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XI. All itant of th equal rig! XII.

*Amermusly supported
pter in the warrant to
int: persons, or to seize their

special designa-
Nothints of search, arrest, and
**** Hught to be issued but in cases
; es prescribed by the laws.

*****) or more persons, except in cases
Aptitudies have a right to a trial by jury ;
apie paren heretofore otherwise used and

Muhe procedure shall be held sacred, unless yor!**ng on the high seas, and such as relate

'wages, the Legislature shall think it necesimmalle privilege of the trial by jury, great care

11. In order to reap the fullest advantage of the hre/pointed to serve ; and such ought to be fully comzvrstied for their travel, time, and attendance.

LVII. The liberty of the press is essential to the security of freedom in a State; it ought, therefore, to

XXIII. Retrospective laws are highly injurious, should be made, either for the decision of civil causes oppressive, and unjust. No such laws, therefore,

XXIV. A well-regulated militia is natural, and sure defence of a State.

XXV. Standing armies are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be raised or kept up without the consent of

XXVI. In all cases, and at all times, the military ought to be under strict subordination to and governed by the civil power.

the proper,

the Legislature.

XXVII. No soldier in time of peace shall be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; and in time of war such quarters ought not to be made but by the civil magistrate, in a manner ordained by the Legislature.

XXVIII. No subsidy, charge, tax, impost, or duty shall be established, fixed, laid, or levied under any pretext whatsoever without the consent of the people, or their representatives in the Legislature, or authority derived from that body.

XXIX. The power of suspending the laws, or the execution of them, ought never to be exercised but by the Legislature, or by authority derived therefrom, to be exercised in such particular cases only as the Legislature shall expressly provide for.

XXX. The freedom of deliberation, speech, and debate, in either house of the Legislature, is so essential to the rights of the people that it cannot be the foundation of any action, complaint, or prosecution in any other court or place whatsoever.

XXXI. The Legislature ought frequently to assemble for the redress of grievances, for correcting, strengthening, and confirming the laws, and for making new ones, as the common good may require.

XXXII. The people have a right in an orderly and peaceable manner to assemble and consult upon the common good, give instructions to their representatives, and to request of the legislative body, by way of petition or remonstrance, redress of the wrongs done them, and of the grievances they suffer.

XXXIII. No magistrate or court of law shall demand excessive bail or sureties, impose excessive fines, or inflict cruel or unusual punishments.

XXXIV. No person can in any case be subjected to law martial, or to any pains or penalties by virtue of that law, except those employed in the army or navy, and except the militia in actual service, but by authority of the Legislature.

in

cause or foundation of them be not previously supported by oath or affirmation, and if the order in the warrant to a civil officer to make search in suspected places, or to arrest one or more suspected persons, or to seize their property, be not accompanied with a special designation of the persons or objects of search, arrest, and seizure; and no warrant ought to be issued but in cases and with the formalities prescribed by the laws.

XX. In all controversies concerning property, and in all suits between two or more persons, except cases in which it has been heretofore otherwise used and practiced, the parties have a right to a trial by jury; and this method of procedure shall be held sacred, unless in causes arising on the high seas, and such as relate to mariners' wages, the Legislature shall think it necessary hereafter to alter it.

XXI. In order to reap the fullest advantage of the inestimable privilege of the trial by jury, great care ought to be taken that none but qualified persons should be appointed to serve ; and such ought to be fully compensated for their travel, time, and attendance.

XXII. The liberty of the press is essential to the security of freedom in a State; it ought, therefore, to be inviolably preserved.

XXIII. Retrospective laws are highly injurious, oppressive, and unjust. No such laws, therefore, should be made, either for the decision of civil causes or the punishment of offences.

XXIV. A well-regulated militia is the proper, natural, and sure defence of a State.

XXV. Standing armies are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be raised or kept up without the consent of the Legislature.

XXVI. In all cases, and at all times, the military ought to be under strict subordination to and governed by the civil power.

XXVII. No soldier in time of peace shall be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner ; and in time of war such quarters ought not to be made but by the civil magistrate, in a manner ordained by the Legislature.

XXVIII. No subsidy, charge, tax, impost, or duty shall be established, fixed, laid, or levied under any pretext whatsoever without the consent of the people, or their representatives in the Legislature, or authority derived from that body.

XXIX. The power of suspending the laws, or the execution of them, ought never to be exercised but by the Legislature, or by authority derived therefrom, to be exercised in such particular cases only as the Legislature shall expressly provide for.

XXX. The freedom of deliberation, speech, and debate, in either house of the Legislature, is so essential to the rights of the people that it cannot be the foundation of any action, complaint, or prosecution in any other court or place whatsoever.

XXXI. The Legislature ought frequently to assemble for the redress of grievances, for correcting, strengthening, and confirming the laws, and for making new ones, as the common good may require.

XXXII. The people have a right in an orderly and peaceable manner to assemble and consult upon the common good, give instructions to their representatives, and to request of the legislative body, by way of petition or remonstrance, redress of the wrongs done them, and of the grievances they suffer.

XXXIII. No magistrate or court of law shall demand excessive bail or sureties, impose excessive fines, or inflict cruel or unusual punishments.

XXXIV. No person can in any case be subjected to law martial, or to any pains or penalties by virtue of that law, except those employed in the army or navy, and except the militia in actual service, but by authority of the Legislature.

XXXV. It is essential to the preservation of the rights of every individual, his life, liberty, property, and character, that there be an impartial interpretation of the laws, and administration of justice. It is the right of every citizen to be tried by judges as impartial as the lot of humanity will admit.

It is therefore not only the best policy, but for the security of the rights of the people, that the judges of the supreme (or superior) judicial court should hold their offices so long as they behave well; and that they should have honorable salaries, ascertained and established by standing laws.

XXXVI. Economy being a most essential virtue in all States, especially in a young one, no pension shall be granted but in consideration of actual services, and such pensions ought to be granted with great caution by the Legislature, and never for more than one year at a time.

XXXVII. In the government of this State the three essential powers thereof, to wit, the legislative, executive, and judicial, ought to be kept as separate from and independent of each other as the nature of a free government will admit, or as is consistent with that chain of connection that binds the whole fabric of the Constitution in one indissoluble bond of unity and amity.

XXXVIII. A frequent recurrence to the fundamental principles of the Constitution, and a constant adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, industry, frugality, and all the social virtues, are indispensably necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty and good government; the people ought, therefore, to have a particular regard to all those principles in the choice of their officers and representatives ; and they have a right to require of their lawgivers and magistrates an exact and constant observance of them in the formation and execution of the laws necessary for the good administration of government.

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