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of men or brutes congregated for some common purASSEMBLY, COMPANY, MEETING, CON


Their tribes adjusted, clean'a their vig'rous wings,

And many a circle, many a short essay, CATION, COUNCIL.

Wheel'd round and round: in congregation full

The figur’d flight ascends. THOMSON. An assembly (v. To assemble, muster) is. simply the assembling together of any number of persons, or the All these different kinds of assemblies are formed by persons so assembled: this idea is common to all the rest individuals in their private capacity; the other terms of these terms, which differ in the object, mode, and designate assemblies that come together for national other collateral circumstances of the action ; company, purposes, with the exception of the word convention, a body linked together (v. To accompany), is an as- which may be either domestic or political. sembly for purposes of amusement; meeting, a body met A parliament and diet are popular assemblies under together, is an assembly for general purposes of business; a monarchical form of government; congress and concongregation, a body focked or gathered together, from vention are assemblies under a republican governthe Latin grew a flock, is an assembly brought together ment: of the first description are the parliaments of from congeniality of sentiment, and community of England and France, the diets of Germany and Pa purpose ; parliament, in French parlement, from land, which consisted of subjects assembled by the parler to speak, signifies an assembly for speaking or monarch, to deliberate on the affairs of the nation ; debating on important matters ; diet, from the Greek • The word parliament was first applied to general drautów to govern, is an assembly for governing or regu- assemblies of the states under Louis VII. in France, lating affairs of state; congress, from the Latin con- about the middle of the twelfth century.' BLACKgredior to march in a body, is an assembly coming STONE. • What further provoked their indignation together in a formal manner from distant parts for spe- was that instead of twenty-five pistoles formerly allowed cial purposes; convention, from the Latin convenio to each member for their charge in coming to the diet, to come together, is an assembly coming together in he had presented them with six only.' ŠTEELE. Of an unformal and promiscuous manner from a neigh- the latter description are the congress of the United bouring quarter; synod, in Greek cúvodos, compounded Provinces of Holland, and that of the United States of où and očòs, signifies literally going the same road, of America, and the late national convention of France: and has been employed to signify an assembly for con- but there is this difference observable between a consultation on matters of religion; convocation is an gress and a convention, that the former consists of assembly convoked for an especial purpose; council is deputies or delegates from higher authorities, that is, an assembly for consultation either on civil or eccle- from independent governments already established; siastical affairs.

but a convention is a self-constituted assembly, which An assembly is, in its restricted sense, public, and has no power but what it assumes to itself ; • Prior under certain regulations; · Lucan was so exasperated had not, however, much reason to complain : for he with the repulse, that he muttered something to him- came to London, and obtained such notice, that (in self, and was heard to say, “ that since he could not 1691) he was sent to the congress at the Hague, as have a seat among them himself, he would bring in secretary to the embassy.' Johnson. "The office of one who alone had more merit than their whole assem- conservators of the peace was newly erected in Scotbly;" upon which he went to the door and brought in land; and these, instigated by the clergy, were reCato of Utica.' Addison. A company is private, and solved, since they could not obtain the king's consent, confined to friends and acquaintances; • As I am insig- to summon in his name, but by their own authority, a nificant to the company in public places, and as it is convention of states.' HUME. visible I do not come thither as most do to show my- A synod and convocation are in religious matters self, I gratify the vanity of all who pretend to make what å diet and convention are in civil matters: the an appearance.' STEELE. A meeting is either public former exist only under an episcopal form of governor private : a congregation is always public. Meet- ment; the latter may exist under any form of church ings are held by all who have any common business to discipline, even where the authority lies in the whole arrange or pleasure to enjoy ; ' It is very natural for a body of the ministry ; ' A synod of the celestials was man who is not turned for mirthful meetings of men, convened, in which it was resolved that patronage or assemblies of the fair sex, to delight in that sort of should descend to the assistance of the sciences." conversation which we meet with in coffee-houses. Johnson. "The convocation is the miniature of a STEELE. A congregation in its limited sense consists parliament, wherein the archbishop presides with regal of those who follow the same form of doctrine and dis- state.' BLACKSTONE. cipline; · As all innocent means are to be used for the A council is more important than all other species propagation of truth, I would not deter those who are of assembly; it consists of persons invested with the employed in preaching to common congregations from highest authority, who, in their consultations, do not any practice which they may find persuasive. John- so much transact ordinary concerns, as arrange the

But the term may be extended to bodies either forms and fashions of things. Religious councils used


to determine matters of faith and discipline; political takes a part; the latter being mostly in a subordinate councils frame laws and determine the fate of empires; station, but the former is an equal.

The assistant performs menial offices in the minor Inspir’d by Juno, Thetis' godlike son Conven'd to council all the Grecian train. Pope.

concerns of life, and a subordinate part at all times ; the coadjutor labors conjointly in some concern of common interest and great importance. An assistant is engaged for a compensation ; a coadjutor is a volun

tary fellow-laborer. In every public concern where GUEST, VISITOR, OR VISITANT.

the purposes of charity or religion are to be promoted, Guest, from the Northern languages, signifies one

coadjutors often effect more than the original prowho is entertained; visitor is the one who pays the

moters ; ' Advices from Vienna import that the Archvisit. The guest is to the visitor as a species to the bishop of Saltzburg is dead, who is succeeded by Count genus : every guest is a visitor, but every visitor is Harrach, formerly Bishop of Vienna, and for these not a guest. The visitor simply comes to see the

three last years coadjutor to the said Archbishop.' person, and enjoy social intercourse ; but the guest

STEELE. În the medical and scholastic professions also partakes of hospitality. We are visitors at the

assistants are indispensable to relieve the pressure of tea-table, at the card-table, and round the fire ; we

business; • As for you, gentlemen and ladies, my are guests at the festive board;

assistants and grand juries, I have made choice of

you on my right hand, because I know you to be very Some great behest from heav'n

jealous of your honour ; and you on my left, because To us perhaps he brings, and will vouchsafe

I know you are very much concerned for the reputaThis day to be our guest. Milton.

tion of others.' ADDISON. Coadjutors ought to be No palace with a lofty gate he wants,

zealous and unanimous; assistants ought to be assiT'admit the tides of early visitants. Dryden.

duous and faithful.


Although the terms ally and confederate are derived

from the words alliance and confederacy (v. Alliance), Colleague, in French collégue, Latin collega, com- they are used only in part of their acceptations. pounded of col or con and legatus sent, signifies sent

An ally is one who forms an alliance in the political or employed upon the same business ; partner, from

sense ; a confederate is one who forms confederacies the word part, signifies one having a part or share.

in general, but more particularly when such confedeColleague is more noble than partner : men in the

racies are unauthorised. highest offices are colleagues ; tradesmen, mechanics,

The Portuguese and English are allies; "We and subordinate persons, are partners: every Roman could hinder the accession of Holland to France, Consul had a colleague; every workman has commonly

either as subjects with great immunities for the encoua partner.

ragement of trade, or as an inferior and dependant Colleague is used only with regard to community of ally under their protection.' TEMPLE. William Tell office; partner is most generally used with regard to

had some few particular friends who were his confedecommunity of interest: whenever two persons are em- rates; Having learned by experience that they must ployed to act together on the same business they stand

expect a vigorous resistance from this

warlike prince, in the relation of colleagues to each other; whenever

they entered into an alliance with the Britons of Corntwo persons unite their endeavours either in trade or

wall, and landing two years after in that country made in games they are denominated partners : ministers,

an inroad with their confederates into the county of judges, commissioners, and plenipotentiaries, are col- Devon.' HUME. This latter term is however used leagues ;

with more propriety in its worst sense, for an associate But from this day's decision, from the choice

in a rebellious faction, as in speaking of Cromwell and Of his first colleagues, shall succeeding times

his confederates who were concerned in the death of Of Edward judge, and on his fame pronounce.

the king.

Confederate and accomplice both imply a partner Bankers, merchants, chess-players, card-players, and in some proceeding, but they differ as to the nature of the like, have partners ;

the proceeding: in the former case it may be lawful And lo! sad partner of the general care,

or unlawful ; in the latter unlawful only. In this

latter sense a confederate is a partner in a plot or Weary and faint 1 drive my goats afar. Warton.

secret association : an accomplice is a partner in some Coadjutor, compounded of co or con and adjutor a active violation of the laws. Guy Fawkes retained his helper, signifying a fellow laborer, is more noble than resolution, till the last extremity, not to reveal the assistant, which signifies properly one that assists or names of his confederates : it is the common refuge



of all robbers and desperate characters to betray their “The history of mankind informs us that a single accomplices in order to screen themselves from punish- power is very seldom broken by a confederacy.' Johnment; Now march the bold confeďrates through the plain,

Confederacy is always taken in a civil or political Well hors’d, well clad, a rich and shining train. sense : alliance and league are sometimes employed

DRYDEN. in a moral sense: the former being applied to mar• It is not improbable that the Lady Mason (the riage, the latter to plots or factions. Alliance is taken grandmother of Savage) might persuade or compel his only in a good acceptation ; league and confederacy mother to desist, or perhaps she could not easily find frequently in relation to that which is bad. Alliances

are formed for the mutual advantage of the parties conaccomplices wicked enough to concur in so cruel an action, as that of banishing him to the American cerned; "Though domestic misery must follow an plantations.' Johnson.

alliance with a gamester, matches of this sort are made every day.' CUMBERLAND. Leagues may have plunder for their object, and confederacies may be


Tiger with tiger, bear with bear, you'll find

In leagues offensive and defensive join'd. TATE. . Alliance, in French alliance, from the Latin alligo to knit or tie together, signifies the moral state of

When Babel was confounded, and the great being tied; league, in French ligue, comes from the

Confederacy of projectors wild and vain

Was split into diversity of tongues, same verb ligo to bind; confederacy or confederation, Then, as a shepherd separates his flock, in Latin confederatio, from con and fædus an agree- These to the upland, to the valley those, ment, or fides faith, signifies a joining together under God drave asunder. CowPER. a certain pledge.

* Relationship, friendship, the advantages of a good understanding, the prospect of aid in case of necessity, are the ordinary motives for forming alliances.

ALLIANCE, AFFINITY. A league is a union of plan, and a junction of force,

Alliance, o. Alliance, league ; affinity, in Latin for the purpose of effectuating some common enterprize, or obtaining some common object. A confe affinitas, from af or ad and finis a border," signifies a

contiguity of borders. deracy is a union of interest and support on particular Alliance is artificial; affinity is natural: an allioccasions, for the purpose of obtaining a redress of

ance is formed either by persons or by circumstances ; supposed wrong, or of defending right against usurpa

an affinity exists of itself: an alliance subsists betion and oppression. Treaties of alliance are formed between sovereigns; things figuratively'; Religion (in England) has main

tween persons only in the proper sense, and between it is a union of friendship and convenience concluded

tained a proper alliance with the state.' BLAIR. An upon precise terms, and maintained by honor or good affinity exists between things as well as persons ; '. It faith. Leagues are mostly formed between parties or

cannot be doubted but that signs were invented originsmall communities ; as they are occasioned by circum- ally to express the several occupations of their owners; stances of an imperative nature; they are in this and to bear some affinity, in their external designamanner rendered binding on each party. Confedera- tions, with the wares to be disposed of.' BATHURST. cies are formed between individuals or communities;

The alliance between families is matrimonial ; they continue while the impelling cause that set them in motion remains; and every individual is bound

O horror! horror! after this alliance more by a common feeling of safety, than by any ex

Let tigers match with hinds, and wolves with sheep,

And every creature couple with its foe. DRYDEN. press contract.

History mentions frequent alliances which have The affinity arises from consanguinity.
been formed between the courts of England and Por-

Who but a fool would wars with Juno choose,
And such alliances and such gifts refuse? DRYDEN.

BAND, COMPANY, CREW, GANG. The cantons of Switzerland were bound to each other

Band, in French bande, in German, &c. band from by a famous league, which was denominated the Hel- binden to bind, signifies the thing bound; company, vetic league, and which took its rise in a confederacy v. To accompany; crew, from the French cru, parformed against the Austrian government by William ticiple of croitre, and the Latin cresco to grow or Tell and his companions ;

gather, signifies the thing grown or formed into a Rather in leagues of endless peace unite,

mass ; gang, in Saxon, German, &c. gang a walk, And celebrate the hymeneal rite. AVDISON.

from gehen to go, signifies a body going the same way.

* Vide Girard and Roubaud : “ Alliance, ligue, confederation."

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All these terms denote a small association for a par

ACCOMPANIMENT, COMPANION, , ticular object: a band is an association where men are bound together by some strong obligation, whether

CONCOMITANT. taken in a good or bad sense, as a band of soldiers, a band of robbers ;

Accompaniment is properly a collective term to ex

press what goes in company, and is applied only to Behold a ghastly band

things; companion, which also signifies what is in the Each a torch in his hand !

company, is applied either to persons or to things; These are Grecian ghosts that in battle were slain, And unbury'd remain,

concomitant, from the intensive syllable con and comes Inglorious in the plain. DRYDEN.

a companion, implies what is attached to an object, or

goes in its train, and is applied only to things. A company marks an association for convenience with- When said in relation to things, accompaniment out any particular obligation, as a company of travel- implies a necessary connexion ; companion an incilers, a company of strolling players ; Chaucer sup- dental connexion : 'the former is as a part to a whole, poses in his prologue to his tales that a company of the latter is as one whole to another : the accompanipilgrims going to Canterbury assemble at an Inn in ment belongs to the thing accompanied, inasmuch as it Southwark, and agree that for their common amuse- serves to render it more or less complete ; the compament on the road each of them shall tell at least one nion belongs to the thing accompanied, inasmuch as tale in going to Canterbury, and another in coming they correspond : in this manner singing is an accomback from thence.' TYRWHIT.

paniment in instrumental music ; subordinate cereCrew marks an association collected together by monies are the accompaniments in any solemn service; some external power, or by coincidence of plan and · We may well believe that the ancient heathen bards, motive; in the former case it is used for a ship's crew ; who were chiefly Asiatic Greeks, performed religious in the latter and bad sense of the word it is employed rites and ceremonies in metre with accompaniments of for any number of evil-minded persons met together music, to which they were devoted in the extreme." from different quarters, and co-operating for some bad CUMBERLAND. A picture may be the companion of purpose ;

another picture from their fitness to stand together; The clowns, a boist'rous, rude, ungovern'd crew,

Alas, my soul! thou pleasing companion of this With furious haste to the loud summons flew.

body, thou fleeting thing that art now deserting it, DRYDEN. whither art thou flying ?' STEELE.

The concomitant is as much of an appendage as the Gang is mostly used in a bad sense for an associa- accompaniment, but it is applied only to moral obtion of thieves, murderers, and depredators in general ; jects : thus morality is a concomitant to religion ; As for such an association is rather a casual meeting from the beauty of the body accompanies the health of it, the similarity of pursuits, than an organized body so certainly is decency concomitant to virtue.' HUGHES. under


leader; it is more in common use than band : the robbers in Germany used to form themselves into bands that set the government of the country at defiance: housebreakers and pickpockets commonly associate now in gangs ;


Others again who form a gang,
Yet take due measures not to hang ;

Accompany, in French accompagner, is compounded In magazines their forces join,

of ac or ad and compagner, in Latin compagino to By legal methods to purloin. Mallet.

put or join together, signifying to give one's company and presence to any object, to join one's self to its company; attend, in French attendre, compounded of at or ad and tendo to tend or incline towards, sig

nifies to direct one's notice or care towards any object; TROOP, COMPANY.

escort, in French escorter, from the Latin cohors a

cohort or band of soldiers that attended a magistrate In a military sense a troop is among the horse what on his going into a province, signifies to accompany a company is among the foot; but this is only a by way of safeguard. partial acceptation of the terms. Troop, in French We accompany * those with whom we wish to troupe, Spanish tropa, Latin turba, signifies an in- go; we attend those whom we wish to serve; we discriminate multitude ; company (v. To accompany) escort those whom we are called upon to protect or is any number joined together, and bearing each other guard. We accompany our equals, we attend our company: hence we speak of a troop of hunters, a superiors, and escort superiors or inferiors. The decompany of players ; a troop of horsemen, a company sire of pleasing or being pleased actuates in the first of travellers.

case; the desire of serving or being served, in the

* Vide Girard : “ Accompagner, escorter."


second case ; the fear of danger or the desire of secu- patient in order to afford him assistance as occasion rity, in the last place.

requires ; the servant waits on him to perform the One is said to have a nnmerous company, a crowd menial duties. Attendants about the great are always of attendants, and a strong escort; but otherwise near the person; but men and women in waiting are one person only may accompany or attend, though always at call. People of rank and fashion have a several are wanting for an escort. Friends accompany crowd of attendants ; each other in their excursions; "This account in some

At length her lord descends upon the plain measure excited our curiosity, and at the entreaty of

In pomp, attended with a num'rous train. DRYDEN. the ladies I was prevailed upon to accompany them to the playhouse, which was no other than a barn.' Those of the middle classes have only those who wait GOLDSMITH. Princes are attended with a consider- on them; One of Pope's constant demands was of able retinue whenever they appear in public, and with coffee in the night; and to the woman that waited on a strong escort when they travel through unfrequented him in his chamber he was very burdensome; but he and dangerous roads; • When the Marquis of Whar- was careful to recompense her want of sleep.' JOHNSON. ton was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Addison attended him as his secretary.' Johnson. Creüsa the wife of Æneas accompanied her husband on his leaving Troy ; Socrates was attended by a number of

PROCESSION, TRAIN, RETINUE. illustrious pupils, whom he instructed by his example Procession, from the verb proceed, signifies the and his doctrines ; St. Paul was escorted as a prisoner act of going forward or before, that is, in the present by a band of three hundred men ; • He very pru- instance, of going before others, or one before another; dently called up four or five of the ostlers that be train in all probability comes from the Latin traho to longed to the yard, and engaged them to enlist under draw, signifying the thing drawn after another, and his command as an escort to the coach.' HAWKES- in the present instance the persons who are led after,

or follow, any object; retinue, from the verb to retain, Accompany and attend may likewise be said of per- signifies those who are retained as attendants. sons as well as things. In this case the former is All these terms are said of any number of persons applied to what goes with an object so as to form a who follow in a certain order ; but this, which is the part of it; the latter to that which follows an object leading idea in the word procession, is but collateral as a dependant upon it ; • The old English plainness in the terms train and retinue : on the other hand, and sincerity, that generous integrity of nature and the procession may consist of persons of all ranks and honesty of disposition, which always argues true great stations ; but the train and retinue apply only to such ness of mind, and is usually accompanied with un- as follow some person or thing in a subordinate capadaunted courage and resolution, is in a great measure city: the former in regard to such as make up the lost among us.' TILLOTSON.

Humility lodged in a concluding part of some procession; the latter only worthy mind is always attended with a certain homage, in regard to the servants or attendants on the great. which no haughty soul, with all the arts imaginable, At funerals there is frequently a long train of coaches can purchase.' Hughes. Pride is often accompanied belonging to the friends of the deceased, which close with meanness, and attended with much inconvenience the procession ; princes and nobles never go out on to the possessor ; The practice of religion will not state or public occasions, without a numerous retinue. only be attended with that pleasure which naturally The beauty of every procession consists in the order accompanies those actions to which we are habituated, with which every one keeps his place, and the regubut with those supernumerary joys that rise from the larity with which the whole goes forward ; consciousness of such a pleasure.' ADDISON. Attend (v. To attend to) is here employed in the

And now the priests, Potitius at their head,

In skins of beasts involv’d, the long procession led. improper sense for the devotion of the person to an

DRYDEN. object. To wait on is the same as to wait for or expect the wishes of another.

The length of the train is what renders it most worthy Attendance is an act of obligation ; waiting on,

of notice; that of choice. A physician attends his patient; a

My train are men of choice and rarest parts, member attends in parliament: one gentleman waits

That in the most exact regard support

SHAKSPEARE. on another.

The worships of their names. We attend a person at the time and place appointed; we wait on those with whom we Train is also applied to other objects besides persons ; wish to speak. Those who dance attendance on the

The moon, and all the starry train, great must expect every mortification; it is wiser there

Hung the vast vault of heav'n. Gay. fore only to wait on those by whom we can be received upon terms of equality.

The number of the retinue in eastern nations is one Attend and wait on are likewise used for being criterion by which the wealth of the individual is estiabout the



any one: to attend is to bear mated ; company or be in readiness to serve; to wait on is

Him and his sleeping slaves, he slew; then spies actually to perform some service. A nurse attends a Where Remus with his rich retinue lies. DRYDEN.

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