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be used, and use for that which actually is used ; thus Houses, furniture, and all materials, of which either things may be said to be of general utility, or of par- necessities or conveniences are composed, are used; ticular use; Those things which have long gone together are confederate; whereas new things piece

Straight the broad belt, with gay embroid’ry grac'd,

He loos’d, the corslet from his breast unbrac'd, not so well ; but, though they help by their utility,

Then suck'd the blood, and sov'reign balm infus’d, yet they trouble by their inconformity. Bacon.

Which Chiron gave, and Æsculapius us’d. Pope. When will my friendship be of use to you?' PhilLIPS. Use comprehends in it whatever is derived from It is a part of wisdom to employ well the short portion the use of a thing ; service may imply that which

of time which is allotted to us in this sublunary state, serves for a particular purpose ; avail' implies that and to use the things of this world so as not to abuse kind of service which may possibly be procured from them. No one is exculpated from the guilt of an imany object, but which also may not be procured; it is moral action, by suffering himself to be employed as therefore used in problematical cases, or in a negative an instrument to serve the purposes of another: we

Prudence forbids us to destroy any thing that ought to use our utmost endeavours to abstain from can be turned to a use ; *A man with great talents, all connexion with such as wish to implicate us in but void of discretion, is like Polyphemus in the fable, their guilty practices. strong and blind, endued with an irresistible force, which for want of sight is of no use to him.' ADDISON. Economy enjoins that we should not throw aside a thing so long as it is fit for service; “ The Greeks in

INSTRUMENT, TOOL. the heroic age seem to have been unacquainted with the use of iron, the most serviceable of all the metals.'

Instrument, in Latin instrumentum, from instruo, ROBERTSON. When entreaties are found to be of no

signifies the thing by which an effect is produced ; avail, females sometimes try the force of tears ;

tool, comes probably from toil, signifying the thing • What does it avail, though Seneca had taught as

with which one toils. These terms are both employed good morality as Christ himself from the mount?' to express the means of producing an end; they díffer CUMBERLAND.

principally in this, that the former is used in a good The intercession of a friend may be available to

or an indifferent sense, the latter only in a bad sense, avert the resentment of one who is offended: useful the instruments in bringing about great changes

in

for persons. Individuals in high stations are often lessons of experience may be drawn from all the events of life : whatever is of the best quality will be found

nations ; * Devotion has often been found a powerful most serviceable.

instrument in humanizing the manners of men.' BLAIR. Spies and informers are the worthless tools of government;

Poor York! the harmless tool of others' hate,

He sues for pardon, and repents too late. Swift. TO EMPLOY, USE. Employ, from the Latin implico, signifies to implicate, or apply for any special purpose ; use, from the

TO ABUSE, MISUSE. Latin usus and utor, signifies to enjoy or derive benefit from.

Abuse, in Latin abusus, participle of abutor, comEmploy expresses less than use; it is in fact a spe- pounded of ab from and utor to use, signifies to use cies of partial using : we always employ when we use; but we do not always use when we employ. We em

away or wear away with using; in distinction from

misuse, which signifies to use amiss. Every thing ploy whatever we take into our service, or make sub

is abused which receives any sort of injury; it is servient to our convenience for a time ; we use what- misused, if not used at all, or turned to a wrong ever we entirely devote to our purpose. Whatever is employed by one person may, in its turn, be employed

Young people are too prone to abuse books for want by another, or at different times be employed by the

of setting a proper value on their contents; • I know no same person ; but what is used is frequently consumed evil so great as the abuse of the understanding, and or rendered unfit for a similar use.

What we employ yet there is no one vice more common.' STEELE. may frequently belong to another ; but what one uses People misuse books when they read for amusement is supposed to be his exclusive property. On this

only instead of improvement ; ground we may speak of employing persons as well as things; but we speak of using things only, and not You misuse the reverence of your place, persons, except in the most degrading sense. Persons,

As a false favourite doth his princes name

In deeds dishon'rable. SHAKSPEARE. time, strength, and power, are employed ; Thou, Godlike Hector ! all thy force employ ;

Money is abused when it is clipped, or its value Assemble all th' united band of Troy. PopE.

any way lessened; it is misused when it is spent in excess and debauchery.

use.

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TREATMENT, USAGE.

person really wants, in order to supply him to his

satisfaction ; Treatment implies the act of treating, and usage Although I neither lend nor borrow, that of using: treatment may be partial or temporary; Yet, to supply the ripe wants of my friend,

I'll break a custom. SHAKSPEARE. but usage is properly employed for that which is permanent or continued: a passer-by may meet with ill- One provides against all contingencies ; one procures treatment; but children and domestics are liable to

all necessaries; one furnishes all comforts; one supmeet with ill-usage. All persons may meet with treat- plies all deficiencies. Provide and procure are the ment from others with whom they casually come in

acts of persons only; furnish and supply are the acts connexion; • By promises of more indulgent treat

of unconscious agents. A person's garden and orchard ment, if they would unite with him (Cortez) against may be said to furnish him with delicacies ; the earth their oppressors,

he prevailed on the people to supply supplies us with food. So in the improper applicathe Spanish camp with provisions.' Robertson. Usage tion: the daily occurrences of a great city furnish is applied more properly to those who are more or less materials for a newspaper ; a newspaper to an Englishin the power of others : children may receive good or

man, supplies almost every other want; ' Your ideas ill usage from those who have the charge of them,

are new, and borrowed from a mountainous country, servants from their masters, or wives from their hus

the only one that can furnish truly picturesque bands; If we look further into the world,

scenery.' Gray. find this usage (of our Saviour from his own) not so

And clouds, dissolv’d, the thirsty ground supply. very strange; for kindred is not friendship.' South.

DRYDEN.

we shall

PROVIDENCE, PRUDENCE. TO PROVIDE, PROCURE, FURNISH,

Providence and prudence are both derived from the SUPPLY.

verb to provide ; but the former expresses the parti

cular act of providing; the latter the habit of proProvide, in Latin provideo, signifies literally to viding. The former is applied both to animals and see before, but figuratively to get in readiness for some

men; the latter is employed only as a characteristic of future purpose ; procure, v. To get ; furnish, in men. We may admire the providence of the ant in French fournir, may possibly be connected with the laying up a store for the winter ; Latin ferro to bring ; supply, in French suppleer,

In Albion's isle, when glorious Edgar reign'd, Latin suppleo, from sub and pleo, signifies to fill up

He, wisely provident, from her white cliffs a deficiency, or make up what is wanting.

Launch'd half her forests. SOMERVILLE. Provide and procure are both actions that have a special reference to the future; furnish and supply The prudence of a parent is displayed in his concern

for the future settlement of his child; Prudence are employed for that which is of immediate concern: one provides a dinner in the contemplation that some

operates on life, in the same manner as rules on compersons are coming to partake of it; one procures position ; it produces vigilance rather than elevation.' help in the contemplation that it may be wanted ; one

Johnson. It is provident in a person to adopt meafurnishes a room, as we find it necessary for the

sures of escape for himself, in certain situations of

present purpose; one supplies a family with any article peculiar danger; it is prudent to be always prepared of domestic use. Calculation is necessary in pro

for all contingencies. viding; one does not wish to provide too much or too little; A rude hand may build walls, form roofs, and lay floors, and provide all that warmth and security

PRUDENT, PRUDENTIAL. require. Johnson. Labor and management are requisite in procuring; when the thing is not always Prudent (v. Judgement), characterizes the person at hand, or not easily come at, one must exercise one's or the thing; prudential characterizes only the thing. strength or ingenuity to procure it ; “Such dress as Prudent, signifies having prudence; prudential, acmay enable the body to endure the different seasons, cording to the rules of prudence, or as respects pruthe most unenlightened nations have been able to pro- dence. The prudent is opposed to the imprudent and cure.' Johnson. Judgement is requisite in furnish- inconsiderate; the prudential is opposed to the voluning; what one furnishes ought to be selected with tary; the counsel is prudent which accords with the due regard to the circumstances of the individual who principles of prudence ; furnishes, or for whom it is furnished ; • Auria

Ulysses first in public care she found, having driven the Turks from Corone, both by sea

For prudent counsel like the gods renown'd. POPE. and land, furnished the city with corn, wine, victual, and powder.' KNOLLES. Care and attention are wanted The reason or motive is prudential, as flowing out of in supplying; we must be careful to know what a circumstances of prudence or necessity; · Those who

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possess elevated understandings, are naturally apt to ables a person to discover the truth : discretion is inconsider all prudential maxims as below their regard.' tuitive (v. Discernment); it discerns or perceives what Johnson. Every one is called upon at certain times is in all probability right. The judgement acts by a to adopt prudent measures ; those who are obliged to fixed rule ; it admits of no question or variation : the consult their means in the management of their ex- discretion acts according to circumstances, and is its penses, must act upon prudential motives.

own rule. The judgement determines in the choice of what is good : the discretion sometimes only guards against error or direct mistakes; it chooses what is

nearest to the truth. The judgement requires knowFORESIGHT, FORETHOUGHT, FORE

ledge and actual experience; the discretion requires CAST, PREMEDITATION.

reflection and consideration : a general exercises his Foresight, from seeing before, and forethought, judgement in the

disposition of his army, and in the from thinking beforehand, denote the simple act of military art he exercises his discretion in the choice of

mode of attack; whilst he is following the rules of the mind in seeing a thing before it happens : forecast,

officers for different posts, in the treatment of his from casting the thoughts onward, signifies coming at the knowledge of a thing beforehand by means of cal

men, in his negotiations with the enemy, and various

other measures which depend upon contingencies; If culation : premeditation, from pre before, and meditate signifies obtaining the same knowledge by force of discern what things are to be laid open, and what to

a man have that penetration of judgement as he can meditating, or reflecting deeply on a thing beforehand.

be secreted, to him a habit of dissimulation is a hinForesight and forethought are general and indefinite

drance and a poorness. Bacon. terms; we employ them either on ordinary or extraordinary occasions; but forethought is of the two the

Let your own most familiar term; forecast and premeditation mostly

Discretion be your tutor. Suit the action

To the words. SHAKSPEARE. in the latter case : all business requires foresight; state concerns require forecast : foresight and forecast Discretion looks to the present; prudence, which respect what is to happen ; they are the operations is the same as providence or foresight, calculates on of the mind in calculating futurity: premeditation the future: discretion takes a wide survey of the case respects what is to be said or done ; it is a preparation that offers ; it looks to the moral fitness of the thing, of the thoughts and designs for action: by foresight

as well as the consequences which may follow from it; and forecast we guard against evils and provide for it determines according to the real propriety of the contingencies; by premeditation we guard against thing, as well as the ultimate advantages which it may errors of conduct. A man betrays his want of fore- produce: prudence looks only to the good or evil sight who does not provide against losses in trade;

which may result from the thing; it is, therefore, but The wary crane foresees it first, and sai

a mode or accompaniment of discretion : we must Above the storm, and leaves the lowly vales. DryDEN. have prudence when we have discretion, but we may A person shows his want of forecast who does not

have prudence where there is no occasion for discre

tion. Those who have the conduct or direction of provide against old age ;

others require discretion; those who have the manageLet him forecast his work with timely care,

ment of their own concerns require prudence. For Which else is huddled, when the skies are fair.

want of discretion the master of a school, or the DRYDEN.

general of an army, may lose his authority: for want A man shows his want of premeditation who acts or of prudence the merchant may involve himself in speaks on the impulse of the moment; the man there- ruin ; or the man of fortune may be brought to begfore who does a wicked act without premeditation gary; The ignorance in which we are left concerning lessens his guilt; · The tongue may fail and faulter in good and evil, is not such as to supersede prudence in her sudden extemporal expressions, but the pen having conduct.' BLÁIR. a greater advantage of premeditation is not so subject

As epithets, judicious is applied to things oftener to error.' HOWELL.

than to persons ; discreet is applied to persons rather than to things; prudent is applied to both: a remark,

or a military movement is judicious; it displays the JUDGEMENT, DISCRETION, PRUDENCE.

judgement of the individual from whom they emanate;

So bold, yet so judiciously you dare, These terms are all employed to express the various That your least praise is to be regular. Dryden. modes of practical wisdom, which serve to regulate the conduct of men in ordinary life. The judgement is

A matron is discreet, who by dint of years, experience, that faculty which enables a person to distinguish right and long reflection, is enabled to determine on what is and wrong in general ; discretion and prudence serve

befitting the case; the same purpose in particular cases. The judgement To elder years to be discreet and grave, is conclusive; it decides by positive inference; it en- Then to old age maturity she gave. DENHAM.

A person is prudent who does not inconsiderately ex- The fool is either naturally or artificially a fool ; pose himself to danger; a measure is prudent that

Thought's the slave of life, and life's time's fool. guards against the chances of evil;

SAAKSPEARE. The monarch rose preventing all reply,

The idiot is a natural fool ; Idiots are still in request Prudent lest from his resolution rais'd Others among the chiefs might offer. Milton. in most of the courts of Germany, where there is not

a prince of any great magnificence who has not two Counsels will be injudicious which are given by those or three dressed, distinguished, undisputed fools in who are ignorant of the subject: it is dangerous to his retinue.' Addison. The buffoon is an artificial entrust a secret to one who is indiscreet: the impe- fool ; Homer has described a Vulcan that is a buffoon tuosity of youth naturally impels them to be impru- among his gods, and a Thersites among his mortals.' dent; an imprudent marriage is seldom followed by ADDISON. Whoever violates common sense in his prudent conduct in the parties that have involved actions is a fool ; whoever is unable to act according themselves in it.

to common sense is an idiot; whoever intentionally violates common sense is a buffoon.

WISDOM, PRUDENCE.

SIMPLE, SILLY, FOOLISH. Wisdom (v. Wit) consists in speculative knowledge; prudence (v. Prudent) in that which is practical : the former knows what is past ; the latter by foresight ple; foolish signifies like a fool (v. Fool).

Simple, v. Simple ; silly is but a variation of simknows what is to come; many wise men are remarkable for their want of prudence; and those who are implies such a contracted power as is incapable of com

The simple, when applied to the understanding, remarkable for prudence have frequently no other bination ; silly and foolish rise in sense upon the knowledge of which they can boast ; • Two things former, signifying either the perversion or the total speak much the wisdom of a nation : good laws, and deficiency of understanding; the behaviour of a person a prudent management of them.' STILLINGFLEET.

may be silly, who from any excess of feeling loses his sense of propriety; the conduct of a person will be foolish who has not judgement to direct himself.

Country people may be simple owing to their want of FOLLY, FOOLERY.

knowledge; Folly is the abstract of foolish, and characterizes

And had the simple natives the thing; foolery the abstract of fool, and character

Observ'd his sage advice, izes the person : we may commit an act of folly with- Their wealth and fame some years ago out being chargeable with weakness or folly; but

Had reach'd above the skies. Swift. none are guilty of fooleries who are not themselves fools, either habitually or temporarily: young people Children will be silly in company if they have too are perpetually committing follies if not under proper control ; . This peculiar ill property has folly, that it Two gods a silly woman have undone. Dryden. enlarges men's desires while it lessens their capacities.' South. Fashionable people only lay aside one foolery There are some persons who never acquire wisdom to take up another; If you are so much transported enough to prevent them from committing foolish with the sight of beautiful persons, to what ecstacy

errors ; - Virgil justly thought it a foolish figure for a would it raise you to behold the original beauty, not grave man to be overtaken by death, while he was filled up with flesh and blood, or varnished with a weighing the cadence of words and measuring verses.' fading mixture of colours, and the rest of mortal

WALSH. trifles and fooleries.' WALSH.

STUPID, DULL.

FOOL, IDIOT, BUFFOON.

Stupid, in Latin stupidus, from stupeo to be amazed

or bewildered, expresses an amazement which is equiFool is doubtless connected with our word foul, in valent to a deprivation of understanding; dull

, German faul, which is either nasty or lazy, and the through the medium of the German toll, and Swedish Greek paữaos which signifies worthless or good for stollig, comes from the Latin stultus simple or foolish, nothing ; idiot comes from the Greek idiótus, signify- and denotes a simple deficiency. Stupidity in its ing either a private person or one that is rude and proper sense is natural to a man, although a particular unskilled in the ways of the world; buffoon, in French circumstance may have a similar effect upon

the underbouffon, is in all probability connected with our word standing; he who is questioned in the presence of beef, buffalo, and bull, signifying a senseless fellow. others may appear very stupid in that which is otherwise very familiar to him; A stupid butt is only PENETRATION, ACUTENESS, SAGACITY. fit for the conversation of ordinary people. Addison.

As characteristics of mind, these terms have much Dull is an incidental quality, arising principally from the state of the animal spirits. A writer may some

more in them in which they differ than in what they times be dull who is otherwise vivacious and pointed; agree : penetration is a necessary property of mind; a person may be dull in a large circle while he is very being that has the due exercise of its rational powers:

it exists to a greater or less degree in every rational tage of a trading nation that there are very few in it acuteness is an accidental property that belongs to the so dull and heavy who may not be placed in stations mind only, under certain circumstances

. As penetraof life which may give them an opportunity of making into substances physically or morally, so acuteness,

tion (v. Discernment) denotes the process of entering their fortunes,' ADDISON.

which is the same as sharpness, denotes the fitness of the thing that performs this process; and as the mind is in both cases the thing that is spoken of, the terms

penetration and acuteness are in this particular closely YOUTHFUL, JUVENILE, PUERILE. allied. It is clear, however, that the mind may have

penetration without having acuteness, although one Youthful signifies full of youth, or in the complete cannot have acuteness without penetration. "If by state of youth: juvenile, from the Latin juvenis, penetration we are commonly enabled to get at the signifies the same ; but puerile, from puer a boy, truth which lies concealed, by acuteness we succeed signifies literally boyish. Hence the first two terms

in piercing the veil that hides it from our view; the are taken in an indifferent sense ; but the latter in former is, therefore, an ordinary, and the latter an a bad sense, or at least always in the sense of what extraordinary gift ; " Fairfax having neither talents is suitable to a boy only: thus we speak of youthful himself for cabal, nor penetration to discover the vigor, youthful employments, juvenile performances, cabals of others, had given his entire confidence to juvenile years, and the like : but puerile objections, Cromwell.” HUME. •Chillingworth was an acute dispuerile conduct, and the like. Sometimes juvenile putant against the papists.' Hume. is taken in the bad sense when speaking of youth in Sagacity, in Latin sagacitas and sagio to perceive contrast with men, as juvenile tricks ; but puerile quickly, comes in all probability from the Persian sag is a much stronger term of reproach, and marks the a dog, whence the term has been peculiarly applied to absence of manhood in those who ought to be men. dogs, and from thence extended to all brutes which We expect nothing from a youth but what is juvenile; discover an intuitive wisdom, and also to children, or we are surprized and dissatisfied to see what is puerile uneducated persons, in whom there is more penetrain a man;

tion than may be expected from the narrow compass Choræbus then, with youthful hopes beguild,

of their knowledge; hence, properly speaking, sagaSwoln with success, and of a daring mind,

city is natural or uncultivated acuteness ; Activity This new invention fatally design’d. Dryden. to seize, not sagacity to discern, is the requisite which

youth value.' BLAIR. • Raw juvenile writers imagine that, by pouring forth figures often, they render their compositions warm and animated.' BLAIR. • After the common

course of

SAGE, SAGACIOUS, SAPIENT. puerile studies, he was put an apprentice to a brewer.' Johnson.

Sage and sagacious are variations from the Latin sagax and sagio (v. Penetration); sapient is in Latin sapiens, from sapio, which comes probably from the

Greek copos wise.
CHILDISH, INFANTINE.

The first of these terms has a good sense, in appliChildish is in the manner of a child ; infantine is

cation to men, to denote the faculty of discerning imin the manner of an infant.

mediately, which is the fruit of experience, and very What children do is frequently simple or foolish ;

similar to that sagacity in brutes which instinctively what infants do is commonly pretty and engaging; perceives the truth of a thing without the deductions

of reason; therefore childish is taken in the bad, and infantine in the good or indifferent sense. Childish manners So strange they will appear, but so it happen'd, are very offensive in those who have ceased according That these most sage Academicians sate to their years to be children; It may frequently be

In solemn consultation—on a cabbage. CUMBERLAND. remarked of the studious and speculative, that they Sagacious all to trace the smallest game, are proud of trifles, and that their amusements seem

And bold to seize the greatest. Young. frivolous and childish.' Johnson. The infantine Sapient, which has very different meanings, in the actions of some children evince a simplicity of cha- original, is now employed only in regard to animals racter; The sole comfort of his declining years, which are trained up to particular arts; its use is almost in infantine imbecility.' BURKE.

therefore mostly burlesque.

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