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one large patch instead of them. If so, you may properly enough retain the three patches above mentioned.
“I am, &c.” The next describes a downfall of rain in the city. “ Careful observers may foretell the hour,
(By sure prognostics) when to dread a shower;
The contributions of Addison were more numerous. He is more precise and oldfashioned than Steele, being particularly fond of giving a classical and mythological air to his writings, and thus we have such subjects as “The Goddess of Justice distributing rewards," and “ Juno's method of retaining the affections of Jupiter." Allegories were his delight, and he tells us how artistically the probable can be intermingled with the marvellous. Such con
ceits were then s till in fashion, and the numbers of the “ Tatler ” which contained them had the largest sale. They remind us of the “Old Moralities,” and at this time succeeded to the prodigies, whales, plagues, and famines to which the news-writers had recourse when the exciting events of the Civil War came to an end. In general, the subjects chosen by Addison were more important than those chosen by Steele, and no doubt the earnest bent of his mind would have led him to write lofty and learned essays on morals and literature quite unsuitable to a popular periodical. But being kept down in a humbler sphere by the exigency of the case, he produced what was far more telling, and, perhaps, more practically useful. In one place he uses his humorous talent to protest, in the cause of good feeling, against the indignities put upon chaplains—a subject on which Swift could have spoken with more personal experience, but not with such good taste and light pleasantry. The article begins with a letter from a chaplain, complaining that he was not allowed to sit at table to the end of dinner, and was rebuked by the lady of the house for helping himself to a jelly. Addison remarks:
“ The case of this gentleman deserves pity, especially it he loves sweetmeats, to which, if I may guess from his letter, he is no enemy. In the meantime, I have often wondered at the indecency of discharging the holiest men from the table as soon as the most delicious parts of the entertainments are served up, and could never conceive a reason for so absurd a custom. Is it because a liquorish palate, or a sweet-tooth, as they call it, is not consistent with the sanctity of his character? This is but a trifling pretence. No man of the most rigid virtue gives offence in any excesses of plum-pudding or plum-porridge, and that because they are the first parts of the dinner. Is there anything that tends to incitation in sweetmeats more than in ordinary dishes ? Certainly not. Sugar-plums are a very innocent diet, and conserves of a much colder nature than your common pickles.”
In another place speaking of the dinner table, Addison ridicules the “false delicacies” of the time. He tells us how at a great party he could find nothing eatable, and how horrified he was at being asked to partake of a young pig that had been whipped to death. Eventually, he had to finish his dinner at home, and is led to inculcate his maxim that “he keeps the greatest table who has the most valuable company at it.” In another place he complains of the lateness of the dinner-hour, and asks what it will come to eventually, as it is already three o'clock !
Of the evil courses of the “wine-brewers” Addison, who lived in the world of the rich, no doubt heard frequent complaints—
“ There is in this city a certain fraternity of chemical operators, who work underground in holes, caverns, and dark retirements, to conceal their mysteries from the eyes and observation of mankind. These subterraneous philosophers are daily employed in the transmutation of liquors, and, by the power of magical drugs and incantations, raising under the streets of London the choicest products of the hills and valleys of France. They can squeeze Bor
deaux out of the sloe, and draw Champagne from an apple. Virgil in that remarkable prophecy,
Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva,'
The ripening grape shall hang on every thorn. seems to have hinted at this art, which can turn a plantation of northern hedges in a vineyard. These adepts are known among one another by the name of wine-brewers ; and I am afraid do great injury not only to Her Majesty's customs, but to the bodies of many of her good subjects."
After what we have seen in our own times we need not be surprised that the ladies of Addison's day revived the old “fardingales,” an expansion of dress which has always been a subject of ridicule, and probably will continue to be upon all its future appearances. The matter is first here brought forward as follows:
“ The humble petition of William Jingle, Coachmakerand Chairmaker to the Liberty of Westminster.
“ To Isaac Bickerstaff, Esquire, Censor of Great Britain.
“ Showeth,-Tbat upon the late invention of Mrs. Catherine Cross-stitch, Mantua-maker, the petticoats of ladies were too wide for entering into any coach or chair, which was in use before the said invention.
“That, for the service of the said ladies, your petitioner bas built a round chair, in the form of a lantern, six yards and a half in circumference, with a stool in the centre of it; the said vebicle being so contrived, as to receive the passenger by opening in two in the middle, and closing matbematically when she is seated.
“That your petitioner has also invented a coach for the reception of one lady only, who is to be let in at the top.
• That the said coach has been tried by a lady's woman in one of these full petticoats, who was let down from a balcony and drawn up again by pullies to the great satisfaction of her lady, and all who beheld her
“ Your petitioner therefore most humbly prays, that for the encouragement of ingenuity and useful inventions, he may be heard before you pass sentence upon the petticoats aforesaid. And your petitioner, &c.,"
Addison, in No. 116, proceeds to try the question :
"The Court being prepared for proceeding on the cause of the petticoat, I gave orders to bring in a criminal, who was taken up as she went out of the puppet-show about three nights ago, and was now standing in the street with a great concourse of people about her. Word was brought me that she had endeavoured twice or thrice to come in, but could not do it by reason of her petticoat, which was too large for the entrance of my house, though I had ordered both the folding doors to be thrown open for its reception. The garment having been taken off, the accused, by a committee of matrons, was at length brought in, and “dilated so as to show it in its utmost circumference, but my great hall was too narrow for the experiment; for before it was half unfolded it described so immoderate a circle, that the lower part of it brushed upon my face as I sat in the chair of judicature.' I finally ordered the vest, which stood before us, to be drawn up by a pulley to the top of my great hall, and afterwards to be spread open, in such a manner that it formed a very splendid and ample canopy over our heads, and covered the whole court of judicature with a kind of silken rotunda, in its form not unlike the cupola of St. Paul's."
A considerable part of “The Tatler” is occupied with gay attacks upon the foppery of the beaux, whom it calls “pretty fellows," or “smart fellows." The red-heeled shoes and the cane hung by its blue ribbon on the last button of the coat, came in for an especial share of ridicule. A letter purporting to be from Oxford, and reporting some improvement effected in the conversation of the University, also says :
“I am sorry though not surprised to find that you have rallied the men of dress in vain : that the amber-headed cane still maintains its unstable post," (on the button) “ that pockets are but a few inches shortened, and a beau is still a beau, from the crown of his night-cap to the heels of his shoes. For your comfort, I can assure you that your endeavours succeed better in this famous seat of learning. By them the manners of our young gentlemen are in a fair way of amendment.” ....