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met with from those who had lately arrived, induced him to leave the colony and return to England, which he accordingly did the last of September. Francis West, his successor in office, soon followed him, and George Piercy was elected president.

1610.--The year following, the South Virginia or London company, sealed a patent to Lord De la War, constituting him Governor and Captain General of South Virginia. He soon after embarked for America with Capt. Argal and one hundred and fifty men, in three ships.

The unfortunate people, who, the year before, had been shipwrecked on the Bermudas Islands, had employed themselves during the winter and spring, under the direction of Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and admiral Newport, in building a sloop to transport themselves to the continent. They embarked for Virginia on the 10th of May, with about one hundred and fifty persons on board, leaving two of their men behind, who chose to stay, and landed at James-Town on the 23d of the fame month. Finding the colony, which at the time of Capt. Smith's departure, consisted of five hundred souls, now reduced to fixty, and those few in a distressed and wretched situation, ther with one voice resolved to return to England ; and for this purpose, on the oth of June, the whole colony repaired on board their vessels, broke up their settie- , ment, and failed down the river on their way to their native country.

Fortunately, Lord De la War, who had embarked for James-Town the March before, met them the day after they failed, and persuaded them to return with him to James-Town, where they arrived and landed the 10th of June. The government of the colony of right devolved upon Lord De la War. From this time we may date the effectual settlement of Virginia. Its history, from this period, will be given in its proper place.

As early as the year 1608, or 1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman, under a commission from the king his master, discovered Long Island, New York, and the river which still bears his name, and afterwards fold the country, or rather his right, to the Dutch. Their writers, however, contend that Hudson was sent out by the East-India company in 1609, to discover a north-west passage to China; and that having first discovered Delaware Bay, he came and penetrated Hudson's river as far as latitude 43°. It is said however that there was a fale, and that.the English objected to it, though for fome time they neglected to oppose the Dutch settlement of the country.

1610.-In 1610, Hudson failed again to this country, then called by the Dutch New Netherlands, and four years after, the States-General





granted a patent to sundry merchants for an exclusive trade on the 1614 North river, who the same year, (1614) built a fort on the west

fide near Albany. From this time we may date the settlement of New York, the history of which will be annexed to a description of the State.

Conception Bay, on the Island of Newfoundland, was settled in the year 1610, by about forty planters under governor John Guy, to whom king James had given a patent of incorporation,

Champlain, a Frenchman, had begun a settlement at Quebec, 1608, St. Croix, Mount Mansel, and Port Royal were settled about the same time. These fettlements remained undisturbed till 1613, when the Virginians, hearing that the French had settled within their limits, sent Captain Argal to dislodge them. For this purpose he failed to Sagadahoc, took their forts at Mount Mansel, St. Croix, and Port Royal, with their vessels, ordnance, cattle, and provisions, and carried them to James-Town in Virginia, Quebec was left in poffefsion of the French,

1614.—This year Capt. John Smith, with two ships and forty-five men and boys, made a voyage to North Virginia, to make experiments upon a gold and copper mine. His orders were, to fish and trade with the natives, if he should fail in his expectations with regard to the mine. To facilitate this business, he took with him Tantum, an Indian, per, haps one that Capt. Weymouth carried to Engiand in 1605. In April he reached the Inand Monahigan in latitude 43° 30. Here Capt, Sinith was directed to stay and keep possellion, with ten men, for the purpose of making a trial of the whaling business, but being disappointed in this, he built seven boats, in which thirty-seven men made a very successful fishing voyage. In the mean time the captain himself, with eight men only, in a small boat, coasted from Penobscot to Sagadaḥok, Acocisco, Passataquack, Tragabizanda, now called Cape Ann, thence to Acomak, where he skirmished with some Indians; thence to Cape Cod where he fet his Indian, Tantum, ashore and left him, and returned to Monahigan. In this voyage he found two French ships in the Bay of Massachusetts, who had come there fix weeks before, and during that time, had been trading very advantageously with the Indians. It was conjectured that there was, at this time, three thousand Indians upon the Massachusetts Islands.

In July, Capt. Smith embarked for England in one of the vessels, leaving the other under the command of Capt. Thomas Hunt, to equip for a voyage to Spain. 'After Capt. Smith's departure, Hunt perfidiously allured twenty indians (one of whom was Squanto, afterwards so serviceable to the English) to come on board his ship at Patuxit, and

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seven more at Nausit, and carried them to the Illand of Malaga, where he fold them for twenty pounds each, to be Naves for life. This conduct, which fixes an indelible ftigma upon the character of Hunt, excited in the breasts of the Indians such an inveterate hatred of the English, as that, for many years after, all commercial intercourse with them was rendered exceedingly dangerous.

Capt. Smith arrived at London the last of August, where he drew a map of the country, and called it New-England. From this time North-Virginia assumed the name of New-England, and the name Vira ginia was confined to the southern colony.

Between the years 1614 and 1620, several attempts were made by the Plymouth Company to settle New-England, but by various means they were all rendered ineffectual. During this time, however, an advantageous trade was carried on with the natives.

1617.-In the year 1617, Mr. Robinson and his congregation, influenced by several weighty reasons, meditated a removal to America.

Various difficulties intervened to prevent the success of their de1620 signs, until the year 1620, when a part of Mr. Robinson's congre

gation came over and settled at Plymouth. At this time commenced the settlement of New England.

The particulars relating to the first emigrations to this northern part of America; the progress of its settlement, &c. will be given in the his. tory of New England, to which the reader is referred. In order to preserve the chronological order in which the several colo

nies, not grown into independent states, were first settled, it will be 1621 necessary that I should just mention, that the next year after the

settlement of Plymouth, Captain John Mason obtained of the

Plymouth council a grant of a part of the present state of New1623 Hampshire. Two years after, under the authority of this grant,

a small colony fixed down near the mouth of Piscataqua river. From this period we may date the settlement of New Hampshire.

1627.-In 1627, a colony of Swedes and Fins came over and landed at Cape Henlopen; and afterwards purchased of the Indians the land from Cape Henlopen to the Falls of Delaware on both sides the river, which they called New Swedeland Stream. On this river they built several forts, and made settlements.

1628. On the 19th of March, 1628, the council for New England fold to Sir Henry Roswell, and five others, a large tract of land, lying round Massachusetts Bay. The June following, Capt. John Endicot, with his wife and company, came over and settled at Naumkeag, now called Salem. This was the first settlement which was made in Mafia






chusetts Bay. Plymouth, indeed, which is now included in the Comie monwealth of Massachusetts, was settled eight years before, but at this time it was a separate colony, under a distinct government, and continued fo until the second charter of Massachusetts was granted bị William and Mary in 1691; by which Plymouth, the Province of Main and Sagadahok were annexed to Massachusetts.

June 13, 1633.- In the reign of Charles the First, Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic, applied for and obtained a grant of a tract of land upon Chesapeek Bay, about one hundred and forty miles long and one hundred and thirty broad. Soon after this, in consequence of the rigor of the laws of England against the Roman Catholics, Lord Baltimore, with a number of his persecuted brethren, came over and settled it, and in honour of queen Henrietta Maria, they called it Maryland. The first grant of Connecticut was made by Robert, Earl of Warwick,

president of the council of Plymouth, to Lord Say and Seal, to 1631 Lord Brook and others, in the year 1631. In consequence of

feveral smaller grants made afterwards by the patentees to particu

lar persons, Mr. Fenwick made a settlement at the Mouth of Con1635 necticut river, and called it Saybrook. Four years after a number

of people from Massachusetts Bay came and began settlements at Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor on Connecticut river. Thus commenced the English settlement of Connecticut.

Rhode Island was first fettled in consequence of religious persecution. Mr. Roger Williams, who was among those who early came over to Massachusetts, not agreeing with some of his brethren in sentiment, was

very unjustifiably banished the colony, and went with twelve 1635 others, his adherents, and settled at Providence in 1635. From

this beginning arose the colony, now state of Rhode-Inland. 1664.-On the 20th of March, 1664, Charles the Second granted to the Duke of York, what is now called New-Jersey, then a part of a large tract of country by the name of New Netherland. Some


of New- Jersey were settled by the Dutch as early as about 1615.

1662.-In the year 1662, Charles the Second granted to Edward, Earl of Clarendon, and seven others, almost the whole territory of the

three Southern states, North and South Carolinas and Georgia. 1664 Two years after he granted a second charter, enlarging their boundaries. The proprietors, by virtue of authority vested in

. them by their charter, engaged Mr. Locke to frame a system of laws for

the government of their intended colony. Notwithstanding these 1669 preparations, no effectual settlement was made until the year 1669,

(though one was attempted in 1667) when Governor Sayle came



over with a colony, and fixed on a neck of land between Ashley and Cooper Rivers. Thus commenced the settlement of Carolina, which then included the whole territory between the 29th and 36th 30' degrees, north latitude, together with the Bahama Islands, lying between latitude 22 and 27° north. 1681.- The Royal charter for Pennsylvania was granted to William

Penn on the 4th of March, 1681. The first colony came over the 1682 next year, and settled under the proprietor, William Penn, who

acted as Governor from October 1682 to August 1684. The first assembly in the province of Pennsylvania was held at Chester, on the 4th of December, 1682. Thus William Penn, a Quaker, juftly celebrated as a great and good man, had the honour of laying the foundation of the present populous and very flourishing State of Pennsylvania

The proprietory government in Carolina, was attended with fo many inconveniences, and occasioned such violent dissentions among the settlers, that the Parliament of Great-Britain was induced to take the pro. vince under their immediate care. The proprietors (except Lord Granville) accepted of £.22,500 sterling, from the crown for the pro

perty and jurisdiction. This agreement was ratified by act of 1729 Parliament in 1729. A clause in this act reserved to Lord

Granville his eighth share of the property and arrears of quitrents, which continued legally vested in his family till the revolution in 1776. Lord Granville's share made a part of the present state of North-Carolina. About the year 1729, the extensive territory belonging to the proprietors, was divided into North and South Carolina, They remained separate royal governments until they became independent States.

For the relief of poor indigent people of Great Britain and Ireland, and for the security of Carolina, a project was formed for planting a colony between the rivers Savannah and Alatamaha. Accordingly appli

cation being made to king George the Second, he issued letters 1732 patent, bearing date June 9th, 1732, for legally carrying into ex

tion the benevolent plan. In honour of the king, who greatly encouraged the plan, they called the new province Georgia. Twenty-one trustees were appointed to conduct the affairs relating to the settlement of the province. The November following, one hundred and fifteen perfons, one of whom was General Oglethorpe, embarked for Georgia, where they arrived, and landed at Yamacraw. In exploring the country, they found an elevated pleasant spot of ground on the bank of a navigable river, upon which they marked out a town, and from the Vol. 1,



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