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ARTICLE 34. Senate, judges of their own

elections. 35. Adjournments limited except

in impeachment cases. 36. Senate to elect their own offi.

cers; quorum. 37. Senate to try impeachments;

mode of proceeding. 38. Judgment on impeachments

limited. 39. Chief justice to preside on im

peachment of governor.

ARTICLE 50. Power and duties of governor

as commander-in-chief; lim

itation. 51. Pardoning power. 52. Militia officers, removal of. 53. Staff and non-commissioned

officers, by whom appointed. 54. Division of militia into bri

gades, regiments, and com

panies. 55. Moneys drawn from treasury

only by warrant of governor

pursuant to law. 56. Accounts of military stores,

etc., to be rendered quar

terly. 57. Compensation of governor and

council. 58. Salaries of judges.




40. Title of governor. 41. Election

governor; return of votes; electors; if no choice, legislature to elect one of two highest candidates; qualifications for gov

ernor. 42. In cases of disagreement, gov

ernor to adjourn or prorogue legislature; if infectious distemper or other cause exists, may convene them else

where. 43. Veto of governor to bills, pro

visions as to. 44. Resolves to be treated like

bills. 45. Governor and council to nom

inate and appoint officers : nomination three days be

fore appointment. 46. Governor and council have

negative on each other. 47. Field officers to recommend,

and governor to appoint,

coinpany officers. 48. President of senate to act as

governor when office vacant; speaker of house to act when office of president

of senate also vacant. 49. Governor to prorogue or ad

journ legislature and call extra sessions.

59. Councilors, mode of election,

etc. 60. Vacancies, how filled if no

choice. 61. Occurring afterward ; new

election; governor to con

vene; duties. 62. Impeachment of councilors. 63. Secretary to record proceed

ings of council. 64. Councilor districts provided

for. 65. Elections by legislature may

be adjourned from day to day; order thereof.



66. Election of secretary, treas.

urer, and commissary-gen

eral. 67. State records, where kept;

of secretary. 68. Secretary to give bond.

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ARTICLE COUNTY TREASURERS, ETC. 70. County treasurers, registers of

probate, solicitors, sheriffs, and registers of deeds elect

ed. 71. Counties may be divided into

districts for registering deeds.

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72. Tenure of office to be ex-

pressed in commissions;
judges to hold office during
good behavior, etc.; remov.

able by address.
73. Judges to give opinions, when.
74. Justices of the peace commis-

sioned for five years. 75. Divorces and probate appeals,

where tried. 76. Jurisdiction of justices in civil

causes. 77. Judges and sheriffs, when dis

qualified by age. 78. Judges and justices not to act

as counsel. 79. Jurisdiction and terms of pro

bate courts. 80. Judges and registers of probate

not to act as counsel.

83. Oath of civil officers.
84. Before whom taken.
85. Form of commissions.
86. Form of writs.
87. Form of indictments, etc.
88. Suicides and deodands.
89. Existing laws to continue in

force, if not repugnant to

constitution. 90. Habeas corpus. 91. Enacting style of statutes. 92. Governor and judges prohib

ited from holding other

offices. 93. Incompatibility of offices; only

two offices of profit to be

holden at same time. 94. Incompatibility of certain

offices. 95. Bribery and corruption dis

qualify for office. 96. Value of money, how com

puted. 97. Constitution, when to take

effect. 98. Revision of constitution pro

vided for. 99. Question on revision to be

taken every seven years. 100. Enrollment of constitution.

Note, showing when the different constitutions of the state and the constitutional amendments were adopted.

CLERKS OF COURTS. 81. Clerks of courts, by whom ap


ERATURE, ETC. 82. Encouragement of literature,




Article 1st All men are born equally free and independent; Equality of therefore, all government of right originates from the people, and object of

government. is founded in consent, and instituted for the general good. liii,212.lxv, 113.

[Art.] 2d. All men have certain natural, essential, and in- Natural herent rights, among which are the enjoying and defending life liji, 9; 398. and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and, 1xv, 103.

liv, 117; 590. in a word, of seeking and obtaining happiness.

lxvii, 59. [Art.] 34. When men enter into a state of society, they Society, its surrender up some of their natural rights to that society, in and purposes.

liii, 9. order to insure the protection of others; and, without such an equivalent, the surrender is void.

[Art.) 4th. Among the natural rights, some are in their Rights of convery nature unalienable, because no equivalent can be given or alienable. received for them.

liii, 9. lix, 225. Of this kind are the rights of conscience. [Art.] 5th. Every individual has a natural and unalienable Religious right to worship God according to the dictates of his own con- recognized. science and reason; and no subject shall be hurt, molested, or lviii, 240. restrained, in his person, liberty, or estate, for worshiping God (XIV, 48. in the manner and season most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience, or for his religious profession, sentiments, or persuasion, provided he doth not disturb the public peace or disturb others in their religious worship.

[Art.] 6th. As morality and piety, rightly grounded on Public worevangelical principles, will give the best and greatest security to Deity to be government, and will lay in the hearts of men the strongest timing

encouraged. obligations to due subjection, and as the knowledge of these is lxvi, 230. most likely to be propagated through a society by the institution of the public worship of the Deity and of public instruction in morality and religion, therefore to promote those important purposes, the people of this state have a right to empower, and do hereby fully empower, the legislature to authorize, from time

*First inserted in this and following articles of Bill of Rights in General Statutes, 1867.

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to time, the several towns, parishes, bodies corporate, or relig-
ious societies within this state to make adequate provision, at
their own expense, for the support and maintenance of public

Protestant teachers of piety, religion, and morality.
Right of elect- Provided, notwithstanding, that the several towns, parishes,
ing religious
teachers. bodies corporate, or religious societies shall at all times have
Sm., 1.
liii, 9; 138. the exclusive right of electing their own public teachers and of
lvi, 508.
Iviii, 170.

contracting with them for their support and maintenance. And lxvi, 230.

no person of any one particular religious sect or denomination
shall ever be compelled to pay towards the support of the
teacher or teachers of another persuasion, sect, or denomina-

Free tolera. And every denomination of Christians, demeaning themselves
liii, 9.

quietly and as good subjects of the state, shall be equally under
the protection of the law; and no subordination of any one
sect or denomination to another shall ever be established by

Existing con- And nothing herein shall be understood to affect any former
affected. contracts made for the support of the ministry; but all such

contracts shall remain and be in the same state as if this con

stitution had not been made.
State sover- [Art.] 7th. The people of this state have the sole and
lxvi, 369. exclusive right of governing themselves as a free, sovereign,

and independent state, and do, and forever hereafter shall,
exercise and enjoy every power, jurisdiction, and right pertain-
ing thereto which is not or may not hereafter be by them
expressiy delegated to the United States of America in congress

Accounta- [ART.] gth. All power residing originally in, and being de-
bility of mag-
istrates and rived from, the people, all the magistrates and officers of
lxvi, 369.

government are their substitutes and agents and at all times Ixvii, 49.

accountable to them.
No hereditary [Art.] 9th. No office or place whatsoever in government
office or

shall be hereditary, the abilities and integrity requisite in all
not being transmissible to posterity or relations.

tracts not

[ART.] 10th. Government being instituted for the common Right of revobenefit, protection, and security of the whole community, and sii, 592.

lxv, 113. not for the private interest or emolument of any one man, family, or class of men, therefore, whenever the ends of government are perverted and public liberty manifestly endangered and all other means of redress are ineffectual, the people may, and of right ought to, reform the old or establish a new government. The doctrine of non-resistance against arbitrary power and oppression is absurd, slavish, and destructive of the good and happiness of mankind. [Art.] 11th. All elections ought to be free; and every in- Elections and

elective franhabitant of the state, having the proper qualifications, has


lx, 385. equal right to elect and be elected into office.

[Art.] 12th. Every member of the community has a right anattatation to be protected by it in the enjoyment of his life, liberty, and reciprocal.

Private propproperty. He is, therefore, bound to contribute his share in erty for pub

lic use, etc. the expense of such protection, and to yield his personal

i, 120, 130. ii, 22. service, when necessary, or an equivalent. But no part of a iii, 534. iv, 568.

vii,35. viii, 398. man's property shall be taken from him or applied to public x, 369. xi, 19. uses without his own consent or that of the representative body 541. xxvii, 183. of the people. Nor are the inhabitants of this state con- xxxvi, 404.

xlvii,444. 1,591. trollable by any other laws than those to which they or their li, 604. liv, 690. representative body have given their consent.2803480. 1x,219;346;522. 1x1,631. lxii,66.

lix, 191; [Art.] 13th. No person who is conscientiously scrupulous lxv,113.

Conscienabout the lawfulness of bearing arms shall be compelled thereto, tiously scru

pulous, not provided he will pay an equivalent. compellable to bear arms.

[Art.] 14th. Every subject of this state is entitled to a Legal remecertain remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all injuries free, comhe may receive in his person, property, or character, to obtain plete, and right and justice freely, without being obliged to purchase it; 11:13

XXV, 539, 540. completely and without any denial; promptly and without lxv, 113. delay; conformably to the laws.

[Art.] 15th. No subject shall be held to answer for any Accused en: crime or offense until the same is fully and plainly, substantially and substan

tial statement and formally, described to him, or be compelled to accuse or

of charge; not furnish evidence against himself. And every subject shall have obliged to fur


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