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New Jersey, and now has been in force one hundred and twenty years, a longer time than the organic law of any other American commonwealth except Massachusetts.

The popular vote by which this enduring constitution was ratified, taken in different towns on different days during the three months preceding its establishment, is unrecorded.

The accounts of the basis of representation in New Hampshire have been prepared under my direction, the former by George Hill Evans, assistant in the library of Dartmouth College, and the latter by William Hugh Mitchell, graduate-student in history and political science. My indebtedness to both of them has been increased by further helpful co-operation, without which publication must have been delayed.

My thanks are due to Mr. Edson C. Eastman, publisher of Chase's edition of the Public Statutes, 1901, for permission to reprint the marginal and appended notes to the constitution in that edition; to Hon. Albert S. Batchellor, editor of State Papers, for many valuable and scholarly suggestions, and to the Secretary of State for his courteous assumption of the painstaking and responsible burden of correcting the proof-sheets. Any errors which may be discovered it is hoped may be explained, if not excused, by the narrow limits of time allowed for preparing the manuscript and for publication.

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DECEMBER 1, 1902.



ARTICLE 1. Equality of men; origin and

object of government. 2. Natural rights. 3. Society, its organization and

purposes. 4. Rights of conscience unalien

able. 5. Religious freedom recognized. 6. Public worship of the Deity to

be encouraged; right of electing religious teachers; free toleration; existing con

tracts not affected. 7. State sovereignty. 8. Accountability of magistrates

and officers to the people. 9. No hereditary office or place. 10. Right of revolution. 11. Elections and elective fran

chise. 12. Protection and taxation recip.

rocal; private property for

public use. 13. Conscientiously scrupulous

not compellable to bear arms.

ARTICLE 14. Legal remedies to be free, com

plete, and prompt. 15. Accused entitled to full and

substantial statement of charge; not obliged to furnish evidence against himself; may produce proofs

and be fully heard, etc. 16. No person to be again tried

after an acquittal; trial by

jury in capital cases. 17. Criminal trials in couuty, ex

cept in general insurrection. 18. Penalties to be proportioned

to offenses; true design of

punishment. 19. Searchs and seizures regu

lated. 20. Trial by jury in civil causes;

exceptions. 21. Only qualified persons to serve

as jurors, and to be fully

compensated. 22. Liberty of the press. 23. Retrospective laws prohibited. 24. Militia. 25. Standing armies. 26. Military, subject to civil



ARTICLE 27. Quartering of soldiers. 28. Taxes to be levied only by the

people or legislature. 29. Suspension of laws by legisla

ture only. 30. Freedom of speech. 31. Meetings of legislature, for

what purpose. 32. Rights of assembly, instruc

tion and petition. 33. Excessive bail, fines, and pun

ishments prohibited. 34. Martial law limited. 35. The judiciary; tenure of office. 36. Pensions. 37. The legislative, executive, and

judicial departments to be

kept separate. 38. Social virtues inculcated.

ARTICLE 11. Biennial election of represent

atives in November. 12. Qualifications of electors. 13. Representatives, how elected,

and qualifications of. 14. Compensation of the legisla

ture. 15. Vacancies in house, how filled. 16. House to impeach before the

senate. 17. Money bills to originate in

house. 18. Power of adjournment lim.

ited. 19. Quorum, what constitutes. 20. Privileges of members of the

legislature. 21. House to elect speaker and

officers, settle rules of proceeding, and punish miscon

duct. 22. Senate and executive have

like powers; imprisonment

Jimited. 23. Journals and laws to be pub

lished; yeas and nays, and protests.

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1. Name of body politic. 2. Legislature, how constituted. 3. General court, when to meet

and dissolve. 4. Power of general court to es

tablish courts. 5. To make laws, elect officers,

detine their powers and duties, impose tines, and assess taxes; prohibited from authorizing towns to aid cer

tain corporations. 6. Valuation of estates. 7. Members of legislature not to

take fees or act as counsel. 8. Legislature to sit with open


24. Senate, how constituted; ten

ure of office. 25. Senatorial districts, how con

stituted. 26. Election of senators. 27. Senators, how and by whom

chosen; right of suffrage. 28. Qualifications of senators. 29. Inhabitant defined. 30. Inhabitants of unincorporated

places; their rights, etc. 31. Biennial meetings,

how warned, governed, and con

ducted; return of votes. 32. Governor and council to count

votes for senators and notify

the persons elected. 33. Vacancies in senate, how



TIVES. 9. Representatives elected bien

nially; ratio of representation; number not to be in

creased by dividing towns. 10. Small towns may elect a pro

portionate part of time.

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