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is commonly business; an interview sometimes takes

place between princes, or commanders of armies; SWARM.

Ais fears were, that the interview betwixt The idea of many is common to all these terms, and England and France might through their amities peculiar to that of multitude, from the Latin multus; Breed him some prejudice. SHAKSPEARE. crowd, from the verb to crowd, signifies the many that crowd together; throng, from the German drängen to press, signifies the many that press toge- TO FREQUENT, RESORT TO, HAUNT. ther; and swarm, from the German schwärmen to fly about, signifies running together in numbers.

Frequent comes from frequent, in Latin frequens These terms vary, either in regard to the object, or

crowded, signifies to come in numbers, or come often the circumstance : multitude is applicable to any ob

to the same place ; resort, in French ressortir, comject; crowd, throng, and swarm, are in the proper forward; haunt comes from the French hanter, which

pounded of re and sortir, signifies to go backward and sense applicable only to animate objects: the first two

is of uncertain original. in regard to persons; the latter to animals in general, but particularly brutes. A multitude may be either

Frequent is more commonly used for an individual

who goes often to a place; resort and haunt for a in a stagnant or a moving state; all the rest denote a

number of individuals. A man is said to frequent a multitude in a moving state;

public place ; but several persons may resort to a priA multitude is incapable of framing orders. Temple vate place : men who are not fond of home frequent A crowd is always pressing, generally eager and tumul

taverns; in the first ages of Christianity, while per

secution raged, the disciples used to resort to private tuous;

places for purposes of worship. The crowd shall Cæsar's Indian war behold. DRYDEN. Frequent and resort are indifferent actions, but

haunt is always used in a bad sense. A throng may be busy and active, but not always frequent a theatre, a club, or any other social meeting, pressing or incommodious. This term is best adapted innocent or otherwise ; · For my own part I have ever to poetry to express a multitude of agreeable objects ; regarded our inns of court as 'nurseries of statesmen I shone amid the heav'nly throng. Mason.

and lawgivers, which makes me often frequent that

part of the town.' BUDGELL. People from different It is always inconvenient, sometimes dangerous to

quarters may resort to a fair, a church, or any other go into a crowd ; it is amusing to see the throng that place where they wish to meet for a common purpose ; is perpetually passing in the streets of the city: the

Home is the resort swarm is more active than either of the two others ;

Of love, of joy, of peace, and plenty, where it is commonly applied to bees which fly together in Supporting and supported, polish'd friends numbers, but sometimes to human beings, to denote And dear relations mingle into bliss. Thomson. their very great numbers when scattered about; thus

Those who haunt any place go to it in privacy for the children of the poor in low neighbourhoods swarm some bad or selfish purpose; in the streets ;

But harden'd by affronts, and still the same,
Numberless nations, stretching far and wide,

Lost to all sense of honour and of fame,
Shall (I foresee it) soon with Gothic swarms come

Thou yet canst love to haunt the great man's board, forth,

And think no supper good, but with a lord. LEWIS. From ignorance's universal North. Swift.

Our Saviour frequented the synagogues: the followers of the prophet Mahomet resort to his tomb at Mecca: thieves haunt the darkest and most retired parts of

the city in order to concert their measures for obMEETING, INTERVIEW.

taining plunder. Meeting, from to meet, is the act of meeting or

PEOPLE, NATION. coming in the company; interview compounded of inter between, and view to view, is a personal view People, in Latin populus, comes from the Greek of each other. The meeting is an ordinary concern, λαός people, πληθύς a multitude, and πολύς many. and its purpose familiar; meetings are daily taking Hence the simple idea of numbers is expressed by the place between friends ;

word people : but the term nation, from natus, marks

the connexion of numbers by birth; people is, therefore, I have not joy'd an hour since you departed,

the generic, and nation the specific term. A nation For public miseries and private fears, But this bless'd meeting has o'erpaid them all.

is a people connected by birth; there cannot, thereDRYDEN. fore, strictly speaking, be a nation without a people :

but there may be a people where there is not a nation. The interview is extraordinary and formal; its object * The Jews are distinguished as a people or a nation,

Vide Roubaud : « Nation, people.”

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according to the different aspects under which they are the populace in England are fond of dragging their viewed: when considered as an assemblage, under the favorites in carriages. special direction of the Almighty, they are termed the Mob and mobility are from the Latin mobilis, signipeople of God; but when considered in regard to fying moveableness, which is the characteristic of the their common origin, they are denominated the

Jewish multitude: hence Virgil's mobile vulgus. These nation. The Americans, when spoken of in relation to terms, therefore, designate not only what is low, but Britain, are a distinct people, because they have each tumultuous. A mob is at all times an object of terror: a distinct government; but they are not a distinct the mobility, whether high or low, are a fluttering nation, because they have a common descent. On order that mostly run from bad to worse ;

By the this ground the Romans are not called the Roman senseless and insignificant clink of misapplied words, nation, because their origin was so various, but the some restless demagogues had inflamed the mind of Roman people, that is an assemblage living under the sottish mobile to a strange, unaccountable abhorone form of government.

rence of the best of men.' South. In a still closer application people is taken for a part of the state, namely, that part of a state which consists of a multitude, in distinction from its government; whence arises a distinction in the use of the terms;

PEOPLE, PERSONS, FOLKS. for we may speak of the British people, the French or the Dutch people, when we wish merely to talk of The term people has already been considered in two the mass, but we speak of the British nation, the acceptations (v. People, Nation ; People, Populace), French nation, and the Dutch nation, when public under the general idea of an assembly; but in the measures are in question, which emanate from the go- present case it is employed to express a small number vernment, or the whole people. The English people of individuals: the word people, however, is always have ever been remarkable for their attachment to considered as one undivided body, and the word person liberty ; ' It is too flagrant a demonstration how much may be distinctly used either in the singular or plural ; vice is the darling of any people, when many amongst as we cannot say one, two, three, or four people: but them are preferred for those practices for which in we may say one, two, three, or four persons : yet on other places they can scarce be pardoned.' South. The the other hand, we may indifferently say, such people abolition of the slave trade is one of the most glorious or persons ; many people or persons ; some people or acts of public justice, which was ever performed by persons, and the like. the British nation; When we read the history of With regard to the use of these terms, which is nations, what do we read but the crimes and follies of altogether colloquial, people is employed in general men?' Blair. The impetuosity and volatility of the propositions ; and persons in those which are specific French people render them peculiarly unfit to legislate or referring directly to some particular individuals : for themselves; the military exploits of the French people are generally of that opinion ; some people nation have rendered them a highly distinguished peo- think so ; some people attended ; ple in the annals of history. Upon the same ground

Performance is even the duller for republican states are distinguished by the name of

His act; and, but in the plainer and simple people: but kingdoms are commonly spoken of in history as nations. Hence we say the Spartan people,

Kind of the people, the deed is quite out of

Use. SHAKSPEARE. the Athenian people, the people of Genoa, the people of Venice ; but the nations of Europe, the African There were but few persons present at the entertainnations, the English, French, German, and Italian ment; the whole company consisted of six persons ; nations.

* You may observe many honest, inoffensive persons strangely run down by an ugly word.' SOUTH.

As the term people is employed to designate a PEOPLE, POPULACE, MOB, MOBILITY. promiscuous multitude, it has acquired a certain mean

ness of acceptation which makes it less suitable than People and populace are evidently changes of the the word persons, when people of respectability are same word to express a number. The signification of referred to : were 1 to say, of any individuals, I do these terms is that of a number gathered together. not know who those people are, it would not be so rePeople is said of any body supposed to be assembled, spectful as to say, I do not know who those persons as well as really assembled;

are: in like manner one says, from people of that The people like a headlong torrent go,

stamp, better is not to be expected; persons of their And every dam they break or overflow. SHAKSPEARE. appearance do not frequent such places.

Folks, through the medium of the northern lanPopulace is said of a body only, when actually as

guages, comes from the Latin vulgus, the common sembled;

people: it is not unusual to say good people, or good The pliant populace, Those dupes of novelty, will bend before us. Mallet. folks ; and in speaking jocularly to one's friends, the

latter term is likewise admissible: but in the serious The voice of the people cannot always be disregarded; style it is never employed except in a disrespectful manner: such folks (speaking of gamesters) are often The Gentiles were called to the true faith, and put to sorry shifts; ' I paid some compliments to great obeyed the call : many of the illustrious Heathens folks, who like to be complimented.' HERRING. would have doubtless done the same, had they enjoyed

the same privilege; Not that I believe that all the

virtues of the Heathens were counterfeit, and destiGENTILE, HEATHEN, PAGAN.

tute of an inward principle of goodness. God forbid

we should pass so hard a judgement upon those ex* The Jews comprehended all strangers under the cellent men, Socrates, and Epictetus, and Antoninus.' name of Dila nations or gentiles: among the Greeks Tillotson. and Romans they were designated by the name of bar- There are many Pagans to this day who reject this barians. By the name Gentile was understood espe- advantage, to pursue their own blind'imaginations ; cially those who were not of the Jewish religion, in

And nations laid in blood; dread sacrifice cluding, in the end, even the Christians; for, as

To Christian pride! which had with horror shock'd Fleury remarks, there were some among these uncir- The darkest Pagans, offered to their gods. Young. cumcised Gentiles, who worshipped the true God, and were permitted to dwell in the holy land provided they observed the law of nature and abstinence; · There might be several among the Gentiles in the same con- FAMILY, HOUSE, LINEAGE, RACE. dition that Cornelius was before he became a Christian.' TILLOTSON.

Divisions of men, according to some rule of relaSome learned men pretend that the Gentiles were tionship or connexion, is the common idea in these so named from their having only a natural law, and terms. such as they imposed on themselves, in opposition to Family, from the Latin familia a family, and the Jews and Christians, who have a positive revealed famulus a servant, in Greek ousría an assembly, and law to which they are obliged to submit.

the Hebrew boy to labor, is the most general term, Frisch and others derive the word heathen, from being applicable to those who are bound together upon the Greek šovos, a nation, which derivation is corro- the principle of dependance ; house figuratively deborated by the translation in the Anglo-saxon law of notes those who live in the same house, and is comthe word haethne by the Greek člvos. Adelung, how- monly extended in its signification to all that passes ever, thinks it to be more probably derived from the under the same roof : hence we rather say that a word heide a field, for the same reason as pagan is woman manages her family; that a man rules his derived from pagus a village, because when Constan- house. tine banished idolators from the towns they repaired The family is considered as to its relationships ; to the villages, and secretly adhered to their religious the number, union, condition and quality of its memworship, whence they were termed by the Christians bers: the house is considered more as to what is transof the fourth century Pagani, which, as he supposes,

acted within its walls. We speak of a numerous was translated literally into the German heidener a family, a united or affectionate family, a mercantile villager or worshipper in the field. Be this as it may, house ; the house (meaning the members of the house it is evident that the word Heathen is in our language of parliament.). If a man cannot find happiness in more applicable than Pagan, to the Greeks, the Ro- the bosom of his family, he will seek for it in vain mans, and the cultivated nations who practised idolatry; elsewhere; 'To live in a family where there is but and, on the other hand, Pagan is more properly em- one heart and as many good strong heads as persons, ployed for any rude and uncivilized people who worship and to have a place in that enlarged single heart, is false Gods.

such a state of happiness as I cannot hear of without The Gentile does not expressly believe in a Divine feeling the utmost pleasure.' FIELDING. The credit Revelation; but he either admits of the truth in part, or

of a house is to be kept up only by prompt payments; is ready to receive it: the Heathen adopts a positively or, in a general sense of the term, the business of the false system that is opposed to the true faith ; the house is performed by the domestics; · They two toPagan is the species of Heathen who obstinately gether rule the house. The house I call here the persists in a worship which is merely the fruit of his man, the woman, their children, their servants.' own imagination. The Heathens or Pagans are

Smith. Gentiles; but the Gentiles are not all either Heathens In an extended application of these words they are or Pagans. Confucius and Socrates, who rejected made to designate the quality of the individual, in the plurality of Gods, and the followers of Mahomet, which case family bears the same familiar and indiswho adore the true God, are, properly speaking, Gen- criminate sense as before: house is employed as a tiles. The worshippers of Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, term of grandeur. and all the deities of the ancients, are termed Heathens. + When we consider the family in its domestic relaThe worshippers of Fo, Brama, Xaca, and all the tions; in its habits, manners, connexions, and circumdeities of savage nations, are termed Pagans.

stances; we speak of a genteel family, a respectable

• Vide Roubaud : “ Gentils, païens."

+ Vide Abbé Girard : “ Famille, maison."


gone before.

family, the royal family; 'An empty man of a great in Latin indigena, from inde and genitus, signifies family is a creature that is scarce conversible.' ADDI

sprung from a particular place. When we consider the family with regard to its The epithet natal is applied only to the circumpolitical and civil distinctions, its titles and its power, stance of a man's birth, as his natal day; his natal then we denominate it a house, as an illustrious house ; hour; a natal song; a natal star ; the house of Bourbon, of Brunswick, or of Hanover;

Safe in the hand of one disposing pow'r, the imperial house of Austria. Any subject may belong

Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. Pope. to an ancient or noble family. Princes are said to be descended from ancient houses ; . The princes of the Native has a more extensive meaning, as it comprehouse of Tudor, partly by the vigor of their admi- hends the idea of one's relationship by origin to an nistration, partly by the concurrence of favorable cir- object; as one's native country, one's native soil, cumstances, had been able to establish a more regular native village, or native place, native language, and system of government.' HUME. A man is said to be the like; of a family or of no family: we may say likewise that

Nor can the grov'ling mind he is of a certain se ; but to say that he is of no

In the dark dungeon of the limbs confin’d, house would be superfluous.* In republics there are

Assert the native skies or own its heav'nly kind.

DRYDEN. families but not houses, because there is no nobility; in China likewise, where the private virtues only dis- Indigenous is the same with regard to plants, as native tinguish the individual or his family, the term house

in regard to human beings or animals, but it is someis altogether inapplicable.

times applied to people when taken in a collective Family includes in it every circumstance of con- sense; Negroes were all transported from Africa, nexion and relationship; lineage respects only consan- and are not indigenous or proper natives of America.' guinity : family is employed mostly for those who are coeval; lineage is generally used for those who have

before. When the Athènian general Iphicrates, son of a shoemaker, was reproached by Hermodius

NATIVE, NATURAL. with his birth, he said, I had rather be the first than

Native (v. Natal) is to natural as a species to the the last of my family. David was of the lineage of Abraham, and our Saviour was of the lineage of signification natural; but many things are natural David ;

which are not native. Of a person we may say that We want not cities, nor Sicilian coasts,

his worth is native, to designate that it is some Where king Acestes Trojan lineage boasts. Dryden. valuable property which is born with him, not foreign Race, from the Latin radix a root, denotes the origin of his disposition, that it is natural, as opposed to that

to him, or ingrafted upon his character ; but we say or that which constitutes their original point of resemblance. A family supposes the closest alliance; a

which is acquired by habit. Native is always emrace supposes no closer connexion than what a com

ployed in a good sense, in opposition to what is artful, mon property creates. Family is confined to a com

assumed, and unreal; In heaven we shall pass from paratively small number ; · A nation properly signifies the darkness of our native ignorance into the broad a great number of families derived from the same blood, born in the same country, and living under the

an indifferent sense, as opposed to whatever is the same government and civil constitutions. TEMPLE.

effect of habit or circumstances; Scripture ought to Race is a term of extensive import, including all

be understood according to the familiar, natural way mankind, as the human race; or particular nations,

of construction.' South. When children display as the race of South-sea islanders; or a particular themselves with all their native simplicity, they are family, as the race of the Heraclides : from Hercules interesting objects of notice : when they display their sprung a race of heroes;

natural turn of mind, it is not always that which

tends to raise human nature in our esteem.
Nor knows our youth of noblest race,
To mount the manag'd steed or urge the chace;
More skills in the mean arts of vice,
The whirling troque or law-forbidden dice. FRANCIS.



Relation is here taken to the person related,

and is the general term both in sense and application; Natal, in Latin natalis, from natus, signifies be- relative is employed only

relative is employed only as respects the particular longing to one's birth, or the act of one's being born ; individual to whom one is related; kinsman desigbut native, in Latin nativus, likewise from natus, nates the particular kind of relation, and kindred is a signifies having the origin or beginning ; indigenous, collective term to comprehend all one's relations or

express the

* Abbé Roubaud : “ Race, lineage, famille, maison."

those who are akin 'to one. In abstract propositions

In abstract propositions not necessarily imply any affinity, or common property we speak of relations ; a man who is without rela- in the objects, but simple assemblage, produced as it tions feels himself an outcast in society ; 'You are were by sors, chance : hence we speak of such sort of not to imagine that I think myself discharged from the folks or people; such sort of practices ; different sorts duties of gratitude, only because my relations do not of grain; the various sorts of merchandizes: and in adjust their looks to my expectation.' Johnson. In similar cases where things are sorted or brought designating one's close and intimate connexion with together, rather at the option of the person, than persons we use the term relative; our near and dear according to the nature of the thing; • The French relatives are the first objects of our regard; It is an made and recorded a sort of institute and digest of evil undutifulness in friends and relatives, to suffer anarchy, called the rights of man.' BURKE. one to perish without reproof.' TAYLOR. In designating one's relationship and connexion with persons kinsman is preferable; when a man has not any children he frequently adopts one of his kinsmen as KINDRED, RELATIONSHIP, AFFINITY, his heir: when the ties of relationship are to be

CONSANGUINITY. specified in the persons of any particular family, they are denominated kindred ; a man cannot abstract The idea of a state in which persons are placed with himself from his kindred while he retains any spark regard to each other is common to all these terms, of human feeling; Herod put all to death whom he which differ principally in the nature of this state. found in Trechoritis of the families and kindred of Kindred signifies that of being of the same kind any of those at Repta.' PRIDEAUX.

(v. Kind); relationship signifies that of holding a nearer relation than others (v. To connect); affinity (v. Alliance) signifies that of being affined or coming

close to each other's boundaries ; consanguinity, from KIND, SPECIES, SORT.

sanguis the blood, signifies that of having the same

blood. Kind, comes most probably from the Teutonic kind The kindred is the most general state here exa child, signifying related, or of the same family; pressed : it may embrace all mankind, or refer to parspecies, in Latin species, from specio to behold, sig

ticular families or communities ; it depends upon posnifies literally the form or appearance, and in an sessing the common property of humanity, or of being extended sense that which comes under a particular united by some family tie ; form ; sort, in Latin sors a lot, signifies that which constitutes a particular lot or parcel.

Like her, of equal kindred to the throne,

You keep her conquests, and extend your own. Kind and species are both employed in their proper

DRYDEN. sense ; sort has been diverted from its original meaning by colloquial use: kind is properly employed for The philanthropist claims kindred with all who are animate objects, particularly for mankind, and im- unfortunate, when it is in his power to relieve them. properly for moral objects ; species is a term used by The term kindred is likewise distinguished from the philosophers, classing things according to their external rest, as it expresses not only a state, but the

persons or internal properties. Kind, as a term in vulgar use,

collectively who are in that state; Though separated has a less definite meaning than species, which serves from my kindred by little more than half a century of to form the groundwork of science : we discriminate miles, I know as little of their concerns as if oceans things in a loose or general manner by saying that they and continents were between us.' COWPER. are of the animal or vegetable kind; of the canine or Relationship is a state less general than kindred, feline kind; but we discriminate them precisely if we but more extended than either affinity or consansay that they are a species of the arbutus, of the guinity ; it applies to particular families only, but it pomegranate of the dog, the horse, and the like. By applies to all of the same family, whether remotely or the same rule we may speak of a species of madness, distantly related; • Herein there is no objection to the a species of fever, and the like; “ If the French should succession of a relation of the half-blood, that is, succeed in what they propose, and establish a demo- where the relationship proceeds not from the same cracy in a country circumstanced like France, they couple of ancestors (which constitutes a kinsman of will establish a very bad government, a very bad the whole blood), but from a single ancestor only.' species of tyranny.' BURKE. Because diseases have BLACKSTONE. The term relationship is likewise exbeen brought under a systematic arrangement: but, tended to other subjects besides that of families. Men on the other hand, we should speak of a kind of lan- stand in different relations to each other in society ; guage, a kind of feeling, a kind of influence; and in • The only general private relation now remaining to similar cases where a general resemblance is to be be discussed is that of guardian and ward.-In exexpressed; • An ungrateful person is a kind of amining this species of relationship I shall first conthoroughfare or common shore for the good things of sider the different kind of guardians.' BLACKSTONE. the world to pass into. South.

Affinity denotes a close relationship, whether of an Sort may be used for either kind or species ; it does artificial or a natural kind: there is an affinity between

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