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added a plan of a regular work, which has been discovered on the banks of the Mufkingum, near its junction with the Ohio. These remains are principally stone-walls, large mounds of earth, and a combination of these mounds with the walls, fufpected to have been fortifications. In some places the ditches and the fortress are said to have been plainly seen; in others, furrows, as if the land had been ploughed.
The mounds of earth are of two kinds: they are artificial tumuli, designed as repositories for the dead; or they are of a greater fize, for the purpose of defending the adjacent country; and with this view they are artificially constructed, or advantage is taken of the natural eminences, to raise them into a fortification.
The remains near the banks of the Muskingum, are situated about one mile above the junction of that river with the Ohio, and 160 miles below Fort Pitt. They consist of a number of walls and other elevations, of ditches, &c. altogether occupying a space of ground about 300 perches in length, and from about 150 to 25 or 20 in breadth. The town, as it has been called, is a large level, encompassed by walls, nearly in the form of a square, the fides of which are from 96 to 86 perches in length. These walls are, in general, about 10 feet in height above the level on which they stand, and about 20 feet in diameter at the base, but at the top they are much narrower; they are at present overgrown with vegetables of different kinds, and, among others, with trees of several feet diameter. The chasms, or opening in the walls, were probably intended for gate-ways: they are three in number at each side, besides the smaller openings in the angles. Within the walls there are three clevations, each about fix feet in height, with regular ascents to them; these elevations confiderably resemble fome of the eminer.ces already mentioned, which have been discovered near the river Miffiffippi. This author's opinion is, That the Tolticas, or some other Mexican nation, were the people to whom the mounts and fortifications, which he has described, owe their existence; and that those people were probably the descendants of the Danes. The former part of this conjecture is thought probable, from the fimilarity of the Mexican mounts and fortifications described by the Abbé Clavigero, and other authors, to those described by our author; and from the tradition of the Mexicans, that they came from the north-west : for, if we can rely on the testimony of late travellers, fortifications similar to those mentioned by Mr. Barton have been discovered as far to the north as Lake Pepin ; and won hil them, as we approach to the south, even as low as the coasts of ** The second part of our author's conjecture appears not so well suppo.
PRODUCTIONS. This vast country produces most of the metals, minerals, plants, fruits, trees, and wood, to be met with in the other parts of the world, and many of them in greater quantities and high perfection. The gold and silver of America have fupplied Europe with such immense quantities of those valuable metals, that they are become vafly more common; so that the gold and silver of Europe now bears little proportion to the bigh price fet upon them before the discovery of America.
It also produces diamonds, pearls, emeralds, amethysts and other valuable stones, which, by being brought into Europe, have contributed likewise to lower their value. To these, which are chiefly the production of Spani!h America, may be added a great number of other commodities, which, though of less price, are of much greater use; and many of them make the ornament and wealth of the British empire in this part
of the world. Of these are the plentiful supplies of cochineal, indigo, anatto, logwood, brazil, fustic, pimento, lignum vitæ, rice, ginger, cocoa, or the chocolate nut, sugar, cotton, tobacco, banillas, redwood, the balsams of Tolu, Peru, and Chili, that valuable article in medicine the Jefuit's bark, mechoacan, faflafras, farsaparilla, cassia, tamarinds, hides, furs, ambergrease, and a great variety of woods, roots, and plants; to which, before the discovery of America, we were either strangers, or forced to buy at an extravagant rate from Asia and Africa, through the hands of the Venetians and Genoese, who then engrossed the trade of the eastern world.
On this continent there grows also a variety of excellent fruits; as pine-apples, pomegranates, citrons, lemons, oranges, malicatons, cherries, pears, apples, figs, grapes, great numbers of culinary, medicinal, and other herbs, roots, and plants, with many exotic productions which are nourished in as great perfection as in their native foil.
Having given a summary account of America in general ; of its first discovery by Columbus, its extent, rivers, mountains, &c. of the Aborigines, and of the first peopling this continent, we shall next turn our attention to the Discovery and Settlement of North AMERICA,
NORTH AMERICA was discovered in the reign of Henry VII. a period when the Arts and Sciences had made very considerable progress in Europe. Many of the first adventurers were men of genius and learning, and were careful to preserve authentic records of such of their
proceedings as would be interesting to pofterity. These records afford ample documents for American historians. Perhaps no people on the globe can trace the history of their origin and progress with so much precision as the inhabitants of North America; particularly that part of them who inhabit the territory of the United States. The fame which Columbus had acquired by his first discoveries on
this western continent, spread throngh Europe and inspired many 1496 with the spirit of enterprize. As early as 1496, four years only
after the first discovery of America, John Cabot, a Venetian, obtained a commission from Henry VII. to discover unknown lands and annex them to the crown.
In the spring he failed from England with two ships, carrying with him his three fons. In this voyage, which was intended for China, he fell in with the north side of Terra Labrador, and coated northerly as far as the 67th degree of latitude.
1497.-The next year he made a second voyage to America with his fon Sebastian, who afterwards proceeded in the discoveries which his father had begun. On the 24th of June he discovered Bonavista, on the north-east side of Newfoundland. Before his return he traversed the coast from Davis's Straits to Cape Florida. 1502.-Sebaftian Cabot was this
at Newfoundland; and on his return carried three of the natives of that island to Henry VII. 1513.-In the spring of 1513, John Ponce failed from Porto Rico
northerly and discovered the continent in 30° 8' north latitude. He landed in April, a season when the country around was covered with verdure, and in full bloom. This circumstance induced him to call the country Florida, which, for many years, was the common name for North and South America.
1516.-In 1516, Şir Sebastian Cabot and Sir Thomas Pert explored the coast as far as Brazil in South America.
This valt extent of country, the coast whereof was thus explored, remained unclaimed and unsettled by any European power, (except by the Spaniards in South America) for almost a century from the time of its discovery.
1524.-It was not till the year 1524 that France attempted discoveries on the American coaft. Stimulated by his enterprizing neighbours, Francis I. who possessed a great and active mind, fent John Verrazano, a Florentine, to America, for the purpose of making discoveries. He traversed the coast from latitude 28° to 50° north. In a second voyage, some time after he was loft.
1525.— The next year Stephen Gomez, the first Spaniard who came upon the American coast for discovery, failed from Groyn in Spain, to Cuba and Florida, thence northward to Cape Razo, in latitude 46° north, in search of a north-west passage to the East Indies.
1534.--In the spring of 1534, by the direction of Francis I. a fleet was fitted out at St. Malo's in France, with design to make discoveries in America. The command of this fleet was given to James Cartier, He arrived at Newfoundland in May of this year. Thence he failed northerly; and on the day of the festival of St. Lawrence, he found himself in about latitude 48° 30' north, in the midst of a broad gulf, which he named St. Lawrence. He gave the same name to the river which empties into it. In this voyage, he sailed as far north as latitnde 51°, expecting in vain to find a passage to China.
1535.–The next year he failed up the river St. Lawrence 300 leagues to the great and swift Fall. He called the country New France; built a fort in which he spent the winter, and returned in the following spring to France.
1542.-In 1542, Francis la Roche, Lord of Robewell, was sent to Canada, by the French king, with three ships and 200 men, women and children. They wintered here in a fort which they had built, and returned in the spring. About the year 1550, a large number of adventurers-failed for Canada, but were never after heard of. In 1598, the king of France commissioned the Marquis de la Roche to conquer nada, and other countries not posleffed by any Christian prince. We do
not learn however, that la Roche ever attempted to execute his commise fion, or that any further attempts were made to settle Canada during
1539.-On the 12th of May, 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with goo men, besides feamen, failed from Cuba, having for his object the conquest of Florida. On the 30th of May he arrived at Spirito Santo, from whence he travelled northward 450 leagues from the sea. Here he dis
covered a river a quarter of a mile wide and 19 fathoms deep, 1542 on the bank of which he died and was buried, May 1542, aged 42 1543 years. Alverdo his fucceffor built feven brigantines, and the year
following embarked upon the river. In 17 days he proceeded down the river 400 leagues, where he judged it to be 15 leagues wide. From the largeness of the river at that place of his embarkation, he concluded its source must have been at least 400 leagues above, so that the whole length of the river in his opinion must have been more than 800 leagues. As he passed down the river, he found it opened by two mouths into the gulph of Mexico. These circumstances led us to conclude, that this river, fo early discovered, was the one which we now call the Mililippi.
Jan. 6, 1549. This year king Henry VII. granted a pension for life to Sebastian Cabot, in consideration of the important services he had rendered to the kingdom by his discoveries in America.
1562.-The admiral of France, Chatillon, early in this year, fent out a fleet under the command of John Ribalt. He arrived at Cape Francis on the coast of Florida, near which, on the first of May, he discovered and entered a river which he called May river. It is more than probable that river is the fame which we now call St. Mary's, which forms a part of the southern boundary of the United States. As he coasted northward he discovered eight other rivers, one of which he called Port Royal, and failed up it several leagues. On one of the rivers he built a fort and called it Charles, in which he left a colony under the direction of Captain Albert. The severity of Albert's meafures excited a mutiny, in which, to the ruin of the colony, he was lain. Two years after, Chatillon fent Rene Laudonier, with three ships, to Florida. In June he arrived at the River May, on which he built a fort, and, in honour to his king, Charles IX. he called it Carolina.
In August, this year, Capt. Ribalt arrived at Florida the second time, with a fleet of feven vessels to recruit the colony, which, two years be. fore, he had left under the direction of the unfortunate Capt. Albert. The September following, Pedro Melandes, with fix Spanish ships,