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New Jersey, and now has been in force one hundred and twenty years, a longer time than the organic law of any other American commonwealth except Massachusetts.
The popular vote by which this enduring constitution was ratified, taken in different towns on different days during the three months preceding its establishment, is unrecorded.
The accounts of the basis of representation in New Hampshire have been prepared under my direction, the former by George Hill Evans, assistant in the library of Dartmouth College, and the latter by William Hugh Mitchell, graduate-student in history and political science. My indebtedness to both of them has been increased by further helpful co-operation, without which publication must have been delayed.
My thanks are due to Mr. Edson C. Eastman, publisher of Chase's edition of the Public Statutes, 1901, for permission to reprint the marginal and appended notes to the constitution in that edition; to Hon. Albert S. Batchellor, editor of State Papers, for many valuable and scholarly suggestions, and to the Secretary of State for his courteous assumption of the painstaking and responsible burden of correcting the proof-sheets. Any errors which may be discovered it is hoped may be explained, if not excused, by the narrow limits of time allowed for preparing the manuscript and for publication.
ESTABLISHED OCTOBER 31, 1783, AS SUBSE-
DECEMBER 1, 1902.
PART FIRST.-BILL OF
ARTICLE 1. Equality of men; origin and
object of government. 2. Natural rights. 3. Society, its organization and
purposes. 4. Rights of conscience unalien
able. 5. Religious freedom recognized. 6. Public worship of the Deity to
be encouraged; right of electing religious teachers; free toleration; existing con
tracts not affected. 7. State sovereignty. 8. Accountability of magistrates
and officers to the people. 9. No hereditary office or place. 10. Right of revolution. 11. Elections and elective fran
chise. 12. Protection and taxation recip.
rocal; private property for
public use. 13. Conscientiously scrupulous
not compellable to bear arms.
ARTICLE 14. Legal remedies to be free, com
plete, and prompt. 15. Accused entitled to full and
substantial statement of charge; not obliged to furnish evidence against himself; may produce proofs
and be fully heard, etc. 16. No person to be again tried
after an acquittal; trial by
jury in capital cases. 17. Criminal trials in couuty, ex
cept in general insurrection. 18. Penalties to be proportioned
to offenses; true design of
punishment. 19. Searchs and seizures regu
lated. 20. Trial by jury in civil causes;
exceptions. 21. Only qualified persons to serve
as jurors, and to be fully
compensated. 22. Liberty of the press. 23. Retrospective laws prohibited. 24. Militia. 25. Standing armies. 26. Military, subject to civil
ARTICLE 27. Quartering of soldiers. 28. Taxes to be levied only by the
people or legislature. 29. Suspension of laws by legisla
ture only. 30. Freedom of speech. 31. Meetings of legislature, for
what purpose. 32. Rights of assembly, instruc
tion and petition. 33. Excessive bail, fines, and pun
ishments prohibited. 34. Martial law limited. 35. The judiciary; tenure of office. 36. Pensions. 37. The legislative, executive, and
judicial departments to be
kept separate. 38. Social virtues inculcated.
ARTICLE 11. Biennial election of represent
atives in November. 12. Qualifications of electors. 13. Representatives, how elected,
and qualifications of. 14. Compensation of the legisla
ture. 15. Vacancies in house, how filled. 16. House to impeach before the
senate. 17. Money bills to originate in
house. 18. Power of adjournment lim.
ited. 19. Quorum, what constitutes. 20. Privileges of members of the
legislature. 21. House to elect speaker and
officers, settle rules of proceeding, and punish miscon
duct. 22. Senate and executive have
like powers; imprisonment
Jimited. 23. Journals and laws to be pub
lished; yeas and nays, and protests.
PART SECOND.-FORM OF
1. Name of body politic. 2. Legislature, how constituted. 3. General court, when to meet
and dissolve. 4. Power of general court to es
tablish courts. 5. To make laws, elect officers,
detine their powers and duties, impose tines, and assess taxes; prohibited from authorizing towns to aid cer
tain corporations. 6. Valuation of estates. 7. Members of legislature not to
take fees or act as counsel. 8. Legislature to sit with open
24. Senate, how constituted; ten
ure of office. 25. Senatorial districts, how con
stituted. 26. Election of senators. 27. Senators, how and by whom
chosen; right of suffrage. 28. Qualifications of senators. 29. Inhabitant defined. 30. Inhabitants of unincorporated
places; their rights, etc. 31. Biennial meetings,
how warned, governed, and con
ducted; return of votes. 32. Governor and council to count
votes for senators and notify
the persons elected. 33. Vacancies in senate, how
HOUSE OF REPRESENTA
TIVES. 9. Representatives elected bien
nially; ratio of representation; number not to be in
creased by dividing towns. 10. Small towns may elect a pro
portionate part of time.