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pursued Ribalt up the river on which he had settled, and overpowering himn in numbers, cruelly mafsacred him and his whole company. Melandes, having in this way taken possession of the country, built three forts, and left them garrisoned with 1200 soldiers. Laudonier and his colony on May River, receiving information of the fate of Ribalt; took the alarm and escaped to France.

1567.-A fleet of three ships was this year sent from France to Flo. rida, under the command of Dominique de Gourges. The object of this expedition was to dispossess the Spaniards of that part of Florida

which they had cruelly and unjustifiably seized three years be1568 fore. He arrived on the coast of Florida, April 1568, and foon

after made a successful attack upon the forts. The recent craelty of Melandes and his company excited revenge in the breaft of Gourges, and roused the unjuftifiable principle of retaliation. He took the forts; put most of the Spaniards to the sword; and having burned and demolished all their fortresses, returned to France.

During the fifty years next after this event, the French enterprized no settlements in America.

1576.–Captain Frobisher was sent this year to find out a north-welt passage to the East-Indies. The first land which he made on the coast was a Cape, which, in honour to the queen, he called Queen Elizabeth's Foreland. In coasting northerly he discovered the straits which bear his namu.

He prosecuted his search for a passage into the western ocean till he was prevented by the ice, and then returned to England.

1579.-In 1579, Sir Humphrey Gilbert obtained a patent from queen Elizabeth, for lands not yet poflefled by any Chriftian prince, provided

he would take pofiefion within fix years. With this encourage1583 ment he failed for America, and on the first of August, 1583;

anchored in Conception Bay. Afterward he discovered and took poffeflion of St. John's Harbour, and the country fouth. In pursuing his discoveries he lost one of his ships on the shoals of Sablon,

and on his return home, a storm overtook him, in which he was unfortunately loft, and the intended settlement was prevented.

1584.- This year two patents were granted by queen Elizabeth, one to Adrian Gilbert, (Feb. 6.) the other to Sir Walter Raleigh, for lands not poffefsed by any Christian prince. By the dire&tion of Sir Walter, two ships were fitted and sent out, under the command of Philip Amidas, and Arthur Barlow. In July they arrived on the coast; and anchored in a harbour seven leagues west of the Roanoke. On the 13th of July, they, in a formal manner, took poffeßlion of the country, and, in honour of their virgin queen Elizabeth; they called it Virginia. Till this

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time the country was known by the general name of Florida. After this VIRGINIA became the common name for all North America.

1585.- The next year, Sir Walter Raleigh sent Sir Richard Greenville to America, with seven ships. He arrived at Wococon Harbour in June. Having stationed a colony of more than a hundred people at Roanoke, under the direction of Capt. Ralph Lane, he coasted northeafterly as far as Chesapeek Bay, and returned to England.

The colony under Capt. Lane endured extreme hardships, and must have perished, had not Sir Francis Drake fortunately returned to Virginia, and carried them to England, after having made several conquests for the queen in the West Indies and other places.

A fortnight after, Sir Richard Greenville arrived with new recruits; and, although he did not find the colony which he had before left, and knew not but they had perished, he had the ralhness to leave 50 men at the same place.

1587.— The year following, Sir Walter fent another company to Virginia, under Governor White, with a charter and twelvé aslistants. In July he arrived at Roanoke. Not one of the second company remained. He determined, however, to risqué a third colony. Accordingly he left 115 people at the old settlement, and returned to England.

This year (Aug. 13) Manteo was baptized in Virginia. He was the firlt native Indian who received that ordinance in that


of America. On the 18th of August, Mrs. Dare was delivered of a daughter; whom the called VIRGINIA. She was the first English child that was born in North America.

1590.-In the year 1590, Governor White came over to Virginia with supplies and recruits for his colony; but, to his great grief, not a man was to be found. They had all miserably familhed with hunger, or were massacred by the Indians.

1602.-In the spring of this year, Bartholomew Gofnold, with 32 persons, made a voyage to North Virginia, and discovered and gave names to Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Elizabeth Islands, and to Dover Cliff. Elisabeth Island was the place which they fixed for their first settlement. But the courage of those who were to have tarried, failing, they all went on board and returned to England. All the attempts to settle this continent which were made by the Dutch, French, and English, from its discovery to the present time, a period of 110 years, proved ineffectual. The Spaniards only, of all the European nàtions, had been successful. There is no account of there having been one European family, at this time, in all the valt extent of coast from Florida to Grçenland, No, III.



1603.—Martin Pring and William Brown were this year sent by Sir Walter Raleigh, with two small vessels, to make discoveries in North Virginia. They came upon the coast, which was broken with a multitude of islands, in latitude 43° 30' north. They coasted fouthward to Cape Cod Bay; thence round the Cape into a commodious harbour in latitude 41° 25', where they went ashore and tarried seven weeks, during which time they loaded one of their vessels with sassafras, and returned to England.

Bartholomew Gilbert, in a Voyage to South Virgina, in search of the third colony which had been left there by Governor White in 1587, having touched at several of the West-India Islands, landed near Chesapeek Bay, where, in a skirmish with the Indians, he and four of his men were unfortunately flain. The rest, without any further search for the colony, returned to England.

France, being at this time in a state of tranquility in consequence of the edi&t of Nantz in favour of the Protestants, passed by Henry IV. (April 1598) and of the peace with Philip king of Spain and Portugal, was induced to pursue her discoveries in America. Accordingly the king signed a patent in favour of De Mons, (1603) of all the country

from the 40th to the 46th degrees of north latitude under the name 1604 of Acadia. The next year De Mons ranged the coast from St.

Lawrence to Cape Sable, and so round to Cape Cod. 1605.-In May 1605, George's Island and Pentecoft Harbour were discovered by Capt. George Weymouth. In May he entered a large river in latitude 43° 20', (variation 11° 15' west) which Mr. Prince, in his Chronology, supposes must have been Sagadahok; but from the latitude, it was more probably the Piscataqua. Capt. Weymouth carried with him to England five of the natives.

1606.--In the Spring of this year, James I. by patent, divided Virginia into two colonies. The southern included all lands between the 34th and 4ift degrees of north latitude. This was styled the firft colony, under the name of South Virginia, and was granted to the London Company. The northern, called the second colony, and known by the general name of North Virginia, included all lands between the 38th and 45th degrees north latitude, and was granted to the Plymouth Company. Each of these colonies hail a council of thirteen men to govern them. To prevent disputes about territory, the colonies were prohibited to plant within an hundred miles of each other. There appears to be an inconsistency in these grants, as the lands lying between the 38th and 414 degrees, are covered by both patents.


Both the London and Plymouth companies enterprized settlements within the limits of their respective grants. With what success will now be mentioned

Mr. Piercy, brother of the Earl of Northumberland, in the service of the London Company, went over with a colony to Virginia, and discovered Powhatan, now James River. In the mean time the Plymouth Company sent Capt. Henry Challons in a vessel of fifty-five tons to plant a colony in North Virginia ; but in his voyage he was taken by a Spanish fleet and carried to Spain.

71607.-The London Company this spring, fent Capt. Christopher April 26. Newport with three vessels to South Virginia, On the 26th of April he entered Chesapeek Bay, and landed, and foon after gave to

the moft fouthern point, the name of Cape Henry, which it still May 13. retains. Having elected Mr, Edward Wingfield president for

the year, they next day landed all their men, and began a fet.

tlement on James river, at a place which they called JamesJune 22. Town. This is the first town that was settled by the English in

North America. The June following Capt. Newport failed for England, leaving with the president one hundred and four persons.

August 22.-In Auguft died Capt. Bartholomew Gofnold, the first projector of this settlement, and one of the council. The following winter James-Town was burnt.

During this time the Plymouth company fitted out two ships under the command of Admiral Rawley Gilbert. They failed for North Virginia on the 31st of May, with one hundred planters, and Capt. George Popham for their president. They arrived in August, and settled about nine or ten leagues to the southward of the mouth of Sagadahok river. A great part of the colony, however, disheartened by the severity of the winter, returned to England in December, leaving their president, Capt. Popham, with only forty-five men.

It was in the fall of this year that the famous Mr. Robinson, with part of his congregation, who afterwards settled at Plymouth in NewEngland, removed from the North of England to Holland, to avoid the cruelties of peșsecution, and for the sake of enjoying “purity of worship and liberty of conscience.” This

year a small company of merchants at Dieppe and St. Malo's, founded Quebeck, or rather the colony which they fent, built a few huts there, which did not take the form of a town until the reign of Lewis XIV.

1608.-The Sagadahok colony fuffered incredible hardships after the departure of their friends in December. In the depth of winter, which

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was extremely cold, their store-house caught fire and was confumed, with most of their provisions and lodgings. Their misfortunes were increased, soon after, by the death of their president. Rawley Gilbert was appointed to succeed him.

Lord Chief Justice Popham made every exertion to keep this colony alive by repeatedly sending them supplies. But the circumstance of his death, which happened this year, together with that of president Gilbert's being called to England to settle his affairs, broke up the colony, and they all returned with him to England.

The unfavourable reports which these firft unfortunate adventurers propagated respecting the country, prevented any further attempts to settle North Virginia for several years after. 1609.-The London company, last year, sent Capt. Nelson, with two

. ships and one hundred and twenty persons, to James-Town; and this year Capt. John Smith, afterwards president, arrived on the coast of South Virginia, and by failing up a number of the rivers, discovered the interior country. In September, Capt, Newport arrived with seventy persons, which increased the colony to two hundred souls.

Mr. Robinson and his congregation, who had settled at Amsterdam, removed this year to Leyden, where they remained more than eleven years,

of them came over to New England. The council for South Virginia having resigned their old commission, requested and obtained a new one; in consequence of which they appointed Sir Thomas Weft, Lord De la War, general of the colony; Sir Thomas Gates, his lieutenant; Sir George Somers, admiral; Sir Thomas Dale, high marshal ; Sir Ferdinand Wainman, general of the horse, and Capt, Newport, vice admiral.

June 8.--In June, Sir T, Gates, admiral Newport. and Sir George Somers, with seven ships and a ketch and pinnace, having five hundred

souls on board, men, women, and children, failed from FalJuly 24. mouth for South Virginia. In crosiing the Bahama Gulf, on

the 24th of July, the fleet was overtaken by a violent storm, and feparated. Four days after, Sir George Somers ran his vessel ashore on one of the Bermudas Inlands, which, from this circumstance, have been called the Somer Islands. The people on board, one hundred and fifty in number, all got safe on shore, and there remained until the following May. The remainder of the fleet arrived at Virginia in Auguft. The colony was now increased to five hundred men. Capt. Smith, then president, a little before the arrival of the fleet, had been very badly burnt by means of fome powder which had accidentally caught fire. This unfortunate circumstance, together with the opposition he

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