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PREFACE

TO

THE FIRST EDITION.

It may seem surprising that the English, who have employed their talents successfully in every branch of literature, and in none more than in that of philology, should yet have fallen below other nations in the study of their synonymes: it cannot however be denied that, while the French and Germans have had several considerable works on the subject, we have not a single writer who has treated it in a scientifick manner adequate to its importance: not that I wish by this remark to depreciate the labours of those who have preceded me; but simply to assign it as a reason why I have now been induced to some forward with an attempt to fill up what is considered a chasm in English literature.

In the prosecution of my undertaking, I have profited by every thing which has been written in any language upon the subject; and although I always pursued my own train of thought, yet whenever I met with any thing deserving of notice, I adopted it, and referred it to the author in a note. I had not proceeded far before I found it necessary to restrict myself in the choice of my materials; and accordingly laid it down as a rule not to compare any words together which were sufficiently distinguished from each other by striking features in their signification, such as abandon and quit, which require a comparison with others, though not necessarily with themselves; for the same reason I thought fit to limit myself, as a rule, to one authority for each word, unless where the case seemed to require farther exemplification.

Although a work of this description does not afford much scope for system and arrangement, yet I laid down to myself the plan of arranging the words according to the extent or universality of their acceptation, placing those first which had the most general sense and application, and the rest in order. By this plan I found myself greatly aided in analyzing their differences, and I trust that the reader will thereby be equally benefited. In the choice of authorities I have been guided by various considerations; namely, the appropriateness of the examples; the classick purity of the author; the justness of the sentiment; and, last of all, the variety of the writers: but I am persuaded that the reader will not be dissatisfied to find that I have shown a decided preference to such authors as Addison, Johnson, Dryden, Pope, Milton, &c. At the same time it is but just to observe that this selection of authorities has been made by an actual perusal of the authors, without the assistance of Johnson's dictionary.

For the sentiments scattered through this work I offer no apology, although I am aware that they will not fall in with the views of many who may be competent to decide on its literary merits. I write not to please or displease any description of persons ; but I trust that what I have written according to the 'dictates of my mind will meet the approbation of those whose good opinion I am most solicitous to obtain. Should any object to the introduction of morality in a work of science, I beg them to consider, that a writer, whose business it was to mark the nice shades of distinction between words closely allied, could not do justice to his subject without entering into all the relations of society, and showing, from the acknowledged sense of many moral and religious terms, what has been the general sense of mankind on many of the most important questions which have agitated the world. My first object certainly has been to assist the philological inquirer in ascertaining the force and comprehension of the English language; yet I should have thought my work but half completed had I made it a mere register of verbal distinctions. While others seize every opportunity unblushingly to avow and zealously to propagate opinions destructive of good order, it would ill become any individual of contrary sentiments to shrink from stating his convictions, when called upon as he seems to be by an occasion like that which has now offered itself. As to the rest, I throw myself on the indulgence of the publick, with the assurance that, having used every endeavour to deserve their approbation, I shall not make an appeal u their candour in vain.

ADVERTISEMENT

TO THE LONDON QUARTO EDITION.

A FOURTH edition of the ENGLISH SYNONYMEs having now become desirable, the Author has for some time past occcupied himself in making such additions and improvements, as he deems calculated materially to enhance its value as a work of criticism. The alphabetical arrangement of the words is exchanged for one of a more scientifick character, arising from their alliance in sense or from the general nature of the subjects: thus affording the advantage of a more connected explanation of terms, more or less allied to each other. At the same time the purpose of reference is more fully answered by an index so copious that the reader may immediately turn to the particular article sought for. subject matter of several articles has been considerably enlarged, and such amplifications admitted as may serve to place the SYNONYMEs in a clearer point of view, particularly by comparing them with the corresponding words in the original languages whence they are derived. The English quotations have likewise undergone several alterations both in their number and order, so as to adapt them to the other changes which have been introduced throughout the work.

The

INDEX.

..... 484

rous ............

..... 109

...... 197

Pago

PA
TO ABANDON—to abandon, desert, forsake, re- TO ABSTRACT-to abstract, separate, distin-
linquish
243 guish..

420
TO ABANDON-o abandon, resign, renounce, ABSTRACTED—absent, abstracted, diverted,
abdicate

243

distracted......
TO ABANDON—to give up, abandon, resign, ABSURD—irrational, foolish, absurd, preposte-
forego
242

91
ABANDONED-profligate, abandoned, reprobate 249 ABUNDANT-plentiful, plenteous, abundant, co-
TO ABASE-to abase, humble, degrade, disgrace, pions, ample.....

341
debase....
106 TO ABUSE-to abuse, misuse........

399
TO ABASH-to abash, confound, confuse ....... 107 ABUSE-abuse, invective....
TO ABATE-to aha:e, lessen, diminish, decrease 351 ABUSIVE--reproachful, abysive, scurrilous..... 109
TO ABATE-to subside, abate, intermit......... 271 ABYSS-gulf, abyss

403
TO ABDICATE-to abandon, resign, renounce,

ACADEMY-school, academy.
abdicate ............

.......... 243 TO ACCEDE-to accede, consent, comply, acqui-
TO ABDICATE-to abdicate, desert............ 253 esce, agree.....

151
ABETTOR-abettor, accessary, accomplice..... 365 TO ACCELERATE-to hasten, accelerate, speed,
TO ABHOR—to abhor, detest, abominate, loathe 138 expedite, despatch......

261
TO ABIDE-to abide, sojourn, dwell, reside, in- ACCENT-stress, strain, emphasis, accent

221
habit
263 TO ACCEPT--to take, receive, accept

233
ABILITY-ability, capacity...

67| ACCEPTABLE-acceptable, grateful, welcome.. 234
ABILITY-faculty, ability, talent .............. 68 ACCEPTANCE
ABILITY—dexterity, address, ability

68 ACCEPTATION

acceptance, acceptation ..... 234
ABJECT--low, mean, abject ..... ............. 147 ACCESS-admittance, access, approach...... 238
TO ABJURE-to abjure, recant, retract, revoke, ACCESSION--increase, addition, accession, aug
recall.....
247 mentation

34-
TO ABOLISA-to abolish, abrogate, repeal, re- ACCESSARY-abettor, accessary, accomplice... 365
voke, annul, cancel.......
247 ACCIDENT--accident, chance.......

171
ABOMINABLE-abominable, detestable, execra- ACCIDENT-accident, contingency, casualty ... 179
ble ............

138 ACCIDENT-event, incident, accident, adven
TO ABOMINATE-to abhor, detest, abominate,

ture, occurrence......
loathe

...... 138 ACCIDENTAL-accidental, incidental, casual,
ABORTION-failure, miscarriage, abortion..... 125 contingent....
ABOVE--above, over, upon, beyond.......

........ 279 AOCLAMATION-applause, acclamation, plau-
TO ABRIDGE-to abridge, curtail, contract ..... 178 dit

130
TO ABRIDGE-to deprive, debar, abridge...... 506 TO ACCOMMODATE-to fit, suit, adapt, accom-
TO ABROGATE-10 abolish, abrogate, repeal,

modate, adjust..

154
revoke, annul, cancel..........

247) ACCOMPANIMENT-accompaniment, compa-
ABRUPT--abrupt, rugged, rough ............... 201 nion, concomitant. .........

493
TO ABSCOND—to abscond, steal away, secrete TO ACCOMPANY–to accompany, attend, es-
one's self ....
520 cort, wait on........

493
ABSENT—absent, abstracted, diverted, distracted 484 ACCOMPLICE-abettor, accessary, accomplice.. 365
TO ABSOLVE-to absolve, acquit, clear ... 182 ACCOMPLICE-ally, confederate, accomplice.. 491
TO ABSOLVE-to forgive, pardon, absolve, re- TO ACCOMPLISH-to accomplish, effect, exe-
mit.....

87
cute, achieve

288
ABSOLUTE-absolute, despotick, arbitrary..... 188 TO ACCOMPLISH-to fulfil, accomplish, realize 289
ABSOLUTE-positive, absolute, peremptory.. 188 ACCOMPLISHED-accomplished, perfect .... 288
TO ABSORB—to absorb, swallow up, ingull, en- ACCOMPLISHMENT_qualification, accom-
gross......

509

plishment
TO ABSTAIN—to abstain, forbear, refrain...... 244 TO ACCORD-to agree, accord, suit

152
ABSTEMIOUS--abstinent, sober, abstemious, ACCORDANCE-melody, harmony, accordance 155
temperate.......

.............. 244 ACCORDANT-consonant, accordant, consistent 153
ABSTINENCE-abstinence, fast ............... 87 ACCORDINGLY-therefore, consequently, ac-
ABSTINENT-abstinent, sober, abstemious, cordingly.

274
temperate , s.

2441 TO ACCOST-to accost, salute, address 461

...... 172

.. 172

.... 289

amass

..., 420

earn

Page

Page
ACCOUNT--acconnt, reckoning, bill

433 ADDRESS-direction, address, superscription... 213
ACCOUNT-account, narrative, description..... 467 ADDRESS-dexterity, address, ability....
ACCOUNT--sake, account, reason, purpose, end 535 TO ADDUCE-io adduce, allege, assign, advance 420
TO ACCOUNT--to calculate, compute, reckon, ADEQUATE-proportionate, commensurate, ade
count or account, number........

432
quate..

434
ACCOUNTABLE-answerable, responsible, ac- TO ADHERE—to adhere, attach

420
countable, amenable .......

183 TO ADHERE-to stick, cleave, adhere ......... 419
TO ACCUMULATE-10 heap, pile, accumulate,

ADHERENCE-adhesion, adherence...... 420

340 ADHERENT-follower, adherent, partisan...... 419
ACCURATE-accurate, exact, precise.......... 203 ADHESION-adhesion, adherence
ACCURATE-correct, accurate ...............

202 ADJACENT-adjacent, adjoining, contiguous ... 420
ACCUSATION-complaint, accusation......... 112 ADJECTIVE--epithet, adjective.

420
TO ACCUSE-10 accuse, charge, impeach, ar- ADJOINING-adjacent, adjoining, contiguous... 420
raign..

111 TO ADJOURN-lo prorogue, adjourn.... 26C
TO ACCUSE-0 accuse, censure........

111 TO ADJUST--to fit, suit, adapt, accommodale,
ACHIEVE-Io accomplish, effect, execute, achieve 288 adjust

154
ACHIEVEMENT--deed, exploit, achievement, TO ADMINISTER-10 minister, administer, con-
feat ...........
295 tribute

167
TO ACKNOWLEDGE-to acknowledge, own, ADMINISTRATION--government, administra-
confess, avow.......
442 tion...

207
TO ACKNOWLEDGE-10 recognise, acknow. ADMIRATION-wonder, admiration, surprise,
ledge
442 astonishment, amazement ......

403
TO ACQUAINT-to inform, make known, ac- ADMISSION--admittance, admission......... 235
quaint, apprize.....
......... 194 TO ADMIT--to admit, receive......

235
ACQUAINTANCE--acquaintance, familiarity, TO ADMIT-o admit, allow, permit, suffer, tole-
intimacy

195
rate .........

157
TO ACQUIESCE-10 accede, consent, comply, TO ADMIT--to admit, allow, grant.......

157
acquiesce, agree.....

151 ADMITTANCE-admittance, access, approach.. 235
TO ACQUIRE—to acquire, obtain, gain, win, ADMITTANCE-admittance, admission........ 235

396 TO ADMONISH--to admonish, advise.......... 193
TO ACQUIRE-to acquire, attain ............ 396 | ADMONITION--admonition, warning, caution 93
ACQUIREMENT

TO ADORE-10 adore, worship

31
ACQUISITION
} acquirement, acquisition.... 396

TO ADORE-to adore, reverence, venerate, re
TO ACQUIT—to absolve, acquit, clear ......... 182

31
ACRIMONY-acrimony, tartness, asperity, harsh- TO ADORN--to adorn, decorate, embellish...... 50

383 ADROIT-clever, skilful, expert, dexterous, adroit 69
TO ACT—to make, do, act.

294 TO ADULATE -to adulate, flatter, compliment.. 526
ACT

TO ADVANCE -to advance, proceed....

294
action, act, deed

301
ACTION

TO ADVANCE-to encourage, advance, promote,
ACTION -action, gesture, gesticulation, posture, prefer, forward..

312
attitude

295 TO ADVANCE-to adduce, allege, assign, ad-
ACTION-action, agency, operation.......... 296

420
ACTIVE-active, diligent, industrious, assiduous, ADVANCE

progress, progression, ad-
laborious ....

296

ADVANCEMENT) vance, advancement ..... 204
ACTIVE-active, brisk, agile, nimble ........... 297 ADVANTAGE-good, benefit, advantage....... 397
ACTIVE-active, busy, officious...
297 ADVANTAGE-advantage, profit...

398
ACTOR-actor, agent........

298 ADVANTAGE-advantage, benefit, utility, ser-
ACTOR-actor, player, performer

298
vice, avail, use......

398
ACTUAL-actual, real, positive

298 ADVENTURE-event, incident, accident, adven-
TO ACTUATE-to actuate, impel, induce ...... 309 ture, occurrence.......
ACUTE-acute, keen, shrewd

401 ADVENTUROUS-enterprising, adventurous... 173
ACUTE-sharp, acute, keen..... ...... 402 ADVENTUROUS-foolhardy, adventurous, rash 321
ACUTENESS--penetration, acuteness, sagacity.. 401 ADVERSARY-enemy, foe, adversary, opponent,
ADAGE--axiom, maxim, aphorism, apophthegm,

antagonist ....

134
saying, adage, proverb, by-word, saw 210 ADVERSE-adverse, contrary, opposite......... 135
TO ADAPT—to fit, suit, adapt, accommodate, ad- ADVERSE-adverse, inimical, hostile, repugnant 135
just
154 ADVERSE-adverse, averse ......

136
TO ADD--to add, join, unite, coalesce
418 ADVERSITY-adversity, distress ....

407
TO ADDICT--to addict, devote, apply

421 TO ADVERTISE-to announce, proclaim, pub-
ADDITION-increase, addition, accession, aug-

lish, advertise........

....... 443
mentation
347 ADVICE-advice, counsel, instruction

104
TO ADDRESS-to accost, salute, address....... 461 ADVICE-information, intelligence, notice, ad-
TO ADDRESS-to address, apply...............
422 vice......

195
ADDRESS-address, speech, harangue, oration. , 461 | TO ADVISE-to admonish, advise ...

193

vere.........

ness......

vance..

172

.................

...

252

.. 531
.. 532

ence

157

Page

Pago
ADVOCATE-defender, advocate, pleader...... 180 AIR—appearance, air, aspect .................

478
AFFABLE-affable, courteous ................... 200 ALACRITY-alertness, alacrity

297
AFFAIR-affair, business, concern ............... 332 ALARM-alarm, terrour, fright, consternation.... 305
TO AFFECT-lo affeet, concern ............... 332 ALERTNESS-alcrtness, alacrily

297
TO AFFECT-10 affect, assume........ 230 ALIEN
TO AFFECT—to affect, pretend to ....

229 TO ALIENATE

stranger, foreigner, alien..... 386
AFFECTING-moving, affecting, pathetick ..... 301 | ALIKE- equal, even, equable, like or alike, uni-
AFFECTION-affection, love
378 form

435
AFFEITION—attachment, affection, inclination 379 ALL-all, whole..

252
AFFECTIONATE-affectionate, kind, fond..... 379 ALL-all, every, each.......
AFFINITY-alliance, affinity.

492 TO ALLAY-lo allay, sooth, appease, assuage,
AFFINITY-kindred, relationship, affinity, con- mitigate .

361
sanguinity .

497 TO ALLEGE-to adduce, allege, assign, advance 420
TO AFFIRM—to affirm, asseverate, assure, vouch, ALLEGORY-figure, metaphor, allegory, emblem,
aver, protest ...

441 symbol, type
TO AFFIRM—to affirm, assert ....... ...... 441 ALLEGORY-parable, allegory
TO AFFIX—to affix, subjoin, attach, annex ..... 419 TO ALLEVIATE-lo alleviate, relieve ...... 361
TO AFFLICT-to afflict, distress, trouble....... 408 ALLIANCE-alliance, league, confederacy...

...... 492
AFFLICTION-affliction, grief, sorrow......... 408 ALLIANCE-alliance, affinity...

492
AFFLUENCE-riches, wealth, opulence, afflu- TO ALLOT—to allot, assign, apportion, distribute 168

340 TO ALLOT-lo allot, appoint, destine.......... 169
TO AFFORD—to afford, yield, produce ......... 330 TO ALLOW-to give, grant, bestow, allow ..... 162
TO AFFORD—to give, afford, spare ............ 163 TO ALLOW—to admit, allow, permit, suffer, tole-
AFFRAY-quarrel, broil, feud, affray or fray.... 133

rate

157
AFFRONT-affront, insult, outrage.......

...... 121 TO ALLOW-o admit, allow, grant..
AFFRONT-Offence, trespass, transgression, mis- TO ALLOW-to consent, permit, allow

156
demeanour, misdeed, affront

120 ALLOWANCE-allowance, stipend, salary,
AFRAID-afraid, fearful, timorous, timid 307 wages, hire, pay...

164
AFTER-after, behind......

279 TO ALLUDE—to allude, refer, hint, suggest..... 326
AGE-generation, age.
270 TO ALLUDE TO—to glance at, alludeto

327
AGE-time, period, age, date, era, epocha 267 TO ALLURE-0 allure, tempt, seduce, entice,
AGED-elderly, aged, old ...
269 decoy

319
AGENCY-action, agency, operation

296 TO ALLURE-to attract, allure, invite, engage.. 318
AGENT-actor, agent

298 ALLUREMENTS -attractions, allurements,
AGENT-minister, agent
215 charms

318
AGENT-factor, agent.....

338 ALLY-ally, confederate, accomplice....... 491
TO AGGRAVATE-10 aggravate, irritate, pro- ALMANACK-calendar, almanack, ephemeris .. 434

252
voke, exasperate, tantalize ......... ........ 121 | ALONE-alone, solitary, lonely.
TO AGGRAVATE-10 heighten, raise, aggravate 355 ALSO-also, likewise, too.....

253
AGGRESSOR-aggressor, assailant........ 116 TO ALTER-to change, alter, vary....... 283
AGILE-active, brisk, agile, nimble.

297 ALTERCATION--difference, dispute, altercation,
TO AGITATE-to shake, agitate, toss.
304 quarrel

133
ALTERNATE-successive, alternate

272
AGITATION-agitation, emotion, trepidation,

308 ALWAYS-always, at all times, ever.... 258
tremour ........

340
AGONY--distress, anxiety, anguish, agony...... 407 ANASS——to heap, pile, accumulate, amass ......
AGONY--pain, pang, agony, anguish

407 AMAZEMENT-wonder, admiration, surprise,
TO AGREE-lo agree, accord, suit....... 152 astonishment, amazement .................. 403
TO AGREE-to accede, consent, comply, acqui- AMBASSADOR--ambassador, envoy, plenipoten-

151
esce, agree.......

214
tiary, deputy....

527
TO AGREE-lo agree, coincide, concur......... 151 AMBIGUOUS-ambiguous, equivocal...
AGREEABLE-agreeable, pleasant, pleasing.... 152 AMENABLE-answerable, responsible, account-

183

able, amenable.........
AGREEABLE-conformable, agreeable, suitable 153
AGREEMENT-agreement, coníract, covenant,

TO AMEND--to amend, correct, reform, rectify,
152

201

emend, improve, mend, better.....
compact, bargain.......
AGRICULTURIST-farmer, husbandman, agri- AMENDS-restoration, restitution, reparation,
culturist .......
336 amends

439
TO AID-to help, assist, aid, succour, relieve.... 364 AMENDS-compensation, satisfaction, amends,
AIM-aim, object, end
324 remuneration, recompense, requital, reward.. 438

378
AIM-tendency, drift, scope, aim.
325 AMIABLE-amiable, lovely, beloved...

378
324 AMICABLE-amicable, friendly
TO AIM-to aim, point, level..

378
TO AIM-to aim, aspire....
325 AMOROUS-amorous, loving, fond..

350
TO AIM-o endeavour, aim, strive, struggle .... 321 | AMPLE-ample, spacious, capacious
AIR-air, manner......

..... 193 AMPLE-plentiful, plenteous, abundant, copious,

193
AIR-air, mien look.......

341
ample ....

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