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connect, from the Latin connecto, compounded of

TO AFFIX, SUBJOIN, ATTACH, ANNEX.' con and necto, signifying to knit together, is more remote than to combine (v. Association), and this than Affix, in Latin affixus, participle of affigo, comto unite (v. To add).

pounded of af or ad and figo to fix, signifies to fix to What is connected and combined remains distinct, à thing ; subjoin is compounded of sub and join, but what is united loses all individuality.

signifying to join to the lower or farther extremity of a Things the most dissimilar may be connected or body; attach, v. To adhere ; annex, in Latin ancombined; things of the same kind only can be nerus, participle of annecto, compounded of an or united.

ad and necto to knit, signifies to knit or tie to a thing. Things or persons are connected more or less re- To affix is to put any thing as an essential to any motely by some common property or circumstance that whole ; to subjoin is to put any thing as a subordinate serves as a tie ; 'A right opinion is that which con- part to a whole: in the former case the part to which nects distant truths by the shortest train of interme- it is put is not specified ; in the latter the syllable sub diate propositions. Johnson. Things or persons are specifies the extremity as the part: to attach is to combined by a species of juncture; · Fancy can com

make one thing adhere to another as an accompanibine the ideas which memory has treasured.' HAWKES- ment; to annex is to bring things into a general con

Things or persons are united by a coalition; nexion with each other. "A friend is he with whom our interest is united.' A title is affixed to a book; a few lines are subHAWKESWORTH. Houses are connected by means of joined to a letter by way of postscript; we attach a common passage; the armies of two nations are blame to a person ; a certain territory is annexed to a combined; two armies of the same nation are kingdom. united.

Letters are affixed to words in order to modify their Trade, marriage, or general intercourse, create a sense, or names are affixed to ideas; He that has connexion between individuals ; co-operation or simi- settled in his mind determined ideas, with names larity of tendency are grounds for combination ; entire affixed to them, will be able to discern their differaccordance leads to a union. It is dangerous to be ences one from another.' LOCKE. It is necessary to connected with the wicked in any way; our reputation, subjoin remarks to what requires illustration ; . In if not our morals, must be the sufferers thereby. The justice to the opinion which I would wish to impress most obnoxious members of society are those in whom of the amiable character of Pisistratus, I subjoin to wealth, talents, influence, and a lawless ambition, are this paper some explanation of the word tyrant.' combined. United is an epithet that should apply CUMBERLAND. We are apt from prejudice or partiequally to nations and families; the same obedience cular circumstances to attach disgrace to certain proto laws should regulate every man who lives under the fessions, which are not only useful but important; same government; the same heart should animate • As our nature is at present constituted, attached by every breast; the same spirit should dictate every so many strong connexions to the world of sense, and action of every member in the community, who has a enjoying a communication so feeble and distant with common interest in the preservation of the whole. the world of spirits, we need fear no danger from cul

tivating intercourse with the latter as much as possible.

BLAIR. Papers are annexed by way of appendix to CONNECTED, RELATED.

some important transaction.

It is improper to affix opprobrious epithets to any Connected, v. To connect ; related, from relate, in community of persons on account of their calling Latin relatus, participle of refero to bring back, sig- in life. Men are not always scrupulous about the nifies brought back to the same point.

means of attaching others to their interest, when their These terms are employed in the moral sense, to

ambitious views are to be forwarded. Every station in express an affinity between subjects or matters of life, above that of extreme indigence, has certain prithought.

vileges annexed to it, but none greater than those Connexion marks affinity in an indefinite manner;

which are enjoyed by the middling classes ; "The * It is odd to consider the connexion between despotism evils inseparably annexed to the present condition are and barbarity, and how the making one person more

numerous and afflictive.' JOHNSON. than man, makes the rest less.' ADDISON. Relation denotes affinity in a specific manner; “All mankind are so related, that care is to be taken in things to

TO STICK, CLEAVE, ADHERE. which all are liable, you do not mention what concerns one in terms which shall disgust another.' STEELE. A Stick, in Saxon stican, Low German steken, is connexion may be either close or remote; a relation connected with the Latin stigo, Greek súyw to prick; direct or indirect. What is connected has some com- cleave, in Saxon cleofen, Low German kliven, Danish mon principle on which it depends ; what is related klaeve, is connected with our words glue and lime, in has some likeness with the object to which it is re- Latin gluten, Greek worra lime; adhere, v. To lated; it is a part of some whole.


To stick, expresses more than to cleave, and cleave than adhere : things are made to stick either by inci

TO ADDUCE, ALLEDGE, ASSIGN, sion into the substance, or through the intervention of

ADVANCE. some glutinous matter; they are made to cleave and adhere by the intervention of some foreign body:

Adduce, in Latin adduco, compounded of ad and

duco to lead, signifies to bring forwards, or for a what sticks, therefore, becomes so fast joined as to

thing; alledge, in French alleguer, in Latin allego, render the bodies inseparable; what cleaves and adheres is less tightly bound, and more easily separable.

compounded of al or ad and lego, in Greek aéw to Two pieces of clay will stick together by the in- speak, signifies to speak for a thing; assign, in

French assigner, Latin assigno, compounded of as corporation of the substance in the two parts ; paper is made to stick to paper by means of glue: the

or ad and signo to sign or mark out, signifies to set tongue in a certain state will cleave to the roof of the

apart for a purpose ; advance comes from the Latin

advenio, compounded of ad and venio to come, or mouth : paste, or even occasional moisture, will make soft substances adhere to each other, or to hard bodies.

cause to come, signifying to bring forward a thing. Animals stick to bodies by means of their claws; per

An argument is adduced ; a fact or a charge is alsons in the moral sense cleave to each other by never

ledged ; a reason is assigned; a position or an opi

nion is advanced. What is adduced tends to corroparting company: and they adhere to each other by

borate or invalidate; I have said that Celsus adduces uniting their interests. Stick is employed for the most part on familiar sub

neither oral nor written authority against Christ's

miracles.' CUMBERLAND. What is alledged tends to jects, but is sometimes applied to moral objects;

criminate or exculpate; · The criminal alledged in his Adieu then, O my soul's far better part,

defence, that what he had done was to raise mirth, Thy image sticks so close

and to avoid ceremony.' ADDISON. What is assigned That the blood follows from my rending heart.

tends to justify; If we consider what providential DRYDEN.

reasons may be assigned for these three particulars, Cleave and adhere are peculiarly proper in the moral we shall find that the numbers of the Jews, their disacceptation;

persion and adherence to their religion, have furnished Gold and his gains no more employ his mind,

every age, and every nation of the world, with the But, driving o'er the billows with the wind,

strongest arguments for the Christian faith.' Addison. Cleaves to one faithful plank, and leaves the rest behind.

What is advanced tends to explain and illustrate ; Rowe.

I have heard of one that, having advanced some That there's a God from nature's voice is clear ;

erroneous doctrines of philosophy, refused to see the And yet, what errors to this truth adhere? JENYNS. experiments by which they were confuted.' Johnson.

Whoever discusses disputed points must have arguments to adduce in favor of his principles : censures

should not be passed where nothing improper can be FOLLOWER, ADHERENT, PARTISAN. alledged: a conduct is absurd for which no reason can A follower is one who follows a person generally;

be assigned: those who advance what they cannot

maintain an adherent is one who adheres to his cause ; a parti

expose their ignorance as much as their folly.

The reasoner adduces facts in proof of what he has san is the follower of a party : the follower follows

advanced. The accuser alledges circumstances in either the person, the interests, or the principles of support of his charge. The philosophical investigator any one; thus the retinue of a nobleman, or the

assigns causes for particular phenomena. friends of a statesman, or the friends of


We may controvert what is adduced or advanced ; opinions, may be styled his followers ;

we may deny what is alledged, and question what is The mournful followers, with assistant care,

assigned The groaning hero to his chariot bear. Pope. The adherent is that kind of follower who espouses

TO ADHERE, ATTACH. the interests of another, as the adherents of Charles I;

With Addison, the wits, his adherents and fol- Adhere, from the French adherer, Latin adhæreo, lowers, were certain to concur.' Johnson. A follower is compounded of ad and hæreo to stick close to; follows near or at a distance; but the adherent is attach, in French attacher, is compounded of at or always near at hand; the partisan hangs on or keeps ad and tach or touch, both which come from the at a certain distance: the follower follows from various Latin tango to touch, signifying to come so near as motives; the adherent adheres from a personal mo- to touch. tive; the partisan, from a partial motive; · They A thing is adherent by the union which nature pro(the Jacobins) then proceed in argument as if all those duces; it is attached by arbitrary ties which keep it who disapprove of their new abuses must of course be close to another thing. Glutinous bodies are apt to partisans of the old.' BURKE. Charles I. had as

adhere to every thing they touch: a smaller building many adherents as he had followers ; the rebels had is sometimes attached to a larger by a passage, or some as many partisans as they had adherents.

other mode of communication.


What adheres to a thing is closely joined to its out- STEELE. Lands are adjacent to a house or a town; ward surface; but what is attached may be fastened fields are adjoining to each other; houses contiguous to it by the intervention of a third body. There is an to each other. universal adhesion in all the particles of matter one to another : the sails of a vessel are attached to a mast by means of ropes; The play which this pathetic

EPITHET, ADJECTIVE. prologue was attached to was a comedy, in which Laberius took the character of a slave.' CUMBERLAND.

Epithet is the technical term of the rhetorician ; In a figurative sense the analogy is kept up in the

adjective that of the grammarian. The same word is use of these two words. Adherence is a mode of con

an epithet as it qualifies the sense; it is an adjective duct; attachment a state of feeling. We adhere to

as it is a part of speech : thus in the phrase - Alexopinions which we are determined not to renounce;

ander the great great is an epithet inasmuch as it de• The firm adherence of the Jews to their religion is

signates Alexander in distinction from all other perno less remarkable than their numbers and dispersion.'

sons : it is an adjective as it expresses a quality in Addison. We are attached to opinions for which our

distinction from the noun Alexander, which denotes a feelings are strongly prepossessed. It is the character thing. The epithet éxibetov is the word added by way of obstinacy to adhere to a line of conduct after it is

of ornament to the diction; the adjective, from adjecproved to be injurious : some persons are not to be

tivum, is the word added to the noun as its appendattached by the ordinary ties of relationship or friend

age, and made subservient to it in all its inflections. ship; · The conqueror seems to have been fully ap

When we are estimating the merits of any one's style prized of the strength which the new government might derive from a clergy more closely attached to himself.'

or composition, we should speak of the epithets he

uses ; when we are talking of words, their dependenTYRWHITT.

cies, and relations, we should speak of adjectives : an epithet is either gentle or harsh, an adjective is

either a noun or a pronoun adjective. ADHESION, ADHERENCE.

All adjectives are epithets, but all epithets are not These terms are both derived from the verb adhere, is an epithet, but not an adjective.

adjectives ; thus in Virgil's Pater Æneas, the pater one expressing the proper or figurative sense, and the other the moral sense or acceptation.

There is a power of adhesion in all glutinous bodies; We suffer equal pain from the pertinacious adhesion of unwelcome images, as from the evanes

TO ABSTRACT, SEPARATE, cence of those which are pleasing and useful.' JOHN

DISTINGUISH. There is a disposition for adherence in steady minds ; “Shakspeare's adherence to general nature has Abstract, v. Absent ; separate, in Latin separatus, exposed him to the censure of criticks, who form their participle of separo, is compounded of se and paro to judgements upon narrower principles. Johnson.

dispose apart, signifying to put things asunder, or at a distance from each other; distinguish, in French distinguer, Latin distinguo, is compounded of the

separative preposition dis and tingo to tinge or color, ADJACENT, ADJOINING, CONTIGUOUS. signifying to give different marks by which they may

be known from each other. Adjacent, in Latin adjacens, participle of adjaceo, Abstract is used in the moral sense only : separate is compounded of ad and jaceo to lie near; adjoining, mostly in a physical sense: distinguish either in a as the words imply, signifies being joined together; moral or physical sense : we abstract what we wish to contiguous, in French contigu, Latin contiguus, regard particularly and individually; we separate comes from contingo or con and tango, signifying to what we wish not to be united; we distinguish what touch close.

we wish not to confound. The mind performs the What is adjacent may be separated altogether by office of abstraction for itself; separating and distinthe intervention of some third object; “They have guishing are exerted on external objects.* Arrangebeen beating up for volunteers at York, and the towns ment, place, time, and circumstances serve to sepaadjacent; but nobody will list.' GRANVILLE. What rate : the ideas formed of things, the outward marks, is adjoining must touch in some part ; * As he hap- attached to them, the qualities attributed to them, pens to have no estate adjoining equal to his own, his serve to distinguish. oppressions are often borne without resistance.' JOHN- By the operation of abstraction the mind creates

What is contiguous must be fitted to touch en- for itself a multitude of new ideas : in the act of tirely on one side ; . We arrived at the utmost boun- separation bodies are removed from each other by disdaries of a wood which lay contiguous to a plain. tance of place: in the act of distinguishing objects



* Vide Abbé Girard : “ Distinguer, separer."


are discovered to be similar or dissimilar. Qualities surface of several rocks, and immediately die upon are abstracted from the subjects in which they are in- their being severed from the place where they grow.? herent: countries are separated by mountains or seas : Addison. We may separate in part or entirely; we their inhabitants are distinguished by their dress, lan- sever entirely: we separate with or without violence ; guage, or manners. The mind is never less abstracted we sever with violence only: we may separate papers from one's friends than when separated from them by which have been pasted together, or fruits which have immense oceans : it requires a keen eye to distinguish grown together ; but the head is severed from the objects that bear a great resemblance to each other. body, or a branch from the trunk. There is the same Volatile persons easily abstract their minds from the distinction between these terms in their moral applicamost solemn scenes to fix them on trifling objects that tion; They (the French republicans) never have pass

before them • We ought to abstract our minds abandoned, and never will abandon, their old steady from the observation of an excellence in those we con- maxim of separating the people from their governverse with, till we have received some good informa- ment.' BURKE. tion of the disposition of their minds.' STEELE. An

Better I were distract unsocial temper leads some men to separate themselves

So should my thoughts be sever'd from my griefs.

SHAKSPEARE from all their companions; • It is an eminent instance of Newton's superiority to the rest of mankind that To separate may be said of things which are only rehe was able to separate knowledge from those weak- motely connected ; disjoin, which signifies to destroy nesses by which knowledge is generally disgraced.' a junction, is said of things which are so intimately Johnson. An absurd ambition leads others to distin- connected that they might be joined ; ' In times and guish themselves by their eccentricities; • Fontenelle, regions, so disjoined from each other that there can in his panegyric on Sir Isaac Newton, closes a long scarely be imagined any communication of sentiments, enumeration of that philosopher's virtues and attain- has prevailed a general and uniform expectation of ments with an observation that he was not distin- propitiating God by corporeal austerities.' JOHNSON. guished from other men by any singularity either na- We separate as convenience requires ; we may sepatural or affected.' Johnson.

rate in a right or a wrong manner; we mostly disjoin things which ought to remain joined: we separate syllables in order to distinguish them, but they are some

times disjoined in writing by an accidental erasure. TO DEDUCT, SUBTRACT.

To detach, which signifies to destroy a contract, has

an intermediate sense betwixt separate and disjoin, Deduct, from the Latin deductus participle of applying to bodies which are neither so loosely condeduco, and subtract, from subtractum participle of nected as the former, nor so closely as the latter : we subtraho, have both the sense of taking from, but the separate things that directly meet in no point; we former is used in a general, and the latter in a tech- disjoin those which meet in every point; we detach nical sense. He who makes an estimate is obliged to those things which meet in one point only;

- The deduct; he who makes a calculation is obliged to several parts of it are detached one from the other, subtract.

and yet join again one cannot tell how.' POPE. SomeThe tradesman deducts what has been paid from times the word detach has a moral application, as to what remains due ; · The popish clergy took to them- detach persons, that is, the minds of persons, from selves the whole residue of the intestate's estate, after their party; so likewise detached, in distinction from the two thirds of the wife and children were deducted.' a connected piece of composition; "As for the deBLACKSTONE. The accountant subtracts small sums tached rhapsodies which Lycurgus in more early times from the gross amount; ' A codicil is a supplement to brought with him out of Asia, they must have been a will, being for its explanation or alteration, or to exceedingly imperfect.' CUMBERLAND. make some addition to or else some subtraction from the former dispositions of the testator.' BLACKSTONE.


Disjoint signifies to separate at the joint; disDETACH.

member signifies to separate the members.

The terms here spoken of derive their distinct meanWhatever is united or joined in any way may be ing and application from the signification of the words separated (v. To abstract), be the junction natural joint and member. A limb of the body may be disor artificial ; Can a body be inflammable from which jointed if it be so put out of the joint that it cannot it would puzzle a chymist to separate an inflammable act; but the body itself is dismembered when the

To sever, which is but a varia- different limbs or parts are separated from each other. tion of the verb to separate, is a mode of separating So in the metaphorical sense our ideas are said to be natural bodies, or bodies naturally joined; 'To men- disjointed when they are so thrown out of their order tion only that species of shell-fish that grow to the that they do not fall in with one another : and kingdoms are said to be dismembered where any part or

TO ADDRESS, APPLY. parts are separated from the rest; Along the woods, along the moorish fens,

Address is compounded of ad and dress, in Spanish Sighs the sad genius of the coming storm,

derecar, Latin direvi, preterite of dirigo to direct, And up among the loose disjointed cliffs. Thomson. signifying to direct one's self to an object ; apply, v.

To addict. Where shall I find his corpse! What earth sustains

An address is immediately directed from one party His trunk dismembered and his cold remains ?


to another, either personally or by writing; an apAnd yet deluded man,

plication may be made through the medium of a third A scene of crude disjointed visions past,

person. An address may be made for an indifferent And broken slumbers, rises still resolv'd With new flush'd hopes to run the giddy round.

purpose or without any express object; but an appliThomson.

cation is always occasioned by some serious circum

stance. • The kingdom of East Saxony was dismembered from

We address those to whom we speak or write; that of Kent.' HUME.

• Many are the inconveniences which happen from the improper manner of address, in common speech, be

tween persons of the same or different quality.' TO ADDICT, DEVOTE, APPLY.

STEELE. We apply to those to whom we wish to

communicate some object of personal interest ; . Thus Addict, in Latin addictus, participle of addico, com- all the words of lordship, honour, and grace, are only pounded of ad and dico, signifies to speak or declare in repetitions to a man that the King has ordered him to favor of a thing, to exert one's self in its favor; devote, be called so, but no evidences that there is any thing in Latin devotus, participle of devoveo, signifies to vow

in himself that would give the man, who applies to or make resolutions for a thing; apply, in French ap- him, those ideas without the creation of his master.' pliquer, Latin applico, is compounded of ap or ad, and STEELE. An address therefore may be made without plico, signifying to knit or join one's self to a thing. an application ; and an application may be made by

To addict is to indulge one's self in any particular means of an address. practice; to devote is to direct one's powers and means It is a privilege of the British Constitution, that to any particular pursuit; to apply is to employ one's the subject may address the monarch, and apply for time or attention about any object. Men are addicted a redress of grievances. We cannot pass through the to vices: they devote their talents to the acquirement streets of the metropolis without being continually ad of any art or science: they apply their minds to the dressed by beggars, who apply for the relief of artifiinvestigation of a subject.

cial more than for real wants.

Men in power are Children begin early to addict themselves to lying always exposed to be publicly addressed by persons when they have any thing to conceal. People who who wish to obtrude their opinions upon them, and to are devoted to their appetites are burdensome to them- have perpetual applications from those who solicit selves, and to all with whom they are connected. favors. Whoever applies his mind to the contemplation of An address may be rude or civil, an application nature, and the works of creation, will feel himself may be frequent or urgent. It is impertinent to impressed with sublime and reverential ideas of the address any one with whom we are not acquainted, Creator.

unless we have any reason for making an application We are addicted to a thing from an irresistible to them. passion or propensity; 'As the pleasures of luxury are very expensive, they put those who are addicted to them upon raising fresh supplies of money by all the TO ATTEND TO, MIND, REGARD, methods of rapaciousness and corruption.' ADDISON.

HEED, NOTICE. We are devoted to a thing from a strong but settled attachment to it; Persons who have devoted them- Attend, in French attendre, Latin attendo, comselves to God are venerable to all who fear him.' pounded of at or ad and tendo to stretch, signifies to BERKELEY. We apply to a thing from a sense of stretch or bend the mind to a thing ; mind, from the its utility; · Tully has observed that a lamb no sooner noun mind, signifies to have in the mind; regard, in falls from its mother, but immediately, and of its own French regarder, compounded of re and garder, comes accord, it applies itself to the teat.' ADDISON. We from the German wahren to see or look at, signifying addict ourselves to study by yielding to our passion to look upon again or with attention; heed, in German for it: we devote ourselves to the service of our king hüthen, in all probability comes from vito, and the and country by employing all our powers to their Latin video to see or pay attention to; notice, from benefit: : we apply to business by giving it all the time the Latin notitia knowledge, signifies to get the knowand attention that it requires.

ledge of or have in one's mind. Addict is seldomer used in a good than in a bad The idea of fixing the mind on an object is common sense; devote is mostly employed in a good sense ; to all these terms. As this is the characteristic of apply in an indifferent sense.

attention, attend is the generic; the rest are specific

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