« ПредишнаНапред »
that other business puts it out of his
“ Two years ago, such a situation power to continue it.
was the highest wish I had formed
on earth; but since that time an ac“ cident gave my thoughts a different
“ direction; and this direction has been. SCOTTISH REVIEW.
gradually confirmed into habit, by a succession of events, over which I had
no control. And when that object is L Sermons, by James Finlayson, D.D. “ about to be torn from me, it is not
F.R.S.E. One of the Ministers of “ in man to be composed." Pref. p. xix. the High Church, and Professor of
That he might not be left altogeLogic and Metaphysics in the Uni- ther without a provision, he accepted versity of Edinburgh, Svo.
8vo. 105. the living of Borthwick, near Edin6d.
burgh. Matters, however, were so arAT the period of the lamented death ranged, as that he should teach the son to give a short sketch of the lea- ever, in his opinion, “ might be consion to give a short sketch of the lea- sidered, from the short time left for ding events of his life. At the commencement of the present volume, we
preparation, as matter of condolence find a more detailed narrative by one
rather than of congratulation.". The of his most intimate and respectable
labour imposed upon him was indeed triends ; but the current of his life
His lectures opened only a was so little diversified, that little ad- mation ; and in the course of the win
fortnight after his receiving the inti. dition is made to the information of ter he was ordained minister of Borthwhich we were formerly in possession. wick, and had to begin his instructions He was born at Nether Cambushenie, there. This severe pressure is suppoin the parish of Dumblane, and about sed to have considerably affected his the age of ten was sent to the school of that place. It is remarkable, that In a letter to the same friend, written
health, which was naturally sound. be there discovered an
on the 12th May 1788, he gives the liveliness of disposition, and was the following account of his views and ocleader of every boyish amusement.
cupations. At the age of fourteen, he began his studies at the university of Glasgow,
“ I am now enjoying the luxury of and was for some time amanuensis to
ease after a month of very hard laProfessor Anderson. He then went
" bour. In consequence of taking a se.
parate hour for examining my stuinto the family of Sir William Mur “ dents, I found use for between twenty tay of Ochtertyre, a worthy and intel
" and thirty additional lectures. These, Egent gentleman, wbo soon discovered " from an unpardonable degree of indoLus szerit, and zealously patronized it.
“ lence, I had neglected to prepare, He received an offer of the living of
“ until the spur of necessity touched Denkeld, which he was induced to dec
me. The greater part of them beIine, by the prospect which began to
" longed to the last branch of my
course, which is “ The means of coni. spen, of his being placed in the logical
municating truth,' and were on the chair. An appointment so congenial" origin and progress of language, on to his character, he seems to have “ the principles of universal grammar, booked forward to with an eagerness,
66 &c. I have projected about six more of which his disposition was rarely sus
on style, and on the best method of sepuble. Considerable doubts of his
arranging and conducting a discourse, sxcess having arisen, he expressed
“ for the purpose of producing convic
“ tion. These will complete my plan, himself as follows, in a letter to a " and leave me at leisure to turn my riced.
“ attention to the improvement of those
" hasty sketches, which I have hitherto bled in his library; and one who was “ made. This summer I devote to the about to retire, signifying a desire to see * History of Philosophy. If indolence him, was introduced and named. The “ and sermun-making permit me, I Doctor grasped his hand, and expressed “ mean to write that branch of the the satisfaction which he felt in such an “ course anew, and to throw into it a attendance at such a moment : and, be. “ greater degree of order, and of know. ing about to swallow some cordial, add“ ledge, than I was formerly able to ed, “I drink your health, my dear Sir, do."
Pref. p. xxii. “ and may your life be long!” At this,
his friend, being unable to suppress his He was soon after confirmed in the
emotions, precipitately withdrew; and possession of the chair; and the re
the patient appeared to change so sud. mainder of his life was spent in the denly, that all in the adjoining room public eye, but varied by few incidents, were called in, and formed a silent cir. all of which so far as we can observe. cle round his bed, while he gently and were formerly noticed by us. The
almost imperceptibly expired. So inaccount however which is given of his
of his sensibly indeed did the spirit disengage behaviour on his death-bed, may pro
itself, as he leant on The bosom of a bro
ther, that a deep unbicąthing pause of bably interest our readers.
several minutes ensued, while every eye In January 1808 his unfavourable
was fixed on the pale countenance, with symptoms rapidly multiplied, and some
an expectation of seeing it re animated, of them were attended with excruciat.
It was a spectacle of solemn and iming pain; but on the 25th, while con
pressive sublimity : a picture so forcib. versing with his colleague, a paralytic ly stamped on the minds of the behold. stroke deprived him of sensasion on
ers, by its associated circumstances, and that side where his sufferings had been
especially by “the awful stillness of sor.
spec most acute, and so far contributed to
"row," in which it was contemplated, as “ smooth the bed of death." In this
never to be obscured by the longest helpiess state, the respectful tenderness
train of subsequent events, which the of his friends was strongly manifested,
last survivor of the group may witness, by the number who contended for the
Pref. p. xxxii. honour of watching over him. On the
This volume will be the more va27th his articulation, which had bither. luable in the eyes of the public, as it to been unintelligible, became some. is likely, we suspect, to be the only what better, and the first expression monument of its author's powers that which could be understood was this so. will appear through the medium of lemn one ; “ I am about to pass to a the press and consequently the only “ better habitation, where all who be , “ lieve in Jesus shall enter." He soon
mode by which posterity can judge of after requested to join in some acts of those powers which were so highly devotion suited to a death bed. In the esteemed by bis contemporaries. His course of the day, he gave distinct lectures have not been announced ; directions about his affairs, and named indeed we have heard, that they were the books which he wished to be pre. scarcely left in a state fit for publicasented to his friends, with a minute at. tion and it seems to be intimated in tention to their taste, and with such ex. act instructions where to find the ab
the preface, that he never wrote any sent volumes, as shewed the most per.
thing for the express purpose of laying fect calmness and self - possession. it before the world. Warmth of friendship, for which he was The following passage appears to always distinguished, was the last feel. us the best suited to give an idea of ing that forscok him; and the agitation, the clear and forcible statement of aroccasioned by an impulse of affection, gument, which formed the reigning snapt the slender thread by which soul and body were still held together. On
character of Dr Finlayson's stile, and, the 28th, about the hour when his friends
at the same time, of the rich and generally made their final enquiry for somewhat elaborate ornament, which The day, a number of them were assem. is sproad over it.
It cannot fail to strike'us as a ree from the wise Author of their frame, inparkable fact, that an opinion in timating to his children the happiness favour of immortality has universal. which they are formed to relish, and the by prevailed. This opinion is to be perfection which they are destined to bond not only amid the improvements attain. of philosopby, and the refinements of The general and continued preval. polished life : it pervades every rank of ance of this opinion, therefore, even supsoc ety, and seems to accompany the posing it to have originated in tradition, hornan race through all the conditions must be traced ultimately to the natural of their being. Follow man even to his sentiments of the human heart. Man, rudest state-to the forest or the cave, in the exercise of his natural powers, You may find him without any civil feels that he is born for immortality. polity, uninstructed in sciences and arts, He carries with him, wherever he turns, Cascquainted with the conveniences of a strong desire to survive the present l.is, attentive only to the cravings of his life, and an involuntary presage of a seasitire nature ; and wandering wbout future existence. His mind seems conla quest of subsistence, raised but a sin- scious to herself that this mortal state is gle step above the animals which minis- a depression below her native dignity. ter to his wants. Yet even this man, His affections dwell often with friends vaealightened as he is, looks forward to who have left it-he experiences an inberer days, and is encouraged to sup completeness in all its enjoyments-he port the ills of life by hopes similar to feels wants which it cannot satisfythose which animate the breast of a and, under the impulse of a spring that Christian.
operates for ever in his soul, he bends The circumstances, indeed, with his cye towards another region, where Etich the different races of men have he shall meet again the friends of his Zueciated their nution of the world to leart; where the inconveniences of his come, appear with great diversity present condition shall be removed; a diversity which arises unavoidably where his powers shall no more suffer from the manner in which their concep- fatigue; and where objects more wortoas of it are formed. Their ideas of thy of his pursuit shall be placed before bat entried state must, from the very him. Dature of things, be derived from the In the confused notions then which cajoyments of tbeir present condition, take their rise from this mixture of feeland most, consequently, be modified by ings, we may find the elements of that the nature of the happiness which they hope which, in every age, has led men have experienced on earth. But their to anticipate the enjoyments of a future differences respecting the description of world. And the expectation which this the future world affect neither the res natural impulse produces is not incon. ality nor the strength of their belief in sistent with the most enlightened sugi's existence. The general idea of an gestions of reason. Various consideralereafter is the same in them all, and tions may be mentioned which tend to prevails universally.
give it a rational support. With this From whence can this universalagree view let me observe ment of opinion have proceeded ? From When we turn our eye to the human sone cause, certainly, which is common frame we discover irresistible proofs that to all mankind, and which is uniform it consists of two substances, a body and and universal in its operation. It must a soul--substances which have separate either be a natural result from the ordi- functions and qualities, and which are, in nary principles of their frame; or the ef. some respects, totally independent of fect of an original revelation meeting each other. The body is a coinpound of within them principles congenial to it. material particles, and is therefore naturself, and which, therefore, amid the loss ally liable to decomposition. It is of so many other traditions, has continus known to be in perpetual tlux, and, in ed to accompany them through all their the course of a short life, changes redispersivas. For the united consent of peatedly every particle of its substance. mackind, on any subject in which they The soul on the contrary could not per. have an immediate interest, is the voice form its functions of thinking, comparof their nature-a voice which proceeds ing, and reasoning, unless it were a sim.
ple ple substance; and if it be a simple sub- served only to emancipate its powers, stance, it cannot perish by dissolution, to encrease their number, and to place nor by any mode of destruction of them in circumstances more favourable which nature has given us an example, for their improvement.
P. 401. We know, at least, that the mere slift. ing of its budily covering does not affect it; for we have the most satisfactory evidence, even the evidence of Con. II. Observations on the Structure of sciousness, that it continues permanent Hospitals for the treatment of Luthrough the successive changes that be
natics, and on the General Princi. fal the body in the course of this life,
ples by which the cure of Insanity and that in fact it survives repeatedly the complete waste of our material
may be most successfully conducted. frame. Why then should we suppose
To which is annexed, An Account that the sudden bodily change which we of the intended Establishment of a call death exerts over it a power, of Lunatic Asylum at Edinburgh.whish no former bodily change indicat. Illustrated by 5 Engravings. 4to. ed any trace? The soul, simple as it is, may no doubt be annihilated by an act W E have already taken repeated of the divine will; but of such acts of opportunities of introducing this annihilation we have no experience; establishment to the notice of our we have no reason to believe that they readers. In our number for Novemwere ever exerted; and therefore, we ber 1807, we inserted an Address to can have no title to conclude that they
y the public, issued when the project was will accompany the stroke of death.
Nay, when we contemplate the course first set on foot. In January 1808. of things attentively, we may find, from we communicated a statement of the analogy, some ground to conclude that Plan, which had then been matured, the great change of death, so far from and for the promotion of which, the 'being the destruction of the soul, is a sum of two thousand pounds had been necessary step in its progress to a more obtained from the forfeited estates. perfect existence. The death of orga.
The undertaking was carried forward nized beings seems to be the general the principle of their renovation. All na- so rapidly by the zeal of those enga." ture dies to live again. And every li- ged in it, that in March following, we ving thing advances from one stage of were enabled to present our readers perfection to a higher by changes not with the engraved plans of the build. unlike the death of man. The desola ing intended to be erected for this tions of winter prepare in secret the re.
: useful purpose. These different do. novescence of spring, and the glories of
cuments are here reprinted, along with harvest. The plant does not send forth its leaves till the seed has suffered cor
others equally important, and of greatruption in the ground; the butterfly er extent, forming a complete view of does not unfold its wing to the Sun un. the system to be adopted. til the worm from which it springs has The first document with which we experienced a change similar to the
are presented is the report of Mr Reid, pang of dissolution ; nor does the Eagle
Architect, on the manner in which mount to the skies till he has left in ruins the shell which covered and con
the building may be best constructed, fined him. Even man himself confirms so as to answer its ends. He conceives. this analogy, and exhibits in the history that a very extensive plan should be of his past condition some striking ex- laid down, such as it is hoped will ul. amples of the same general law. The timately be completed. At the same hour of his birth, in particular, produ- time, however, in consideration, we ced on his means of subsistence and lite
presume, of the usual slow progress of a change no less total than that which will be produced by the hour of his
such works in Scotland, a country more death. Yet that change, instead of ex- noted for the conception than for the tinguishing the feeble spirit within him, execution of great plans, he proposes,
that this whole shall be divided into a will be in such an outrageous state as number of parts, each capable of sub to render it necessary to have recourse sisting as an independent building to the strictest coercion, by means of He proposes that different buildings
a strait Waistcoat, and confinement alshould be allotted to patients, accord.
together solitary. The cells for patients
in this situation should be on the grouniing to their rank in life, and the sum
floor, surrounded with thick walls, and paid by their relations, and that differ arched over, to prevent, as much as posent parts of the same building should sible, the noise they may occasion from be allotted to patients in the different disturbing the other parents in the sle:pstates of the disease, as furious, tracta
ing-rooms above. These cells for the ble, incurable, or convalescent. The
most solitary confidernent should be
near a bath, into wlich, when it is following remarks on this last subject
thought necessary, either they, or any may probably interest our readers.
of the other patients, may be occasionlo each building accommodated for aily plunged, to wash and to cool them. the reception of forty patients, it is in. Behind the building there should be dispensably necessary that a distinct day open courts, or airing grounds, of a of public room should be provided for
considerable size, in which the patienis cach sex. These public rooms should may walk about; and in these there be of considerable dimensions, not only should be a covered walk, for their exthat the patients may dine there with ercise in bad weather; and there should confort, but that they may have room be benches, on which they may occato inuse themselves in bad weather, sionally rest.
Among forty patients in one building, it may be estimated that there will be Mr Reid makes several important about four of these in a state of conva. observations on the management of lescence. A day-room ought, therefore, fires, the ventilation of the house, and to be provided for these, separate from
the position of the windows. He then the others. And that more minute separations of the patients may, at times,
lays down, as follows, the leading cirbe made, the galleries, or passages lead. cumstances which are to be attended ingtoth-sleeping rooms, should be wide, to in such a structure, and gives an bat at the same time so constructed, enumeration of the different buildings that they may be shut in by doors at the which are to be included in his plan. cads. By this structure, part of the pa. tients may occasionally be allowed to In the erection of a Lunatic Hospi. walk about in these galleries, who could tal, the matters principally to be attend. Dot with propriety be admitted into the ed to appear to be the following: 1, public day-room.
That the buildings and inclosures should Among forty patients, that is, twenty ibe so constructed as to make the escape maics, and as many females, lodged'in of patients as difficult as possible, but, at the same building, it may be computed the same time, so constructed as to renthat twelve or thirteen of each sex will der the pitients of each class as comfor. be in a state capable of being adiniited table as their situation will admit of. 2. into their respective public ruo.s. Two That a thorough and complete ventilaor three of each sex may be presumed tion should be kept up throughout the to be in a convalescent state, and to be apartments, at the same time, guarding, admitted into the convalescent day- by every possible precaution, against room, to dioe there along with the keep. accidental fire. .3. Where cleanliness is et. It may be computed, that two or so essencial, that the drains, sewers, and three of the number will be in such a privies, should be constructed on the state as obliges the keeper to confine most approved plans; and that as great them to their sleeping rooms, or, at the a supply of fresh water, as can be ab. utmost, to allow them only at times to tained, should be admitted into the walk about the particular gallery in buildings and court yards. 4. That the which their rooms are situated. And it cooking-places, cellars, and other conmay be fairly calculated, that among veniences, shouid be so situated as that torty patients, two or three of each sex the labuur of the servants of the esta. yar. 1810.