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SITUATION AND EXTENT.
Degrees. Length 1250 1 Between
[ 31° and 469 North Latitude. Breadth 1040)
8° E. and 24° W. Long. from Philadelphia. 1 64° and 96P'W. Longitude from London.
BOUNDARIES. Bounded north and east by British America, or the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and New Brunswick ; southeast, by the Atlantic Ocean; south, by East and West Forida; weft, by the river Misfifiippi.
In the treaty of peace, concluded in 1783, the limits of the American United States are more particularly defined in the words following: “ And that all disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their boundaries, viz. From the north-west angle of Nova Scotia, viz. That angle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the Higlia lands, along the faid Highlands, which divide those rivers that empty them selves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the north-westernmost head of Connecticut river; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north
from thence by a line due west on the said latitude, until it ftrikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of the said river into Lake Ontario, through the middle of the said Lake, until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake Erie; thence along the middle of the , said communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of the faid lake, until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and Lake Huron; thence through the middle of the said lake to the water communication between that lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Philipeaux to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of the said Long Lake, and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most northwestern point thereof, and from thence, on a due west course, to the River Milliflippi; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the faid River Milliflippi, until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude. South, by a line to be drawn due cast from the determination of the line laft mentioned, in the latitude of
thirty-one degrees north of the equator, to the middle of the River Apalachicola, or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River; thence strait to the head of St. Mary's River; and thence down along the middle of St. Mary's River to the Atlantic Ocean; east, by a line to be drawn along the middle of the River St. Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy, to its fource; and from its source directly north, to the aforesaid Highlands, which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean, from those which fall into the River St. Lawrence, comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova-Scotia on the one part, and East-Florida on the other, shall refpectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such islands as now are, or heretofore have been, within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia."
The following calculations were made from a&tnal measurement of the bejf
maps, by Thomas HUTCHINS, geographer to the United States.
The territory of the United States contains by computation a million of square miles, in which are
640,000,000 of acres Deduct for water
Acres of land in the United States,
part of the United States comprehended between the west boundary line of Pennsylvania on the east, the boundary line between GreatBritain and the United States, extending from the river St. Croix to the north-west extremity of the Lake of the woods on the north, the river Misliflippi, to the mouth of the Ohio on the west, and the river Ohio on the south to the aforementioned bounds of Pennsylvania, contains by computation about four hundred and eleven thousand square miles, in which are
263,040,000 acres Deduct for water
To be disposed of by order of Congress, when purchased of the Indians.
220,000,000 of acres. The whole of this immense extent of unappropriated western territory, containing as above stated, 220,000,000 of acres, and several large tracts south of the Ohio *, have been, by the ceffion of some of the
* Ceded by North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, with certain refervation for the Indians and other purposes, as will be mentioned hereafter.
original thirteen states, and by the treaty of peace, transferred to the federal government, and are pledged as a fund for linking the debt of the United States. Of this territory the Indians now possess a very large proportion. Mr. Jefferson, in his report to Congress, Nov. 8, 1791, describes the boundary line between us and the Indians, as follows:
Beginning at the mouth of the Cayahogana, which falls into the southernmost part of Lake Erie, and running up the river to the portage, between that and the Tuscaroro or N. E. branch of Muíkingum; then down the said branch to the forks, at the crossing place above Fort Lawrence; then westwardly, towards the portage of the Great Miami, to the main branch of that river, then down the Miami, to the fork of that river, next below the old fort, which was taken by the French in -2752; thence due west to the river De la Panse, a branch of the Wabash, and down that river to the Wabash. So far the line is precisely deter. mined, and cleared of the claims of the Indians. The tract comprehending the whole country within the above described line, the Wabash, the Ohio, and the western limits of Pennsylvania, contains about 55,000 fquare miles. How far on the western side of the Wabash, the southern boundary of the Indians has been defined, we know not. It is only understood, in general, that their title to the lower country, between that river and the Illinois, was formerly extinguished by the French, while in their possession.
Estimate of the number of acres of water, north and westward of the river Ohio, within the territory of the United States.
Acres. In Lake Superior,
21,952,780 Lake of the Woods,
1,133,800 Lake Rain, &c.
165,200 Red Lake,
551,000 Lake Michigan,
10,368,000 Bay Puan,
1,216,000 Lake Huron,
5,009,920 Lake St. Clair,
89,500 Lake Erie, western part,
2,252,800 Sundry small lakes and rivers,
Efimak Estimate of the number of acres of water within the Thirtcen United States, In the lakes as before mentioned
43,040,000 In Lake Erie, westward of the line extending from the north-west corner of Pennsylvania, due north, to the boundary between the British territory and the United States;
410,000 In Lake Ontario,
2,390,000 Lake Champlain,
500,000 Chesapeek bay,
1,700,000 Albemarle bay,
330,000 • Delaware bay,
630,000 All the rivers within the thirteen states, including the Ohio,
LAKES AND RIVERS.
may in truth be faid, that no part of the world is so well watered with springs, rivulets, rivers, and lakes, as the territory of the United States. By means of these various streams and colle&tions of water, the whole country is chequered into islands and peninsulas, The United States, and indeed all parts of North America, seem to have been forined by nature for the most intimate union. The facilities of navigation render the communication between the ports of Georgia and New-Hampshire, far more expeditious and practicable, than between those of Provence and Picardy in France; Cornwall and Caithness, in Great-Britain; or Gallicia and Catalonia, in Spain.' The canals proposed between Susquehannah, and Delaware, between Pafquetank and Elizabeth rivers, in Virginia, and between the Schuylkill and Susquehannah, will open a communication from the Carolinas to the weiern countries of Pennsylvania and New-York. The improvements of the Potomak, will give“a passage from the southern States, to the western parts of Virginia, Maryland, Pennfylvania, and even to the lakes. From Detroit, to Alexandria, on the Patomak, fix hundred and seven miles, are but two carrying places, which together do not exceed the distance of forty miles. The canals of Delaware and Chesapcek will open the communication from South Carolina to New-Jersey, Delaware, the most populous parts of Pennfylvania, and the midland counties of
New-York. Were these and the proposed canal between Ashley and Cooper rivers in South Carolina, the canals in the northern parts of the state of New York, and those of Massachusetts and New Hampshire all opened, North America would thereby be converted into a clufter of large and fertile islands, communicating with each other with ease and little expence, and in many instances without the uncertainty or danger of the feas.
There is nothing in other parts of the globe which resembles the prodigious chain of lakes in this part of the World. They may properly be termed inland feas of fresh water; and even those of the second or third class in magnitude, are of larger circuit than the greatest lake in the eastern continent. Some of the moit northern lakes belonging to the United States, have never been surveyed, or even visited by the white people ; of course we have no description of them which can be relied on as accurate, Others have been partially surveyed, and their relative Situation determined.- The best account of them which we have been able to procure is as follows:
THE LAKE OF THE Woods, the most northern in the United States, is fo called from the large quantities of wood growing on its banks; such as oaks, pines, firs, spruce, &c. This lake lies nearly east of the south end of Lake Winnepeck, and is supposed to be the source or conductor of one branch of the river Bourbon, if there be such a river. Its length from east to weit is said to be about seventy miles, and in some places it is forty miles wide. The Killiftinoe Indians encamp on its borders to fish and hunt. This lake is the communication between the Lakes Winnepeck and Bourbon, and Lake Superior.
RAINY OR LONG LAKE lies east of the Lake of the Woods, and is faid to be nearly an hundred miles long, and in no part more than twenty miles wide.
Eastward of this lake, lie several small ones, which extend in a string to the great carrying place, and from thence into Lake Superior. Between these little lakes are several carrying places, which render the trade to the north-west difficult, and exceedingly tedious, as it takes two years to make one voyage from Michillimakkinak to these parts.
Lake Superior, formerly termed the Upper Lake, from its northera situation, is so called from its magnitude, it being the largest on the continent. It may justly be termed the Caspian of America, and is supposed to be the largest body of fresh water on the globe. According to the French charts it is fifteen hundred miles in circumference. A great part of the coast is bounded by rocks and uneven ground. The water is pure and transparent, and appears, generally, throughout the lake, to lie upon a bed of huge rocks. It has been remarked, in
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