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them to stay, till Ribalt arrived with seven sail 1565. of vessels.-Hakluyt, iii., 319–349.
PEDRO MELENDES, in the service of Spain, came with a superior force, killed Ribalt and most of his company, and took possession of the
country, building three forts.-Ibid., 352-356. 1568. GOURGUES,* from France, with the help of
the natives, who hated the Spaniards, broke up the Spanish settlements in Florida, and returned to France, leaving the country desert.-Ibid.,
356–360, 1576. All attempts to find a N.E. passage to India
being frustrated, MARTIN FROBISHER, in the service of ELIZABETH, queen of England, sailed
in search of a N.W. passage. 1577. He made a second voyage. 1578. He made a third voyage.
These voyages were made to Greenland, and produced no material discovery. He sailed through a strait which still bears his name,
but is now impassable by reason of fixed ice.-Hakluyt and Crantz.
Sir FRANCIS DRAKEf being on a cruise * [Dominique de Gourgues, “a gentleman and a well tried and valiant soldier,” undertook this expedition chiefly at his own expense, fitting out three vessels and more than two hundred men. They sailed, Aug. 22d, 1567, from France; and attacked the first fort of the Spaniards on Easter day, in April, 1568. They return. ed to France in June of the same year. Gourgues died in 1582. -H.]
† [This famous navigator was born in the year 1545, of obscure parentage. He became a seaman when very young, and was made captain of a ship at the age of twenty-two. He was engaged in many important naval enterprises, particularly in the half-piratical expeditions against the Spaniards. In 1577–1580, with five ships and one hundred and sixty-four men, he sailed round the globe.
against the Spaniards in the South Sea, landed on the Continent of America, northward of California, took possession of a harbour, and called the circumjacent country, between lat. 38o and
42°, New Albion.—Hakluyt. 1579. SIR HUMPHREY GILBERT obtained of
UEEN ELIZABETH a patent for all countries not
possessed by any Christian prince.—Purchas. 1583. GILBERT sailed to Newfoundland ; took for
mal possession of it and of the Continent of North America for the crown of England. In his return his ship foundered and he was lost. -Ibid.
SIR ADRIAN GILBERT obtained of QUEEN ELIZABETH a patent for the discovery of a N.W. passage, to remain in force five years.-Hak
luyt, iii., 96. 1584. SIR WALTER RALEIGH obtained of QUEEN IT ELIZABETH a patent for lands not possessed by
any Christian prince, by virtue of which he sent PHILIP AMADAS and ARTHUR BARLOW to explore the country called by the Spaniards
Florida.- Ibid., 243-251. 1585. Under the authority of Gilbert's patent,
JOHN DAVIS sailed from England in search
of a N.W. passage.-Ibid., 98–103.
DAVIS explored the western coast of GreenHakluyt, iii., 730–742. The next year the queen conferred on him the honour of knighthood, and in 1588 he was appointed viceadmiral, under Lord Howard of Effingham. He died Jan. 28, 1596, having gained an unequalled reputation for nautical skill and personal courage.- See Campbell's Lives of the Admirals, vol. Ü., p. 37-55.-H.]
land and part of the opposite coast of the Continent of America; the strait between them bears his name.
He also discovered another strait, which he called Cumberland.—Hakluyt. 1585. Sir WALTER RALEIGH sent Sir RICHARD
GRENVILLE to Florida. He landed a colony of 100 people at Roanoak and returned.-Ibid.,
iii., 251–265. 1586. Sir FRANCIS DRAKE, returning from his
expedition against the Spaniards, took the colony on board and carried them to England. Ibid., 264.
Sir RICHARD GRENVILLE arrived after their departure and landed another smaller col
ony.-Ibid., 265. 1587. Sir Walter RALEIGH sent another company,
under the command of JOHN WHITE, to colonize the country which QUEEN ELIZABETH called Virginia, in honour of her own virginity. The second colony were not to be found. One hundred and fifteen persons were landed to make a third colony, and the governor returned to Eng
land for supplies.-Purchas. 1590. GEORGE WHITE was sent to Virginia, but,
finding none of the third colony living, returned
to England. - Ibid. 1592. JUAN DE FUCA, a Greek, in the service u of Spain, was sent by the Viceroy of Mexico to
discover a N.W. passage, by exploring the western side of the American Continent. He discovered a strait, which bears his name, in the 48th degree of N. latitude, and supposed it to be the long-desired passage.-Purchas.
HENRY MAY, an Englishman, returning
from the East Indies in a French ship, was wrecked on the Island of Bermuda, where he found swine, from which circumstance it appeared that some other vessel had been there before. The company built a boat of cedar, calked it, and payed the seams with lime mixed with turtles' fat, and sailed to Newfoundland,
whence they got a passage to England.-Hakluyt. 1593. GEORGE WEYMOUTH sailed from Eng
or land to discover a N.W. passage. He visited 1594. the coast of Labrador, and sailed 30 miles up an L inlet in the latitude of 56°, but made no ma
terial discovery.-Forster. 1598. DE LA ROCHE obtained from HENRY IV. of
France a commission to conquer Canada, and other countries not possessed by any Christian prince. He sailed from France with a colony of convicts from the prisons; landed 40 on the Isle of Sable. After seven years the survivers, being 12 in number, were taken off and carried home to France, where HENRY pardoned them, and gave them 50 crowns each as a recompense
for their sufferings.—Purchas. Forster. 1600. Q. ELIZABETH established by charter a
company of merchants in England, with an exclusive privilege of trading to the East Indies.
Tablet of Memory: 1602. BARTHOLOMEW GOSNOLD, an EnglishIT man, discovered a promontory on the American
coast, in lat. 42°, to which he gave the name of Cape Cod. He landed on an island which he called Elizabeth, and built a small fort ; but the
same summer returned to England.—Purchas. 1603. DE MONTS obtained of HENRY IV. of France
a patent for the planting of L'Acadia and Canada, from lat. 400 to 460.- Purchas.
SAMUEL CHAMPLAIN sailed up the great river of Canada, and returned to France the
same year.-Ibid. 1603. DE MONTS sailed from France, taking CHAM
PLAIN and CHAMPDORE for pilots, and POUTRIN-
Fundy. 1610. POUTRINCOURT introduced two Jesuits
into Port Royal; but some controversy arising, the Jesuits went to Mount Desert and began a
plantation there.— Ibid. 1605. GEORGE WEYMOUTH sailed on 'a second F voyage to discover a N.W. passage ; but fall
ing short, made the land in 41° 30'; thence sailed to 430 20', and discovered a great river, supposed to be either Kennebec or Penobscot ; took on board five of the natives, and returned to England. He put in at Plymouth, and delivered three of them to Sir FERDINANDO GORGES, then
governor of Plymouth.—Gorges. 1606. JAMES I., king of England, by patent divi
ded Virginia into two districts, called North and South Virginia. The southern part, situate between 34° and 41°, he granted to a London company; the northern part, situate between 38° and 45°, he granted to a Plymouth company. Neither of them were to plant within 100
miles of the other.-Purchas. 1607. CHAMPLAIN, by order of De Monts, sail
ed up the river of Canada and fortified Quebec, the name of a strait in the river.-Ibid.