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People are checked by actions and looks, as well as to every species of offence; charge may be applied to

crimes, but is used more commonly for breaches of But if a clam'rous vile plebeian rose,

moral conduct; we accuse a person of murder; we Him with reproof he check’d, or tam'd with blows.

charge him with dishonesty. POPE. Accuse is properly a formal action; charge is an

informal action ; criminals are accused, and their acThey are chidden by words only: a timid person is

cusation is proved in a court of judicature to be true easily checked ; the want even of due encouragement or false; The Countess of Hertford, demanding an will serve to damp his resolution: the young are per- audience of the Queen, laid before her the whole petually falling into irregularities which require to be series of his mother's cruelty, and exposed the improchidden;

bability of an accusation, by which he was charged His house was known to all the vagrant train,

with an intent to commit a murder that could produce He chid their wanderings, but reliev'd their pain. no advantage.' Johnson (Life of Savage). Any per

GOLDSMITH. son may be charged, and the charge may be either To chide marks a stronger degree of displeasure substantiated or refuted in the judgment of a third than reprimand, and reprimand than repro

person ; Nor was this irregularity the only charge rebuke ; a person may chide or reprimand in anger,

which Lord Tyrconnel brought against him. Having he reproves and rebukes with coolness : great offences given him a collection of valuable books stamped call forth chidings; omissions or mistakes occasion or

with his own arms, he had the mortification to see require a reprimand; * This sort of language was them in a short time exposed for sale.' Johnson (Life very severely reprimanded by the Censor, who told of Savage). the criminal “ that he spoke in contempt of the court.""

Impeach and arraign are both species of accusing ; Addison and STEELE. Irregularities of conduct give the former in application to statesmen and state conrise to reproof; He who endeavours only the hap

cerns, the latter in regard to the general conduct piness of him whom he reproves, will always have the

or principles ; with this difference, that he who imsatisfaction of either obtaining or deserving kindness. peaches only asserts the guilt, but does not determine Johnson. Improprieties of behaviour demand rebuke;

it ; but those who arraign also take upon themselves - With all the infirmities of his disciples he calmly

to decide: statesmen are impeached for misdemeabore ; and his rebukes were mild when their provo- togiton, with revengeful cunning, impeached several

nors in the administration of government; • Ariscations were great.' BLAIR. Chiding and reprimanding are employed for of

courtiers and intimates of the tyrant.' CUMBERLAND. fences against the individual, and in cases where the Kings arraign governors of provinces and subordinate greatest disparity exists in the station of the parties; a

princes, and in this manner kings are sometimes archild is chid by his parent; a servant is reprimanded raigned before mock tribunals: our Saviour was by his master.

arraigned before Pilate; and creatures in the madness Reproving and rebuking have less to do with the of presumption arraign their Creator; “O the inexrelation or station of the parties, than with the nature

pressible horror that will seize upon a poor sinner, of the offence : wisdom, age, and experience, or a spi- when he stands arraigned at the bar of divine justice. ritual mission, give authority to reprove or rebuke

South, those whose conduct has violated any law, human or divine : the prophet Nathan reproved king David for his heinous offences against his Maker; our Saviour

TO ACCUSE, CENSURE. rebuked Peter for his presumptuous mode of speech.

To accuse (v. To Accuse) is only to assert the guilt of another; to censure (v. To Censure) is to take

that guilt for granted. We accuse only to make TO ACCUSE, CHARGE, IMPEACH, known the offence, to provoke inquiry; we censure in ARRAIGN.

order to inflict a punishment. An accusation may be false or true; a censure mild or severe.

It is exAccuse, in Latin accuso, compounded of ac or ad tremely wrong to accuse another without sufficient and cuso or causa a cause or trial, signifies to bring grounds ; · If the person accused maketh his innoto trial; charge, from the word cargo a burden, signi- cence plainly to appear upon his trial, the accuser is fies to lay a burden ; impeach, in French empecher immediately put to an ignominious death.' Swift. to hinder or disturb, compounded of em or in and pes But still worse to censure him without the most subthe foot, signifies to set one's foot or one's self against stantial grounds ; A statesman, who is possest of real and r; arraign, compounded of ar or ad and raign merit, should look upon his political censurers with or range, signifies to range, or set at the bar of a the same neglect that a good writer regards his critics.' tribunal.

ADDISON. The idea of asserting the guilt of another is com- Every one is at liberty to accuse another of offences mon to these terms. Accuse in the proper sense is which he knows him for a certainty to have committed ; applied particularly to crimes, but it is also applied but none can censure who are not authorised by their age or station. Accusing is for the most part em

TO CENSURE, CARP, CAVIL. ployed for public offences, or for private offences of much greater magnitude than those which call for Censure has the same general meaning as given in censure ; Mr. Locke accuses those of great negli- the preceding articles (v. To Accuse); carp in Latin gence who discourse of moral things with the least ob- carpo, signifies to pluck; cavil, in French caviller, scurity in the terms they make use of.' BUDGELL. Latin cavillor, from cavillum a hollow man, and • If any man measure his words by his heart, and cavus hollow, signifies to be unsound or unsubstantial speak as he thinks, and do not express more kindness in speech. to every man than men usually have for any man, he To censure respects positive errors ; to carp and can hardly escape the censure of the want of breeding.' cavil have regard to what is trivial or imaginary: the TILLOTSON.

former is employed for errors in persons; the latter for supposed defects in things. Censures are fre

quently necessary from those who have the authority TO CENSURE, ANIMADVERT, CRITICISE. to use them; a good father will censure his children

when their conduct is censurable : but censure may To censure (v. To Accuse) expresses less than to likewise be frequently unjust and frivolous; From animadvert or criticise; one may always censure a consciousness of his own integrity, a man assumes when one animadverts or criticises : animadvert, in force enough to despise the little censures of ignorLatin animadverto, i. e. animum verto ad, signifies to ance and malice.' BUDGELL. Carping and cavilling turn the mind towards an object, and, in this case, with are resorted to only to indulge ill-nature or self-conthe view of finding fault with it: to criticise, from the ceit; whoever owes another a grudge will be most disGreek zpívo to judge, signifies to pass a judgment upon posed to carp at all he does in order to lessen him in another

the esteem of others : those who contend more for To censure and animadvert are both personal, the victory than truth will be apt to cavil when they are one direct, the other indirect; criticism is directed to at a loss for fair argument : party politicians carp at things, and not to persons only.

the measures of administration; It is always thus Censuring consists in finding some fault real or with pedants; they will ever be carping, if a gentle supposed ; it refers mostly to the conduct of indivi

man or man of honour puts pen to paper.' STEELE. duals. Animadvert consists in suggesting some error Infidels cavil at the evidences of Christianity, because or impropriety; it refers mostly to matters of opinion they are determined to disbelieve; ' Envy and cavil and dispute ; criticism consists in minutely examining are the natural fruits of laziness and ignorance, which the intrinsic characteristics, and appreciating the merits was probably the reason that in the heathen mythology of each individually, or the whole collectively; it Momus is said to be the son of Nox and Somnus, of refers to matters of science and learning.

darkness and sleep.' ADDISON, To censure requires no more than simple assertion ; its justice or propriety often rests on the authority of the individual; Many an author has been dejected at the censure of one whom he has looked upon as an ANIMADVERSION, CRITICISM, idiot.' Addison. Animadversions require to be ac

STRICTURE. companied with reasons; those who animadvert on the proceedings or opinions of others must state some Animadversion (v. To Censure) includes censure grounds for their objections; I wish, Sir, you would and reproof; criticism implies scrutiny and judgment, do us the favour to animadvert frequently upon the whether for or against ; and stricture, from the Latin false taste the town is in, with relation to the plays as strictura and stringo to touch lightly upon, comprewell as operas.' STEELE. Criticism is altogether argu- hends a partial investigation mingled with censure. mentative and illustrative: it takes nothing for granted, We animadvert on a person's opinions by contradictit analyses and decomposes, it compares and combines, ing or correcting them; we criticise a person's works it asserts and supports the assertions; 'It is ridiculous by minutely and rationally exposing their imperfections for any man to criticise on the works of another, who and beauties; we pass strictures on public measures has not distinguished himself by his own performances. by descanting on them cursorily, and censuring them ADDISON.

partially The office of the censurer is the easiest and least Animadversions are too personal to be impartial ; honourable of the three; it may be assumed by ignor- consequently they are seldom just; they are mostly ance and impertinence, it may be performed for the resorted to by those who want to build up one system purpose of indulging an angry, or imperious temper. on the ruins of another; but the term is sometimes The task of animadverting is delicate; it may be re-employed in an indifferent sense ; . These things fall sorted to for the indulgence of an overweaning self- under a province you have partly pursued already, conceit. The office of a critic is both arduous and and therefore demand your animadversion for the honourable; it cannot be filled by any one incompetent regulating so noble an entertainment as that of the for the charge without exposing his arrogance and stage.' STEELE. Criticism is one of the most importfolly to merited contempt.

ant and honorable departments of literature ; a critic

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ought justly to weigh the merits and demerits of is a matter of discretion ; we blame frequently in
authors, but of the two his office is rather to blame order to correct ; • It is a most certain rule in reason
than to praise; much less injury will accrue to the and moral philosophy, that where there is no choice,
cause of literature from the severity than from the there can be no blame.' South. Objecting to is an
laxity of criticism; “Just criticism demands not only affair either of caprice or necessity; some capriciously
that every beauty or blemish be minutely pointed out object to that which is proposed to them merely from
in its different degree and kind, but also that the rea- a spirit of opposition ; others object to a thing from
son and foundation of excellences and faults be accu- substantial reasons ; " Men in all deliberations find
rately ascertained.' WARTON. Strictures are mostly ease to be of the negative side, to object, and foretel
the vehicles of party spleen ; like most ephemeral pro- difficulties.' Bacon.
ductions, they are too superficial to be entitled to
serious notice; but this term is also used in an indif-
ferent sense for cursory critical remarks ; “ To the

end of most plays I have added short strictures, con-
taining a general censure of faults or praise of ex- To object, from ob and jacio to cast, is to cast in
cellence.' JOHNSON.

the way; to oppose is to place in the way; there is,
therefore, very little original difference, except that

casting is a more momentary and sudden proceeding,

placing is a more premeditated action; which distincBoth these terms are employed in regard to the tion, at the same time, corresponds with the use of the conduct of others, but the complaint, from the verb

terms in ordinary life: to object to a thing is to proto complain, is mostly made in matters that personally pose or start something against it; but to oppose it is affect the complainant; the accusation (v. To Ac

to set oneself up steadily against it: one objects to cuse) is made of matters in general, but especially poses matters that call for deliberation, and afford

ordinary matters that require no reflection ; one opthose of a moral nature. A complaint is made for the

serious reasons for and against: a parent objects to his sake of obtaining redress; an accusation is made for the sake of ascertaining the fact or bringing to punish- the streets; he opposes his marriage when he thinks

child's learning the classics, or to his running about A complaint may be frivolous; an accusation

the connexion or the circumstances not desirable : we false. People in subordinate stations should be careful to give no cause for complaint ; · On this occasion object to a thing from our own particular feelings; we (of an interview with Addison), Pope made his com

oppose a thing because we judge it improper ; capri

cious or selfish people will object to every thing that plaint with frankness and spirit, as a man undeservedly neglected and opposed.' Johnson. The

comes across their own humour; About this time, most guarded conduct will not protect any person from

an Archbishop of York objected to clerks (recomthe unjust accusations of the malevolent; With guilt

mended to benefices by the Pope), because they were enter"distrust and discord, mutual accusation and ignorant of English. TyrwhITT." Those who oppose stubborn self-defence.' Johnson.

think it necessary to assign, at least, a reason for
their opposition ;

'Twas of no purpose to oppose, TO FIND FAULT WITH, BLAME,

She'd hear to no excuse in prose. Swift.
All these terms denote not simply feeling, but also OBJECTION, DIFFICULTY, EXCEPTION.
expressing dissatisfaction with some person or thing.
To find fault with signifies here to point out a fault,

The objection (v. Demur) is here general; it comeither in some person or thing; to blame is said only prehends both the difficulty and the exception, which of the person ; object is applied to the thing only: we are but species of the objection : the objection and the find fault with a person for his behaviour ; we find difficulty are started; the exception is made : the obfault with our seat, our conveyance, and the like; jection to a thing is in general that which renders it we blame a person for his temerity or his impro- less desirable ; but the difficulty is that which renders vidence ; we object to a measure that is proposed. We it less practicable; there is an objection against every find fault with or blame that which has been done ; scheme which incurs a serious risk; I would not we object to that which is to be done.

desire what you have written to be omitted, unless I Finding fault is a familiar action applied to matters had the merit of removing your objection.' POPE. of personal convenience or taste; blame and object to,

The want of means to begin, or resources to carry on particularly the latter, are applied to serious objects. a scheme, are serious difficulties; • In the examiFinding fault is often the fruit of a discontented nation of every great and comprehensive plan, such temper: there are some whom nothing will please, as that of Christianity, difficulties may occur.' BLAIR. and who are ever ready to find fault with whatever In application to moral or intellectual subjects, the comes in their way ; • Tragi-comedy you have your objection interferes with one's decision; the difficulty self found fault with very justly.' BUDGELL. Blame causes perplexity in the mind; • They mistake diffi

culties for impossibilities ; a pernicious mistake cer- in direct words, as when a person by his good conduct tainly, and the more pernicious, for that men are contradicts the slanders of his enemies; • There are seldom convinced till their convictions do them no many who are fond of contradicting the common regood.' South. “There is ever between all estates a ports of fame.' ADDISON.

In this application, consecret war. I know well this speech is the objection, and tradict and oppose are clearly distinguished from each not the decision; and that it is after refuted.' Bacon. other. So likewise in personal disputes contradiction

The objection and exception both respect the nature, implies opposition only as far as relates to the words; the moral tendency, or moral consequences of a thing; opposing, on the other hand, comprehends not only but the objection may be frivolous or serious; the ex- the spirit of the action, but also a great diversity in ception is something serious: the objection is positive; the mode; we may contradict from necessity, or in the exception is relatively considered, that is, the self-defence; we oppose from conviction, or a less thing excepted from other things, as not good, and honorable nature; we contradict by a direct negaconsequently objected to. Objections are made some- tive; we oppose by means of argument or otherwise. times to proposals for the mere sake of getting rid of It is a breach of politeness ever to contradict flatly ; an engagement: those who do not wish to give them- it is a violation of the moral law to oppose without selves trouble find an easy method of disengaging the most substantial grounds ; themselves, by making objections to every proposition; • Whoever makes such objections against an hypo

That tongue

Inspir'd with contradiction durst oppose thesis, hath a right to be heard, let his temper and

A third part of the gods. Milton. genius be what it will.' BURNET. Lawyers make erceptions to charges which are sometimes not sufficiently To contradict and to deny may be both considered substantiated ; When they deride our ceremonies as as modes of verbal opposition, but one contradicts an vain and frivolous, were it hard to apply their exceptions, assertion, and denies a fact; the contradiction implies even to those civil ceremonies, which at the coronation, the setting up one person's authority or opinion against in parliament, and all courts of justice, are used. that of another; the denial implies the maintaining a CRANMER. In all engagements entered into, it is person's veracity in opposition to the charges or insinecessary to make exceptions to the parties, whenever nuations of others. Contradicting is commonly emthere is any thing exceptionable in their characters: ployed in speculative matters ; ' If a gentleman is a the present promiscuous diffusion of knowledge among little sincere in his representations, he is sure to have the poorer orders is very objectionable on many a dozen contradicters.' Swift. Denying in matters grounds; the course of reading, which they commonly of personal interest; One of the company began to pursue, is without question highly exceptionable. rally him (an infidel) upon his devotion on shipboard,

which the other denied in so high terms, that it

duced the lie on both sides, and ended in a duel.' TO CONTRADICT, OPPOSE, DENY.

Addison. Denying may, however, be employed as

well as contradicting in the course of argument; but To contradict, from the Latin contra and dictum, we deny the general truth of the position by contrasignifies a speech against a speech ; to oppose, in dicting the particular assertions of the individuals ; French opposer, Latin opposui, perfect of oppono, * In the Socratic way of dispute, you agree to every from op or ob and pono, signifies to throw in the way thing your opponent advances; in the Aristotelic, or against a thing; to deny, in French denier, Latin

you are still denying and contradicting some part or denego, is compounded of de, ne, and ago or dico, sig- other of what he says. ADDISON. nifying to say no.

When contradict respects other persons, it is freTo contradict, as the origin of the word sufficiently quently a mode of opposition, as we may most denotes, is to set up assertion against assertion, and effectually oppose a person by contradicting what he is therefore a mode of opposition, whether used in a asserts; but contradiction does not necessarily imply general or a particular application. Logicians call opposition ; the former is simply a mode of action, those propositions contradictory which, in all their the latter comprehends both the action and the spirit, terms, are most completely opposed to each other; with which it is dictated : we contradict from necessity as · All men are liars ;No men are liars.' A con- or in self-defence ; we oppose from conviction or some tradiction necessarily supposes a verbal, though not personal feeling of a less honorable nature. When necessarily a personal, opposition ; a person may un- we hear a friend unjustly charged of an offence, it is intentionally contradict himself, as is frequently the but reasonable to contradict the charge; objectioncase with liars; and two persons may contradict each able measures may call for opposition, but it is someother without knowing what either has asserted; "The times prudent to abstain from opposing what we cannot Jews hold that in case two rabbies should contradict prevent. one another, they were yet bound to believe the con- Contradict is likewise used in denying what is laid tradictory assertions of both.' South.

to one's charge ; but we may deny without contraBut although contradicting must be more or less dicting, in answer to a question : contradiction respects verbal, yet, in an extended application of the term, indifferent matters; denying is always used in matters the contradiction may be implied in the action rather of immediate interest.


Contradiction is employed for correcting others ; Disclaim and disown are both personal acts respectdenying is used to clear one's self: we may contradicting the individual who is the agent: to disclaim is to falsely when we have not sufficient ground for contra- throw off a claim, as to disown is not to admit as dicting ; and we may deny justly when we rebut an one's own; as claim, from the Latin clamo, signifies unfair charge.

to declare with a loud tone what we want as our own ; so to disclaim is with an equally loud or positive tone,

to give up a claim : this is a more positive act than TO DENY, DISOWN, DISCLAIM, to disown, which may be performed by insinuation, DISAVOW.

or by the mere abstaining to own.

He who feels himself disgraced by the actions that Deny (v. To deny) approaches nearest to the sense are done by his nation, or his family, will be ready to of disown when applied to persons ; disown, that is, disclaim the very name which he bears in common not to own, on the other hand, bears a strong analogy with the offending party ; to deny when applied to things.

The thing call'd lise, with ease I can disclaim, In the first case deny is said with regard to one's

And think it over-sold to purchase fame. Dryden. knowledge of or connexion with a person ; disowning on the other hand is a term of larger import, includ- An absurd pride sometimes impels men to disown ing the renunciation of all relationship or social tie: their relationship to those who are beneath them in the former is said of those who are not related; the external rank and condition ; latter of such only as are related. Peter denied our

Here Priam's son, Deïphobus, he found : Saviour; · We may deny God in all those acts that

He scarcely knew him, striving to disown are morally good or evil; those are the proper scenes His blotted form, and blushing to be known. Dryden. in which we act our confessions or denials of him.' South. A parent can scarcely be justified in disown

An honest mind will disclaim all right to praise which ing his child let his vices be ever so enormous ; a

it feels not to belong to itself; the fear of ridicule

sometimes makes a man disown that which would child can never disown its parent in any case without violating the most sacred duty.

redound to his honor; Very few among those who In the second case deny is said in regard to things their souls, disown the authority, or renounce the

profess themselves Christians, disclaim all concern for that concern others as well as ourselves ; disown only expectations of the gospel? Rogers. to by .

The which one is personally concerned. A person denies

To disavow is to avow that a thing is not. that there is any truth in the assertion of another;

disavowal is a general declaration ; the denial is a • The Earl of Strafford positively denied the words.' particular assertion; the former is made voluntarily CLARENDON. He disowns all participation in any

and unasked for, the latter is always in direct answer affair;

to a charge : we disavow in matters of general interest

where truth only is concerned ; we deny in matters of Then they who brother's better claim disown,

personal interest where the character or feelings are Expel their parents, and usurp the throne. DRYDEN. implicated. We may deny having seen a thing; we may disown

What is disavowed is generally in support of truth; that we did it ourselves. Our veracity is often the

Our veracity is often the what is denied may often be in direct violation of only thing implicated in a denial; our guilt, inno- truth : an honest mind will always disavow whatever cence, or honor are implicated in what we disown. A

has been erroneously attributed to it; Dr. Solander witness denies what is stated as a fact; the accused

disavows some of those narrations (in Hawkesworth's party disowns what is laid to his charge.

voyages), or at least declares them to be grossly mis A denial is employed only for outward actions or represented.' BEATTIE. A timid person sometimes events; that which can be related may be denied :

denies what he knows to be true from a fear of the disowning extends to whatever we can own or possess ;

consequences ; • The king now denied his knowledge we may disown our feelings, our name, our connexions, of the conspiracy against Rezzio, by public proclama and the like.

tions.' ROBERTSON. Many persons have disavowed Christians deny the charges which are brought being the author of the letters which are known under against the gospel by its enemies; “ If, like Zeno, any

the name of Junius ; the real authors who have denied one shall walk about and yet deny there is any


their concern in it (as doubtless they have) availed in nature, surely that man was constituted for Anticyra, affair of several, no one individually could call him

it and were a fit companion for those who, having a conceit they are dead, cannot be convicted unto the self the author. society of the living.' Brown. The apostles would never disown the character which they held as mes

TO CONTROVERT, DISPUTE. sengers of Christ; Sometimes lest man should quite his pow'r disown,

Controvert, compounded of the Latin contra and He makes that pow'r to trembling nations known.

verto, signifies to turn against another in discourse, or JENYNS. direct one's self against another.

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