if, in the general court next chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by a majority of the senators and two-thirds of the members of the house of representatives present and voting thereon, then it shall be the duty of the general court to submit such proposed

Proviso. Quakers may affirm.

Tests abolished.

Amendments to constitution, how made.

amendment or amendments to the people; and if they shall be approved and ratified by a majority of the qualified voters, voting thereon, at meetings legally warned and holden for that purpose, they shall become part of the constitution of this commonwealth.

of political

ART. X. The political year shall begin on the first Commencement Wednesday of January, instead of the last Wednesday of year, May; and the general court shall assemble every year on the said first Wednesday of January, and shall proceed, at that session, to make all the elections, and do all the other acts, which are by the constitution required to be made and done at the session which has heretofore commenced on the last Wednesday of May. And the general court shall be dissolved on the day next preceding the first Wednesday of January, without any proclamation or other act of the governor. But nothing herein contained shall prevent the general court from assembling at such other times as they shall judge necessary, or when called together by the governor. The governor, lieutenant-governor and councillors, shall also hold their respective offices for one year next following the first Wednesday of January, and until others are chosen and qualified in their stead.

and termination.

of gov.

ant-governor,

held.

[The meeting for the choice of governor, lieutenant- Meetings for the governor, senators, and representatives, shall be held on ernor, lieutenthe second Monday of November in every year; but etc., when to be meetings may be adjourned, if necessary, for the choice This clause of representatives, to the next day, and again to the next superseded by succeeding day, but no further. But in case a second Art. XV. meeting shall be necessary for the choice of representatives, such meetings shall be held on the fourth Monday of the same month of November.]

All the other provisions of the constitution, respecting the elections and proceedings of the members of the general court, or of any other officers or persons whatever, that have reference to the last Wednesday of May, as the commencement of the political year, shall be so far altered, as to have like reference to the first Wednesday of January.

to go into

This article shall go into operation on the first day of Article, when October, next following the day when the same shall be operation. duly ratified and adopted as an amendment of the constitution; and the governor, lieutenant-governor, councillors, senators, representatives, and all other state officers, who are annually chosen, and who shall be chosen for the current year, when the same shall go into operation, shall hold their respective offices until the first Wednesday of

Inconsistent provisions

annulled.

Religious freedom established. See Dec. of Rights, Art. III.

January then next following, and until others are chosen and qualified in their stead, and no longer; and the first election of the governor, lieutenant-governor, senators, and representatives, to be had in virtue of this article, shall be had conformably thereunto, in the month of November following the day on which the same shall be in force, and go into operation, pursuant to the foregoing provision.

All the provisions of the existing constitution, inconsistent with the provisions herein contained, are hereby wholly annulled.

Census of rata

ble polls to be taken in 1837, and decennially

ART. XI. Instead of the third article of the bill of rights, the following modification and amendment thereof is substituted :

"As the public worship of GOD and instructions in piety, religion, and morality, promote the happiness and prosperity of a people, and the security of a republican government; therefore, the several religious societies of this commonwealth, whether corporate or unincorporate, at any meeting legally warned and holden for that purpose, shall ever have the right to elect their pastors or religious teachers, to contract with them for their support, to raise money for erecting and repairing houses for public worship, for the maintenance of religious instruction, and for the payment of necessary expenses; and all persons belonging to any religious society shall be taken and held to be members, until they shall file with the clerk of such society a written notice, declaring the dissolution of their membership, and thenceforth shall not be liable for any grant or contract which may be thereafter made, or entered 122 Mass. 40, 41. into by such society; and all religious sects and denominations, demeaning themselves peaceably, and as good citizens of the commonwealth, shall be equally under the protection of the law; and no subordination of any one sect or denomination to another shall ever be established by law."

ART. XII. [In order to provide for a representation of the citizens of this commonwealth, founded upon the thereafter. principles of equality, a census of the ratable polls, in each

This article was

superseded by city, town, and district of the commonwealth, on the first day of May, shall be taken and returned into the secresuperseded by tary's office, in such manner as the legislature shall pro

amendments, Art. XIII., which was also

amendments,

Art. XXI.

Representa tives, how apportioned.

vide, within the month of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven, and in every tenth year thereafter, in the month of May, in manner aforesaid; and each town or city having three hundred rata

ble polls at the last preceding decennial census of polls, may elect one representative, and for every four hundred and fifty ratable polls in addition to the first three hundred, one representative more.

less than 300

sented.

Any town having less than three hundred ratable polls Towns having shall be represented thus: The whole number of ratable ratable polls, polls, at the last preceding decennial census of polls, shall how reprebe multiplied by ten, and the product divided by three hundred; and such town may elect one representative as many years within ten years, as three hundred is contained in the product aforesaid.

represented.

Any city or town having ratable polls enough to elect Fractions, how one or more representatives, with any number of polls beyond the necessary number, may be represented, as to that surplus number, by multiplying such surplus number by ten and dividing the product by four hundred and fifty; and such city or town may elect one additional representative as many years, within the ten years, as four hundred and fifty is contained in the product aforesaid.

unite into repre

Any two or more of the several towns and districts Towns may may, by consent of a majority of the legal voters present sentative disat a legal meeting, in each of said towns and districts, tricts. respectively, called for that purpose, and held previous to the first day of July, in the year in which the decennial census of polls shall be taken, form themselves into a representative district to continue until the next decennial census of polls, for the election of a representative, or representatives; and such district shall have all the rights, in regard to representation, which would belong to a town containing the same number of ratable polls.

and council to

town is entitled.

The governor and council shall ascertain and determine, The governor within the months of July and August, in the year of our determine the Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven, accord- number of reping to the foregoing principles, the number of representa- which each tives, which each city, town, and representative district is entitled to elect, and the number of years, within the period of ten years then next ensuing, that each city, town, and representative district may elect an additional representative; and where any town has not a sufficient number of polls to elect a representative each year, then, how many years within the ten years, such town may elect a representative; and the same shall be done once in ten New apportion. years, thereafter, by the governor and council, and the once in every number of ratable polls in each decennial census of polls, shall determine the number of representatives, which each

ment to be made

ten years.

Inconsistent provisions annulled.

Census of inhabitants to be taken in 1840,

and decennially thereafter, for

basis of representation. Provisions as to

ART. XIII. [A census of the inhabitants of each city and town, on the first day of May, shall be taken, and returned into the secretary's office, on or before the last day of June, of the year one thousand eight hundred and census super- forty, and of every tenth year thereafter; which census seded by amend shall determine the apportionment of senators and repre

XXI. and XXII. sentatives for the term of ten years. 122 Mass. 595.

Senatorial districts declared permanent.

senators super

The several senatorial districts now existing shall be Provisions as to permanent. The senate shall consist of forty members; and in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty, and every tenth year thereafter, the governor and council shall assign the number of senators to be chosen in each district, according to the number of inhabitants in the same. But, in all cases, at least one senator shall be assigned to each district.

seded by amendments, Art. XXII.

House of representatives, how

The members of the house of representatives shall be apportioned. apportioned in the following manner: Every town or city

Provisions as to

representatives containing twelve hundred inhabitants may elect one rep

resentative; and two thousand four hundred inhabitants shall be the mean increasing number, which shall entitle it to an additional representative.

amendments, Art. XXI.

city, town and representative district may elect as aforesaid; and when the number of representatives to be elected by each city, town, or representative district is ascertained and determined as aforesaid, the governor shall cause the same to be published forthwith for the information of the people, and that number shall remain fixed and unalterable for the period of ten years.

All the provisions of the existing constitution inconsistent with the provisions herein contained, are hereby wholly annulled.]

Small towns, how represented.

Every town containing less than twelve hundred inhabitants shall be entitled to elect a representative as many times within ten years as the number one hundred and sixty is contained in the number of the inhabitants of said town. Such towns may also elect one representative for the year in which the valuation of estates within the commonwealth shall be settled.

Towns may unite into

Any two or more of the several towns may, by consent representative of a majority of the legal voters present at a legal meet

ing, in each of said towns, respectively, called for that purpose, and held before the first day of August, in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty, and every tenth year thereafter, form themselves into a representative district, to continue for the term of ten years; and

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