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An assembly (v. To assemble, muster) is. simply the assembling together of any number of persons, or the persons so assembled: this idea is common to all the rest of these terms, which differ in the object, mode, and other collateral circumstances of the action; company, a body linked together (v. To accompany), is an assembly for purposes of amusement; meeting, a body met together, is an assembly for general purposes of business; congregation, a body flocked or gathered together, from the Latin grew a flock, is an assembly brought together from congeniality of sentiment, and community of purpose; parliament, in French parlement, from parler to speak, signifies an assembly for speaking or debating on important matters; diet, from the Greek daráw to govern, is an assembly for governing or regulating affairs of state; congress, from the Latin congredior to march in a body, is an assembly coming together in a formal manner from distant parts for special purposes; convention, from the Latin convenio to come together, is an assembly coming together in an unformal and promiscuous manner from a neighbouring quarter; synod, in Greek úvodos, compounded of our and odos, signifies literally going the same road, and has been employed to signify an assembly for consultation on matters of religion; convocation is an assembly convoked for an especial purpose; council is an assembly for consultation either on civil or ecclesiastical affairs.


An assembly is, in its restricted sense, public, and under certain regulations; Lucan was so exasperated with the repulse, that he muttered something to himself, and was heard to say, "that since he could not have a seat among them himself, he would bring in one who alone had more merit than their whole assembly;" upon which he went to the door and brought in Cato of Utica.' ADDISON. A company is private, and confined to friends and acquaintances; As I am insignificant to the company in public places, and as it is visible I do not come thither as most do to show myself, I gratify the vanity of all who pretend to make an appearance.' STEELE. A meeting is either public or private a congregation is always public. Meetings are held by all who have any common business to arrange or pleasure to enjoy; It is very natural for a man who is not turned for mirthful meetings of men, or assemblies of the fair sex, to delight in that sort of conversation which we meet with in coffee-houses.' STEELE. A congregation in its limited sense consists of those who follow the same form of doctrine and discipline; As all innocent means are to be used for the propagation of truth, I would not deter those who are employed in preaching to common congregations from any practice which they may find persuasive.' JOHNSON. But the term may be extended to bodies either

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of men or brutes congregated for some common purpose;

Their tribes adjusted, clean'd their vig'rous wings,
And many a circle, many a short essay,
Wheel'd round and round: in congregation full
The figur'd flight ascends. THOMSON.

All these different kinds of assemblies are formed by individuals in their private capacity; the other terms designate assemblies that come together for national purposes, with the exception of the word convention, which may be either domestic or political.


A parliament and diet are popular assemblies under monarchical form of government; congress and convention are assemblies under a republican government: of the first description are the parliaments of England and France, the diets of Germany and Poland, which consisted of subjects assembled by the monarch, to deliberate on the affairs of the nation;

The word parliament was first applied to general assemblies of the states under Louis VII. in France, about the middle of the twelfth century.' BLACKSTONE. What further provoked their indignation was that instead of twenty-five pistoles formerly allowed to each member for their charge in coming to the diet, he had presented them with six only.' STEELE. Of the latter description are the congress of the United Provinces of Holland, and that of the United States of America, and the late national convention of France: but there is this difference observable between a congress and a convention, that the former consists of deputies or delegates from higher authorities, that is, from independent governments already established; but a convention is a self-constituted assembly, which has no power but what it assumes to itself; Prior had not, however, much reason to complain: for he came to London, and obtained such notice, that (in 1691) he was sent to the congress at the Hague, as secretary to the embassy.' JOHNSON. 'The office of conservators of the peace was newly erected in Scotland; and these, instigated by the clergy, were resolved, since they could not obtain the king's consent, to summon in his name, but by their own authority, a convention of states.' HUME.

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A synod and convocation are in religious matters what a diet and convention are in civil matters: the former exist only under an episcopal form of government; the latter may exist under any form of church discipline, even where the authority lies in the whole body of the ministry; A synod of the celestials was convened, in which it was resolved that patronage should descend to the assistance of the sciences." JOHNSON. The convocation is the miniature of a parliament, wherein the archbishop presides with regal state.' BLACKSTONE.

A council is more important than all other species of assembly; it consists of persons invested with the highest authority, who, in their consultations, do not so much transact ordinary concerns, as arrange the forms and fashions of things. Religious councils used

to determine matters of faith and discipline; political councils frame laws and determine the fate of empires;

Inspir'd by Juno, Thetis' godlike son
Conven'd to council all the Grecian train. POPE.


Guest, from the Northern languages, signifies one who is entertained; visitor is the one who pays the visit. The guest is to the visitor as a species to the genus: every guest is a visitor, but every visitor is not a guest. The visitor simply comes to see the person, and enjoy social intercourse; but the guest also partakes of hospitality. We are visitors at the tea-table, at the card-table, and round the fire; we are guests at the festive board;

Some great behest from heav'n
To us perhaps he brings, and will vouchsafe
This day to be our guest. MILTON.

No palace with a lofty gate he wants,
T' admit the tides of early visitants. DRYDEN.


Colleague, in French collégue, Latin collega, compounded of col or con and legatus sent, signifies sent or employed upon the same business; partner, from the word part, signifies one having a part or share.

Colleague is more noble than partner: men in the highest offices are colleagues; tradesmen, mechanics, and subordinate persons, are partners: every Roman Consul had a colleague; every workman has commonly a partner.

Colleague is used only with regard to community of office; partner is most generally used with regard to community of interest: whenever two persons are employed to act together on the same business they stand in the relation of colleagues to each other; whenever two persons unite their endeavours either in trade or in games they are denominated partners: ministers, judges, commissioners, and plenipotentiaries, are colleagues;

But from this day's decision, from the choice
Of his first colleagues, shall succeeding times
Of Edward judge, and on his fame pronounce.


takes a part; the latter being mostly in a subordinate station, but the former is an equal.

And lo! sad partner of the general care,

Weary and faint I drive my goats afar. WARTON. Coadjutor, compounded of co or con and adjutor a helper, signifying a fellow laborer, is more noble than assistant, which signifies properly one that assists or


The assistant performs menial offices in the minor concerns of life, and a subordinate part at all times; the coadjutor labors conjointly in some concern of common interest and great importance. An assistant is engaged for a compensation; a coadjutor is a voluntary fellow-laborer. In every public concern where the purposes of charity or religion are to be promoted, coadjutors often effect more than the original promoters; Advices from Vienna import that the Archbishop of Saltzburg is dead, who is succeeded by Count Harrach, formerly Bishop of Vienna, and for these three last years coadjutor to the said Archbishop.' STEELE. In the medical and scholastic professions assistants are indispensable to relieve the pressure of business; As for you, gentlemen and ladies, my assistants and grand juries, I have made choice of you on my right hand, because I know you to be very jealous of your honour; and you on my left, because I know you are very much concerned for the reputation of others.' ADDISON. Coadjutors ought to be zealous and unanimous; assistants ought to be assiduous and faithful.



Although the terms ally and confederate are derived from the words alliance and confederacy (v. Alliance), they are used only in part of their acceptations.

An ally is one who forms an alliance in the political sense; a confederate is one who forms confederacies in general, but more particularly when such confede

racies are unauthorised.

Confederate and accomplice both imply a partner Bankers, merchants, chess-players, card-players, and in some proceeding, but they differ as to the nature of the like, have partners; the proceeding in the former case it may be lawful or unlawful; in the latter unlawful only. In this latter sense a confederate is a partner in a plot or secret association: an accomplice is a partner in some active violation of the laws. Guy Fawkes retained his resolution, till the last extremity, not to reveal the names of his confederates: it is the common refuge.



The Portuguese and English are allies; We could hinder the accession of Holland to France, either as subjects with great immunities for the encouragement of trade, or as an inferior and dependant ally under their protection.' TEMPLE. William Tell had some few particular friends who were his confederates; Having learned by experience that they must expect a vigorous resistance from this warlike prince, they entered into an alliance with the Britons of Cornwall, and landing two years after in that country made an inroad with their confederates into the county of Devon.' HUME. This latter term is however used with more propriety in its worst sense, for an associate in a rebellious faction, as in speaking of Cromwell and his confederates who were concerned in the death of the king.

of all robbers and desperate characters to betray their accomplices in order to screen themselves from punishment;

Now march the bold confeď rates through the plain, Well hors'd, well clad, a rich and shining train. DRYDEN.


It is not improbable that the Lady Mason (the grandmother of Savage) might persuade or compel his mother to desist, or perhaps she could not easily find accomplices wicked enough to concur in so cruel an action, as that of banishing him to the American plantations.' JOHNSON.


Alliance, in French alliance, from the Latin alligo to knit or tie together, signifies the moral state of being tied; league, in French ligue, comes from the same verb ligo to bind; confederacy or confederation, in Latin confederatio, from con and fædus an agreement, or fides faith, signifies a joining together under a certain pledge.

* Relationship, friendship, the advantages of a good understanding, the prospect of aid in case of necessity, are the ordinary motives for forming alliances. A league is a union of plan, and a junction of force, for the purpose of effectuating some common enterprize, or obtaining some common object. A confederacy is a union of interest and support on particular occasions, for the purpose of obtaining a redress of supposed wrong, or of defending right against usurpation and oppression.

Treaties of alliance are formed between sovereigns; it is a union of friendship and convenience concluded upon precise terms, and maintained by honor or good faith. Leagues are mostly formed between parties or small communities; as they are occasioned by circumstances of an imperative nature; they are in this manner rendered binding on each party. Confederacies are formed between individuals or communities; they continue while the impelling cause that set them in motion remains; and every individual is bound more by a common feeling of safety, than by any express contract.

History mentions frequent alliances which have been formed between the courts of England and Portugal;

Who but a fool would wars with Juno choose, And such alliances and such gifts refuse? DRYDEN. The cantons of Switzerland were bound to each other by a famous league, which was denominated the Helvetic league, and which took its rise in a confederacy formed against the Austrian government by William Tell and his companions;

The history of mankind informs us that a single power is very seldom broken by a confederacy.' JOHN


Rather in leagues of endless peace unite,
And celebrate the hymeneal rite. ADDISON.

Confederacy is always taken in a civil or political sense: alliance and league are sometimes employed in a moral sense: the former being applied to marriage, the latter to plots or factions. Alliance is taken only in a good acceptation; league and confederacy frequently in relation to that which is bad. Alliances are formed for the mutual advantage of the parties concerned; Though domestic misery must follow an alliance with a gamester, matches of this sort are made every day. CUMBERLAND. Leagues may have plunder for their object, and confederacies may be treasonable;

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Tiger with tiger, bear with bear, you'll find
In leagues offensive and defensive join'd. TATE.
When Babel was confounded, and the great
Confederacy of projectors wild and vain
Was split into diversity of tongues,
Then, as a shepherd separates his flock,
These to the upland, to the valley those,
God drave asunder. CowPER.


Alliance, v. Alliance, league; affinity, in Latin affinitas, from af or ad and finis a border, signifies a contiguity of


Alliance is artificial; affinity is natural: an alliance is formed either by persons or by circumstances; an affinity exists of itself: an alliance subsists between persons only in the proper sense, and between things figuratively; Religion (in England) has maintained a proper alliance with the state.' BLAIR. An affinity exists between things as well as persons; "It cannot be doubted but that signs were invented originally to express the several occupations of their owners; and to bear some affinity, in their external designations, with the wares to be disposed of.' BATHURST. The alliance between families is matrimonial;

O horror! horror! after this alliance

Let tigers match with hinds, and wolves with sheep, And every creature couple with its foe. DRYden.

The affinity arises from consanguinity.


Band, in French bande, in German, &c. band from binden to bind, signifies the thing bound; company, v. To accompany; crew, from the French cru, participle of croitre, and the Latin cresco to grow or gather, signifies the thing grown or formed into a mass; gang, in Saxon, German, &c. gang a walk, from gehen to go, signifies a body going the same way.

* Vide Girard and Roubaud: "Alliance, ligue, confederation."

All these terms denote a small association for a particular object: a band is an association where men are bound together by some strong obligation, whether taken in a good or bad sense, as a band of soldiers, a band of robbers

Behold a ghastly band

Each a torch in his hand!

These are Grecian ghosts that in battle were slain,
And unbury'd remain,
Inglorious in the plain. DRYDEN.


A company marks an association for convenience without any particular obligation, as a company of travellers, a company of strolling players; Chaucer supposes in his prologue to his tales that a company of pilgrims going to Canterbury assemble at an Inn in Southwark, and agree that for their common amusement on the road each of them shall tell at least one tale in going to Canterbury, and another in coming back from thence.' TYRWHIT.

Crew marks an association collected together by some external power, or by coincidence of plan and motive; in the former case it is used for a ship's crew; in the latter and bad sense of the word it is employed for any number of evil-minded persons met together from different quarters, and co-operating for some bad


The clowns, a boist'rous, rude, ungovern'd crew,
With furious haste to the loud summons flew.

Gang is mostly used in a bad sense for an association of thieves, murderers, and depredators in general; for such an association is rather a casual meeting from the similarity of pursuits, than an organized body under any leader; it is more in common use than band: the robbers in Germany used to form themselves into bands that set the government of the country at defiance: housebreakers and pickpockets commonly associate now in gangs;

Others again who form a gang,

Yet take due measures not to hang;

In magazines their forces join,

By legal methods to purloin. MALLET.


In a military sense a troop is among the horse what a company is among the foot; but this is only a partial acceptation of the terms. Troop, in French troupe, Spanish tropa, Latin turba, signifies an indiscriminate multitude; company (v. To accompany) is any number joined together, and bearing each other company: hence we speak of a troop of hunters, a company of players; a troop of horsemen, a company of travellers.



Accompaniment is properly a collective term to express what goes in company, and is applied only to things; companion, which also signifies what is in the company, is applied either to persons or to things; concomitant, from the intensive syllable con and comes a companion, implies what is attached to an object, or goes in its train, and is applied only to things.

When said in relation to things, accompaniment implies a necessary connexion; companion an incidental connexion: the former is as a part to a whole, the latter is as one whole to another: the accompaniment belongs to the thing accompanied, inasmuch as it serves to render it more or less complete; the companion belongs to the thing accompanied, inasmuch as they correspond: in this manner singing is an accompaniment in instrumental music; subordinate ceremonies are the accompaniments in any solemn service; • We may well believe that the ancient heathen bards, who were chiefly Asiatic Greeks, performed religious rites and ceremonies in metre with accompaniments of music, to which they were devoted in the extreme.' CUMBERLAND. A picture may be the companion of another picture from their fitness to stand together;

Alas, my soul! thou pleasing companion of this body, thou fleeting thing that art now deserting it, whither art thou flying? STEELE.

• As

The concomitant is as much of an appendage as the accompaniment, but it is applied only to moral objects: thus morality is a concomitant to religion; the beauty of the body accompanies the health of it, so certainly is decency concomitant to virtue.' HUGhes.

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Accompany, in French accompagner, is compounded of ac or ad and compagner, in Latin compagino to put or join together, signifying to give one's company and presence to any object, to join one's self to its company; attend, in French attendre, compounded of at or ad and tendo to tend or incline towards, signifies to direct one's notice or care towards any object; escort, in French escorter, from the Latin cohors a cohort or band of soldiers that attended a magistrate on his going into a province, signifies to accompany by way of safeguard.

We accompany * those with whom we wish to go; we attend those who we wish to serve; we escort those whom we are called upon to protect or guard. We accompany our equals, we attend our superiors, and escort superiors or inferiors. The desire of pleasing or being pleased actuates in the first case; the desire of serving or being served, in the * Vide Girard: "Accompagner, escorter."


second case; the fear of danger or the desire of security, in the last place.


One is said to have a nnmerous company, a crowd of attendants, and a strong escort; but otherwise one person only may accompany or attend, though several are wanting for an escort. Friends accompany each other in their excursions; This account in some measure excited our curiosity, and at the entreaty of the ladies I was prevailed upon to accompany them to the playhouse, which was no other than a barn.' GOLDSMITH. Princes are attended with a considerable retinue whenever they appear in public, and with a strong escort when they travel through unfrequented and dangerous roads; When the Marquis of Wharton was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Addison attended him as his secretary.' JOHNSON. Creüsa the wife of Æneas accompanied her husband on his leaving Troy; Socrates was attended by a number of illustrious pupils, whom he instructed by his example and his doctrines; St. Paul was escorted as a prisoner by a band of three hundred men; 'He very prudently called up four or five of the ostlers that belonged to the yard, and engaged them to enlist under his command as an escort to the coach.' HAWKES



Accompany and attend may likewise be said of persons as well as things. In this case the former is applied to what goes with an object so as to form a part of it; the latter to that which follows an object as a dependant upon it; The old English plainness and sincerity, that generous integrity of nature and honesty of disposition, which always argues true greatness of mind, and is usually accompanied with undaunted courage and resolution, is in a great measure lost among us. TILLOTSON. Humility lodged in a worthy mind is always attended with a certain homage, which no haughty soul, with all the arts imaginable, can purchase. HUGHES. Pride is often accompanied with meanness, and attended with much inconvenience to the possessor; The practice of religion will not only be attended with that pleasure which naturally accompanies those actions to which we are habituated, but with those supernumerary joys that rise from the consciousness of such a pleasure.' ADDISON.

Attend (v. To attend to) is here employed in the improper sense for the devotion of the person to an object. To wait on is the same as to wait for or expect the wishes of another.

patient in order to afford him assistance as occasion requires; the servant waits on him to perform the menial duties. Attendants about the great are always near the person; but men and women in waiting are always at call. People of rank and fashion have a crowd of attendants;

Attendance is an act of obligation; waiting on, that of choice. A physician attends his patient; a member attends in parliament: one gentleman waits on another. We attend a person at the time and place appointed; we wait on those with whom we wish to speak. Those who dance attendance on the great must expect every mortification; it is wiser therefore only to wait on those by whom we can be received upon terms of equality.

Attend and wait on are likewise used for being about the person of any one: to attend is to bear company or be in readiness to serve; to wait on is actually to perform some service. A nurse attends a

At length her lord descends upon the plain In pomp, attended with a num'rous train. DRYDEN. Those of the middle classes have only those who wait on them; 'One of Pope's constant demands was of coffee in the night; and to the woman that waited on him in his chamber he was very burdensome; but he was careful to recompense her want of sleep.' JOHNSON.


Procession, from the verb proceed, signifies the act of going forward or before, that is, in the present instance, of going before others, or one before another; train in all probability comes from the Latin traho to draw, signifying the thing drawn after another, and in the present instance the persons who are led after, or follow, any object; retinue, from the verb to retain, signifies those who are retained as attendants.

All these terms are said of number of persons any who follow in a certain order; but this, which is the leading idea in the word procession, is but collateral in the terms train and retinue: on the other hand, the procession may consist of persons of all ranks and stations; but the train and retinue apply only to such as follow some person or thing in a subordinate capacity: the former in regard to such as make up the concluding part of some procession; the latter only in regard to the servants or attendants on the great. At funerals there is frequently a long train of coaches belonging to the friends of the deceased, which close the procession; princes and nobles never go out on state or public occasions, without a numerous retinue.

The beauty of every procession consists in the order with which every one keeps his place, and the regugoes forward; larity with which the whole

And now the priests, Potitius at their head,

In skins of beasts involv'd, the long procession led. DRYDEN.

The length of the train is what renders it most worthy of notice;

My train are men of choice and rarest parts,
That in the most exact regard support
The worships of their names.


Train is also applied to other objects besides persons ;

The moon, and all the starry train, Hung the vast vault of heav'n. GAY.

The number of the retinue in eastern nations is one

criterion by which the wealth of the individual is estimated;

Him and his sleeping slaves, he slew; then spies Where Remus with his rich retinue lies. DRYDEN.

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