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in regard to the original notification of his an arrangement which had been so recent. Majesty's determination, and of the mo. ly declined. Those considerations induced tives of it, which being already made, it his Majesty, before the result of Mr Erskine's could not be supposed in London that a re- negotiation was known, to modify the order petition of them would be expected from in Council of Nov. 1807, by that of the 26th me; and of course no such case has been of april 1809. The effect of this new order foreseen in my instructions. But if beyond is to relieve the system under which the this, any incidental explanation or discus former orders were issued, from that which siou should be wished for by this Governo has always been represented in this coun. ment, I came fully prepared to enter into try as the most objectionable and offersive them. I even consider them to have ta. part of it-the option given to neutrals to ken place between us. I have certainly trade with the enemies of Great Britain, derived great satisfaction from the several through British ports, on payment of a tranhours which we have spent in conference sit duty. This was originally devised and upon these subjects, because they have ena- intended as a mitigation of what is certainbied me to remove some misunderstand. Jy more correct but more rigid in principle Inrs, and to refute many misrepresenta -the total and unqualified interdiction of tions, which you yourself informed me of, all trade with the enemy. If, however, this in regard to the conduct of the British Gomitigation was felt as an aggravation, and, vernment."
as has been sometimes warmly asserted, as After some further explanatory observa. an insnlt, that cause of complaint is now tions respecting former propositions, Mr entirely removed. By the order in CounJackson proceeds:
cil of the 26th April 1809, all trade with "I touch with considerable and very France and Holland, and the ports of Italy, siacere reluctance upon that part of your comprehended under the denomination of Jetter, in which you state that I had not the kingdom of Italy, is simply prohibited assigned “ any reason whatever why the altogether. No option is afforded, and Teasonable/ terms of satisfaction tendered consequently no transit duty is required to and accepced have not been carried into ef- be paid. In another respect, the order in fect
Council of the 26th April must be admitted · "I believe that I had observed to you, to be more restrictive than chose of No in the words of my instructions, that if his "vember 1807. Majesty were capable of heing actuated by “The trade with enemies colonies, which any desire to retract an offer of reparation was opened to neutrals at the conimencewhich he had once made, his Majesty might ment of the present war, by the order is be well warranted in doing so, both by the Council of the 24th of June 1809, was conform in which his accredited Minister had inued to be left open by those of Novemtendered that reparation, and by the man. ber 1807. The order in Council of the ner in which that tender had been recei. 26th of April retracts this indulgence. But ved. I believe that I elucidated this obser. it is to be observed, that, since the period vation by a reference to the particular ex. when the orders in Council of November pressions which made the terms of satisfac. 1807 were issued, the opening of the ports iion appear to be unacceptable even to the of Spain, of Portugal, of the South of Italy, American Government, at the very mo and of Turkey, has afforded a more ample ment at which chey were accepted, and scope to neutral commerce; and that, by which, at all events, put it totally out of the capture of Martinique, in addition to his Majesty's power to ratify and confirm that of almost all the colonies of the eneany act in which such expressions were con- mies of Great Britain, together with the tained.
blockade of Guadaloupe, the extent to which : « On the subject of his Majesty's orders the liberty of commerce with enemies coin Council, I have had the honour of in- lonies applied, has been so far narrowed, forming you, that his Majesty having cau. that there is little of practical hardship in sed to be made to the Government of the recurring to the rule, which, however occa: United States certain proposals, founded sionally mitigated in its application, Great upon principles, some of which were under. Britain can never cease in priociple to main. stood to originate in America authorities, tain. le is farther to be observed, that the and others to be acquiesced in by chem, order in Council of the 26th of April has and having afterwards ascertained, in the this operation highly favourable to neutrals, manner mentioned in a former part of this chat restricting the regulations of blockade jetter, that the sentiments of the American to France, Holland, and their colonies, and Government were so different from what to their territories, denominated the kingthey were at first understood to be. I was dom of Italy, it layy open to the direct Hot instructed to renew to you those pros trade of Deutrals che ports of the north of posals, nor to press upon your accepsance Europe.
• Under the order of the 26th April, sirous of maintaining a perfect and cortherefore, while there are on the one dial understanding with the United hand fewer points of difference to stand States, and of bringing to a complete ia the way of a satisfactory arrangement and satisfactory adjustment all the points between Great Britain and the United of difference that have arisen between States, it is possible that there may be the two Governments; and that, agreeless temptation to the latter to enter in- ing as I do with you most heartily, as to such an arrangemen!, as the extent to the interest which both nations have of their commerce may be, if they in fostering a mutual and solid friend. please, nearly as great, under the order ship and cordiality, no zeal or exertions in Council of the 26th April, as it would shall be wanting on my part to carry be under any arrangement which would into effect his Majesty's commands for affect the indispensable object to which this most salutary purpose. that order applies; or as it would be “I have the honour to be, with great even without any such order, so long respect, Sır, your most obedient humas France, and the powers subservient ble servant, to France, continue to enforce their de
F. 1. JACKSON." crees. It is, in the same proportion, The Hon. Robert Smith. matter of indifference to Great Britain, whether the order in Council be con. In conformity with the instructions unded, or an arrangement by mutual of his government, Mr Pinkncy, the consent substituted in its room.
American envoy at London, has present. * Such, Sir, are the grounds on which ed a note to the Marquis Wellesley, deit has appeared to his Majesty to be un manding the immediate recal of Mr recessary to command me to propose Jackson. He at the same time deliverto the Government of the United States ed a copy of the letter from Secretary any formal agreement to be substituted Smith to himself, containing the partifor that which his Majesty has been un- culars of the accusation upon which this der the necessity of disavowing; but I extraordinary application was made. am directed to receive and discuss with This letter has been laid before congress, you any proposal which you may be with the other correspondence relating authorised to make to me on this head to the rupture.
* As no disposition has bitherto been He begins with expressing, on Mr shewn on your part to make any such Jackson's conduct--the disappointment proposal, it has bees impossible for me that was felt, on finding that he had not to state by anticipation (nor was I in- been charged to make to this governstruc:ed so to do) what might be the ment either the frank explanations, or answer that I should eventually think the liberal propositions, which the ocit tuy duty to return to you; conse- casion manifestly required. Instead of quently I could not have made with this obvious course of proceeding, it that view, the statement contained in was in the outset perceived, that his obthe 4th section of your letter, and the ject was to bring us to resume the subthree subdivisions of it. Such a state. jects of the arrangement of April, in a ment would have been obviously incon. way that would imply that we were aware sistent with the former part of my over that the arrangement was not binding tare, which you very correctly record on his government, because made with in the 3d section, viz. that I was not a knowledge on our part that Mr instructed to make to you any propo. Erskine had no authority to make it; sal whatever upon this subject. I must and thus to convert the responsibility Decessarily reserve, until I hear from of his government for the disavowal, inyou what proposals may be deemed to a reproach on this for its conduct in proper to make on the behalf of the U. the transaction disavowed. In the first mited States, to state in how far they do instance, it was deemed best, rather to or do not accord with the instructions repel his observationis argumentatively, which it has pleased his Majesty to than to meet them as an offensive insigive me for my guidance in this nego. nuation. This forbearance had not the tiation,
effect of restraining him from a repetition "I will only add, Sir, in conclusion of of the offence; and even on his farther Il s'ester, that his Majesty is very de. insinuation, nothing more was done
than to premonish him of the inadmis. ştate, that, after the correspondence sibility of so indecorous a course of pro- with Mr Jackson had been terminated, cecding. This also being without ef- two notes were sent to him, in the name fect, nothing remained but the step 6. and by the hand of Mr Oakley, the Brinally taken: and there was less hesita- tish secretary of legation. The first, he tion in shutting the door to further op- proceeds to observe, required a protecportunities for insulting insinuations, as tion for Mr Jackson and his suite. But the disclosures he bad made, and the what surprised him most, he adds, was spirit of his discussions, had so entirely the reason assigned for the application. shut out the hope of any favourable re. There appeared to have been some dissult from his mission.
turbances between the officers of the Mr Smith then states the very head Africaine frigate and some of the inha. and front of the British minister's offen. bitants of Norfolk. The language of ding in the following words:
the newspapers are also hinted at. The " It was never objected to him that he second note, he farther observes, seems had stated it as a fact, that the three to be essentially intended as a justifica. propositions in question had been sub- tion of the conduct of Mr Jackson in mitted to me by Mr Erskine, nor that that part of his correspondence which he stated it as made known to him by the has given umbrage, but which, if inten. instruction of Mr Canning, that the in- ded as a conciliatory advance, it ought struction to Mr Erskine containing these not to have been preceded by a demand three conditions, was the only one from for passports, nor by the spirit nor the which his authority was derived to con manner in which that demand was made. clude an arrangement in the matter to which it related. The objection was,
FRANCE. that a knowledge of this restriction of
LEGISLATIVE Body, Dec. 12. the authority' of Mr Erskine, was impu. ted to this government, and the repeti Count Montalvet delivered in the tion of the imputation, even after it had Emperor's name, an expose of the sitų. been so often disclaimed. This was so ation of France, up to the first of this gross an attack on the honour and vera- murith. After having it:troduced his city of the government, as to forbid all important narrative by observing the further communications from him.- signal victories, generous pacification, Care was, nevertheless, taken at the the results of the most profound politi. same time, to leave the door open for ca! conubinations, and the maintenance such as might be made through any o of order in the interior, from the prother channel, however little the proba. minent features of the history of the bility that any satisfactory communica- year, which has just elapsed, enumeration' would be received through any
ted under the different heads of public channel here."
labours, in particular in Paris, charita. The circular of Mr Jackson to the ble establishments, public institutions, British consuls is noticed, and “ regard- sciences, letters, arts, agriculture, manued as a virtual address to the Americ factures and industry, mines, commerce can people, of a representation previ and trade, finances, religious worship, ously addressed by their government." war and politics, the progress made, ad. In concluding, he says, that, with the vantages obtained, and changes effected, necessity of the step taken, in refusing in the course of the said year. Under further communications from him, and the head of commerce and trade, he exwith the grounds on which the presie pressed himself in the following man. dent instructs you, to request that he ner:" Commerce, in general,
applies may be immediately recalled," the man itself to draw the greatest possible ad. ner least offensive, that every facility vantage from the products of agricul. may be afforded to a renewal of the ne ture and industry. Our trade undoubgociation.
tedly suffers from the present extraor. After a copious analysis of all the let. dinary state of affairs, which forming, fers and arguments that passed and as it were, two masters, one of the Euwere urged between Mr Smith and Mr ropean continent, the other of the seas Jackson in the course of the short nego- —and of the countries from which they ciation, Mc Pinkney then proceeds to separate, or leave to them no communi
cation with France. Our relations with landed at the same time in Walcheren, the United States of America are also, and without having commenced the for the present, suspended, but as they siege, by means of a short bombardment, are founded on mutual wants, they will they rendered themselves, in a fortnight, speedily resume their former course.” masters of Flushing, which was coward
Under the head of Religious Worship, ly defended. His Majesty ordered a reafter haviog declared, " That in France port to be made to him on the subject. all religions are not only tolerated, but The Emperor, generous by rewards to honoured and encouraged," he makes those who, animated with his sentiments, the following observations:-"No well and sensible of what they owe to the informed person is ignorant of the mis. honour of France, are faithful to glory chief which the temporal sovereignty and their country; but he severely pu. of the Popes has done to religion ; but nishes those who calculate their danger, for this mischief one moiety of Europe when victory alone should occupy their would not be severed from the Catholic mind, and prefer a disgraceful flight to Church.
a glorious death. In the mean time, “ There is but one way to free it for all the departments were in arms; ever from such great dangers, and to 350,000 men of the National Guard put teconcile the interests of the state with themselves in motion, while, at the same those of religion : it was necessary that time, 25,003 troops drawn from the dethe successors of St Peter should again pots assembled in landers, and the become, undisturbed by worldly con gens d'armes, formed a corps of 8000 cerns, merely a pastor, like St Peter."
choice cavalry; The English Com“ Under the article of war, a descrip- mander-in-chief, as a wise and prudent tion is given of the advantages obtained man, would not expose his army to danin Germany, Austria, Hungary, and gers more destructive than the plague ; Spain, which is terminated by the follow he returned to England; all the departing remarks :
rents gave striking proofs of their at* By the peace of Vienna, France tachment to the Government and Emand her allies have obtained consider. perur; some districts only in the departable advantages, and the Continent of ment of the Saar shewed a contrary Earope has regained tranquillity and disposition ; commissioners have been peace. Let us hope that this peace appointed to inquire into their conduct, will be more permanent than that of He commands that private individuals, Presburgh; and that the men who de- who have misconducted themselves, laded the Cabinet of Vienna, after the shall be deprived, during the space of peace of Presburgh, will not sụcceed in twenty-five years, of the rights of citi. deceiving it again, after that of Vienna. eens, and subjected to a double contriThey would pronounce the doom of bution. Over their doors shall be writ. theit master; for France, ever great, ten the words—" This is not a French powerful and strong, will always know citizen." how to destroy and counteract the com Under the head of General Policy, the bisations and intrigues of her enemies. changes are enumerated, which were In the mean time, England, seeing that the result of the peace of Vienna, and our armies were employed in Germany, the Emperor's views are developed with and being always all-informed, notwith regard to future important arrangestanding the immense treasures she ments. “ It would have been an easy wastes in paying spies, fancied that our task for the Emperor to unite all GalYeteran troops had left Spain, and the licia with the Duchy of Warsaw ; but weakened French army would not be he would not do any thing which should able to withstand their efforts. Forty excite the least uneasiness in the mind thousand men were disembarked in Por of his ally the Emperor of Russia. His tagal, wbere they joined the insurgents, Majesty never entertained the idea of and flattered themselves they should be restoring the kingdom of Poland. What able to march to Madrid ; they gather- he has done for New Gallicia was preed nothing but disgrace from their en scribed to him by sound policy and hoterprize. They were met by armies in rour; he could not surrender to the all places, where they fancied to find vengeance of an implacable prince, peo. only divisions. Forty thousand men ple who had displayed such fervent zeal March 1910.
for the cause of France.” He then pro- they were both badly defended. The ceeds : “ The Hans Towns shall pre- circumstances which led to their loss serve their independence ; they shall form the object of a strict inquiry, alserve as a medium of the reprisal of war though it is not of any weight in the gewith regard to England. Peace shall neral balance of affairs, since they will immediately be concluded with Sweden. be restored to us, in a more flourishing comNothing shall be changed in the politi- dition, at tbe general peace." cal relations of the confederation of the Rhine and the Helvetic confederacy. IMPERIAL TREATY OF MARRIAGE.
“ Holland is, in fact, only a part of France. A definition of that country nounced, that the destined bride. of
It has at length been officially anmay be given, by saying, that it is a Napoleon is no less a personage than continuation of the Rhine, the Meuse, the Archduchess Maria Louisa, eldest and the Scheldt, that is to say, of the daughter of Francis Emperor of Aus. great arteries of the French empire. eria. The following message from the The absolute inactivity of her custom Emperor was read in the Senate on house, the disposition of her agents, and the 27th of February, by Cambaceres; the sentimenis of its inhabitants, which Prince Arch-Chancellor, who presided tend incessantly to a fraudulent trade with England, have rendered it necessary
on the occasion :to exclude them from all commercial Senators_We have dispatched to intercourse with the Rhine ; and thus, Vienna, as our Ambassador Extraordiplaced in a state of morbid compression nary, our cousin the Prince of Neufchabetween France and England, Holland tel, to solicit the land of the Arch-duchis deprived both of the advantages which ess Maria Louisa, daughter of the Emclash with ourgeneral system, and which peror of Austria. she must relinquishi, and of those which “We have given orders to our minisshe might enjoy. It is time that all ter of foreign relations to lay before this should be set right.
you the articles of the areaty of mar. “The Illyrian provinces cover Italy, riage between us and the Archduchess give her a direct commuuication with Maria Louisa, which has been concludDalmatia, procure us a point of imme, ed, signed and ratified. diate contact with the empire of Con “ We have been desirous of eminent, stantinople, which it must be the wish ly contributing to the happiness of and intention of France, for so many the present generation. The enemies reasons, to support and protect.-Spain of the Continent have founded their and Portugal are the seat of a furiband prosperity upon its dissensions and direvolution, the numerous agents of Eng- visions. They can no longer nourish land keep up the confiagration which war, by imputing to us projects incom. they have raised. The force, the power, patible with the ties and duties of affthe calm moderation of the Emperor nity, which we have just contracted will restore to them peaceful days: with the Imperial House reigning in Should Spain free her colonies, it will Austria. be through her own fault. The Empe “ The brilliant qualities which disror will never oppose the independence tinguish the Archduchess Maria Louisa of the continental nation of America ; have acquired her the love of the peo. that independence is in the natural or ple of Austria. They have fixed our der of events ; it is just, it agrees with regards. Our people will love this the true interest of all European Powers. Princess from their love for us, until beShould the people of Mexico and Peru ing witnesses of all the virtues which wish to raise themselves to the eleva, have given her so high a place in our tion of a noble independence, France thoughts, they shall love her for her. will never oppose them, provided they self. enter into no connection with England. France is not under the necessity of
" Given at our palace of the Thuillevexing her peighbours, or imposing on
ries, the 27th of February 1810.
NAPOLEON," them tyrannic laws, to secure her pros
(Signed) perity and trade. We have lost the co After the message was read, the Duke lony of Martinique, and that of Cayenne; de Cadore communicated to the Senate