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Scots Magazine,




Description of hichcolm.

THIS celebrated monastery is si- overtaken by violent storms, the reT

tuated on an island in the Firth putation of the monastery was raof Forth, between Leith and Queens- ther increased than diminished by ferry, and about a mile from Aber- these disasters. It fell again, howdour, to which parish it belongs. The ever, into the hands of the English, following account of its foundation at the time of the Duke of Someris given by Fordun. In the year set's expedition in the year 1547. 1123, Alexander I. crossing from The Duke, conceiving it to be an Queensferry to the opposite coast, important station for commanding and being exposed to a violent tem- the Firth, caused it to be occupied pest, made a vow to St Columba, and fortified. He appointed also a his favourite saint, that if enabled by new abbot who lived in extraordihim to reach that island in safety, nary splendour. In 1543, Sir James he would there erect a monastery to Stewart became commendator of liis honour. The king, with or with. Inchcolm; and this office, at the reout the aid of the saint, succeeded formation, was held by his descendin landing there, and faithfully per- ant, Lord Doune. formed his vow by erecting upon it

The island is now the property of a monastery of Augustines. He the same family, the Earls of Moray, endowed it liberally, and it soon ac who bear also the title of Lords St quired such reputation for sanctity Colme. The late Earl made an atthat Alan de Mortimer, Lord of tempt to plant it with trees, but, Aberdour, gave

half of his lands in from the bleakness of the situation, that place for the privilege of burial they did not succeed. within the monastery. This sancti Great part of this monastery is ty, however, did not save it from still remaining, though in a ruinous spoliation by the English, during the state; the church, and a square bloody war in the reign of the Ed- tower belonging to it; a range of wards. Both in 1335, and in 1381, elorsters; the refectory, with a rais, Inchcolm was plundered; though, as ed seat on it, supposed to have been it happened, in both instances, that that of the abbot. The pit, or prithe English on their return were son, may also be discovered, and a


room, supposed to be the kitchen, converted into ice. In the course Some figures and defaced inscrip- of the transition, the crystals, in tions may also be traced. During forming and shooting across the wathe alarm of invasion in the last war, ter, make a beautiful appearance. a battery of cannon was mounted If the receiver be much exhaustupon the island.

ed, and the absorbing substance

strong, the change will take place Account of the Process emploved by in five or ten minutes; but, by Professor Lesslie, for the Conver

making the process slower, it will sion of Water into Ice.

be observed to greater advan

tage. The absorbing substance FOST of our readers have pro. employed by the Professor is sul

1 bably heard of Mr Lesslie's phuric acid, which he places in two curious and ingenious discovery of vessels at the bottom of the receiver, a method for converting water into while the water is placed in another ice by the mere force of evapora- above. The surface of the acid tion. On a subject which has na- ought to exceed, by four times, that turally excited so much the atten- of the water. If a plate of glass be tion of the public, we have been at placed either above the one or the some pains to acquire correct in- other, the process of congelation is formation; and the following will, immediately suspended. When it we believe, be found a correct is over, the acid will be found to sketch of the leading principles on have risen in temperature as much which this remarkable process is as the water has sunk, the heat beconducted.

ing merely transferred from the one The water to be frozen is placed to the other. An illustration of the in the exhausted receiver of an air principles on which the different pump, in consequence of which, e- phenomena in this beautiful experivaporation becomes much more ac- ment depend, would go far to intive; and its invariable consequence, struct the student in the leading a high degree of cold, is produ- philosophical doctrines on the subced. This effect has been supposed ject of heat and cold. to arise from a diminution of pres- The practical advantages of this sure ; but Mr Lesslie is convinced, method of producing ice, over that that it depends upon other princi- by chemical combination, are chietiy ples, not of a mechanical, but che- the following.mical nature, which would re- 1. There is no waste of materials, quire to be illustrated at consider- nor any expence, except that of the able length. If, however, no other original construction of an air pump. agent were employed, the vapour The sulphuric acid, far from being arising from the water would soon injured by the absorption of moistfill the receiver, and produce the ure, and consequent dilution, is only same eflect as the external air in di- rendered thereby more fit for use. ninishing evaporation. To obviate The only labour necessary is the this effect, Mr Lesslie places also working of the piston, which Mr in the receiver some substance Lesslie proposes to effect by means strongly attractive of moisture, of steam. which absorbs the vapour in pro- 2. The greatest heat of the at. portion as it rises. Thus evapora, mosphere presents po obstacle to the tion, and consequent cold, proceed performance of the process, but, on with unabated activity, till, in a the contrary, promotes it. Thus, in short time, the water is entirely the hottest seasons and climates,

this agreeable refreshment may, by as the Linlithgow wheat firlot is two the present mode, be easily procured. per cent. better than the Winchester

Farther details, we are sensible, bushel, this allowance amounts, on would be necess: cy, in order to pre- the Linlithgow boll, to 6s. 1 d and sent our readers with a complete 76 parts. I shall in the subsequent view of this elegant and important calculations, call it 6s. 1 d. per boll. discovery. These, however, would, 3. The bakers in Edinburgh, and at present, be premature, as we its neighbourhood, are now formed understand the ingenious author is into two classes, (a circumstance prepariug for the press a small vo- not generally known), distinguished lume, in which a full account of it by themselves into the denominawill be given, preceded by a sum- tions of great and little bakers. The mary of the opinions held by philo- first of these buy their grain front sophers, from the earliest ages, on

the farmer and dealer in corn, at the the subject of heat. This will förm current market price. The latter an appropriate introduction, not are often supplied by the great baonly to the detail of the present ker, at an advanced price, and in discovery, but also to the author's small quantities. It is evident that greater work on Heat; of which, these last sales ought not to be we understand, he is preparing a brought forward in evidence of the new and enlarged edition.

price of wheat, when the magistrates are fixing the assize of bread.

4. Wheat weighing 15 stones, or On the Price of Bread in Edinburgh. 2101b. per boll, may, at present General Propositions.

(Oct. 1810) be purchased by the

Edinburgh baker, at 40s. per boll. To the Editor.

5. Good wheat, although even of

a less weight than 15 stones per boll, Sir,

will, atter deducting the expence of THE business of a baker being manufacturing it, produce twenty

of such essential use to the two pecks of such four as is emplocommunity, Legislature has thought ed for baking the bread used in this proper to secure the baker in a cer- city and neighbourhood, besides the. tain profit on what wheat he makes coarse flour and bran, of which I into bread, let the market price be take no account. what it may. From this circum 6. Two pecks of such flour will stance he is never under the neces- make five quartern loaves; of course sity of becoming a speculator or a a boll of wheat will produce tisty-five dealer in wheat or flour. And as such loaves. his article is of the first necessity, he 7. It requires 4,000 bolls of wheat can always, by a proper understand- per week for the consumption of ing with his brethren in trade, com- Edinburgh, Leith, Musselburgh, mand a sale for ready money, and Dalkeitli, and those persons in ine thereby avoid the incurring of bad neighbourhood of those places wlio

Indeed it is thought by are supplierl with bread from thence, many, that this regulation might be including the soldiers quartered sanctioned by daw with considerable there, and in the neighbourhood, advantage to the public, as well as and such sailors in harbour, or Leith to the baker himself.

roads, as use loat' bread. 2. The allowance granted the ba 8. Four thousand bolls a week, ker by law, in name of profit, is ls. make, per annum, 208,000 bolls. 6d. per Winchester bushel. Now, 9. This quantity will make220,000


1. THE

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